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A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, terminate transmission lines, among other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that only change with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements, or as sensing devices for heat, humidity, force, or chemical activity. Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors as discrete components can be composed of various forms. Resistors are implemented within integrated circuits; the electrical function of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude.

The nominal value of the resistance falls within the manufacturing tolerance, indicated on the component. Two typical schematic diagram symbols are as follows: The notation to state a resistor's value in a circuit diagram varies. One common scheme is the RKM code following IEC 60062, it avoids using a decimal separator and replaces the decimal separator with a letter loosely associated with SI prefixes corresponding with the part's resistance. For example, 8K2 as part marking code, in a circuit diagram or in a bill of materials indicates a resistor value of 8.2 kΩ. Additional zeros imply a tighter tolerance, for example 15M0 for three significant digits; when the value can be expressed without the need for a prefix, an "R" is used instead of the decimal separator. For example, 1R2 indicates 1.2 Ω, 18R indicates 18 Ω. The behaviour of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified by Ohm's law: V = I ⋅ R. Ohm's law states that the voltage across a resistor is proportional to the current, where the constant of proportionality is the resistance.

For example, if a 300 ohm resistor is attached across the terminals of a 12 volt battery a current of 12 / 300 = 0.04 amperes flows through that resistor. Practical resistors have some inductance and capacitance which affect the relation between voltage and current in alternating current circuits; the ohm is the SI unit of electrical resistance, named after Georg Simon Ohm. An ohm is equivalent to a volt per ampere. Since resistors are specified and manufactured over a large range of values, the derived units of milliohm and megohm are in common usage; the total resistance of resistors connected in series is the sum of their individual resistance values. R e q = R 1 + R 2 + ⋯ + R n; the total resistance of resistors connected in parallel is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual resistors. 1 R e q = 1 R 1 + 1 R 2 + ⋯ + 1 R n. For example, a 10 ohm resistor connected in parallel with a 5 ohm resistor and a 15 ohm resistor produces 1/1/10 + 1/5 + 1/15 ohms of resistance, or 30/11 = 2.727 ohms.

A resistor network, a combination of parallel and series connections can be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or the other. Some complex networks of resistors cannot be resolved in this manner, requiring more sophisticated circuit analysis; the Y-Δ transform, or matrix methods can be used to solve such problems. At any instant, the power P consumed by a resistor of resistance R is calculated as: P = I 2 R = I V = V 2 R where V is the voltage across the resistor and I is the current flowing through it. Using Ohm's law, the two other forms can be derived; this power is converted into heat which must be dissipated by the resistor's package before its temperature rises excessively. Resistors are rated according to their maximum power dissipation. Discrete resistors in solid-state electronic systems are rated as 1/10, 1/8, or 1/4 watt, they absorb much less than a watt of electrical power and require little attention to their power rating. Resistors required to dissipate substantial amounts of power used in power supplies, power conversion circuits, power amplifiers, are referred to as power resistors.

Power resistors are physically larger and may not use the preferred values, color codes, external packages described below. If the average power dissipated by a resistor is more than its power rating, damage to the resistor may occur, permanently altering its resistance. Excessive power dissipati

Ketripor Hill

Ketripor Hill is the ice-covered hill rising to 800 m in northwestern Trinity Island in the Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica. It surmounts Saldobisa Cove to the northwest and Olusha Cove to the southwest, has steep and ice-free north and east slopes; the hill is named after the Thracian King Ketripor, 352-347 BC. Ketripor Hill is located at 63°41′45″S 60°46′07″W. British mapping in 1978. British Antarctic Territory. Scale 1:200000 topographic map. DOS 610 – W 63 60. Tolworth, UK, 1978. Antarctic Digital Database. Scale 1:250000 topographic map of Antarctica. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Since 1993 upgraded and updated. Ketripor Hill. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica. Bulgarian Antarctic Gazetteer. Antarctic Place-names Commission. Ketripor Hill. Copernix satellite imageThis article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria, used with permission

Folliott Sandford

Sir Folliott Herbert Sandford KBE CMG was a British civil servant and Registrar of the University of Oxford from 1958 to 1972. Folliott Herbert Sandford, the son of a barrister, was born on 28 October 1906, he was educated at Winchester College and New College, where he obtained first-class degrees in Classics and in Law. He joined the Air Ministry as a civil servant in 1930, working as Principal Private Secretary to four Secretaries of State for Air between 1937 and 1940: Viscount Swinton, Sir Kingsley Wood, Sir Samuel Hoare and Sir Archibald Sinclair. In 1941 and 1942, he was attached to RAF Ferry Command in Montreal, Canada, he returned to the Air Ministry in 1944, rising from Assistant Under-Secretary of State to become Deputy Under-Secretary of State from 1947 to 1958. He was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George and a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1949, he became a Fellow of New College on his appointment as Registrar of the University of Oxford in 1958, succeeding Sir Douglas Veale, held both positions until retiring in 1972.

On his retirement, he was appointed an Honorary Fellow of New College and Wolfson College, was awarded an honorary doctorate by the university. He was Master of the Skinners' Company from 1975 to 1976, he was twice married: to Gwendoline from 1935 until her death in 1977, to Peggy Young from 1982 until her death in 1984. Sandford died on 5 July 1986; the historian Brian Harrison describes him as "unobtrusively providing expertise and continuity" and a hard worker, but one who "lacked Veale's vision and sense of proportion" and who suffered from having to try to match the standards set for the role by Veale


Shockadelica is the second studio album by guitarist and songwriter Jesse Johnson. It was released in 1986 on A&M Records and peaked at number 70 on the U. S. Billboard 200 albums chart. According to Johnson, "Shockadelica" was a term he had used for years to describe an excited feeling he got from a song or woman. Prince, upon learning that the album did not have a title track, recorded a song for himself called "Shockadelica" and released it prior to Johnson's album, leaving the impression that Johnson had stolen the name; the album is notable for featuring funk musician Sly Stone on the single, "Crazay". The album features songs that consist of mainstream funk. Johnson remarked. "The song is about a universal situation where no matter what you do or who you are, people see you as a black or Jew." * "Crazay" is a duet with Sly Stone ** Pepe Willie wrote "Do Yourself A Favor"


Agada is one of the eight branches into which ayurveda medicine is traditionally divided. Gada means a disease and agada means any agent which makes the body free from disease. Agada Tantra is defined as a section of toxicology that deals with food poisoning, dog bites, insect bites, etc; the school of toxicology was founded and expounded upon by Kashyapa known as Vriddhakashyapa, a contemporary of Atreya Punarvasu. He lived in Taksashila in, his text was called the Kashyapa Samhita. This, however, is a different book than the Kashyap Samhita of pediatrics; this text is not available now but the references of this text are found mentioned in different commentaries. Some other texts written by Alambayana, Ushana and Latyayana were known to exist; however except for references to them, the original texts are no longer available. The traditional practice of toxicology is still practiced by different families of vishavaidyas who specialize in toxicology. However, their knowledge is limited compared to the knowledge possessed by the earlier ayurvedic physicians.

In ancient times, it was the job of Vishavaidyas to protect members of the royal families from being poisoned, as well to poison enemies of the kings. Search on Google Books Forensic medicine under Indian system of medicine. By Dr. U. N. Prasad

WWIII (album)

WWIII is KMFDM's thirteenth studio album. It follows the common KMFDM practice of naming albums with five-letter words; this is KMFDM's only release on Sanctuary Records. Lyrically, the album is political; the songs attack George W. Bush's presidency, various US wars in the Middle East, America's foreign policy; the last track, "Intro", introduces the members of the band. It was recorded in Washington. WWIII received mixed reviews; the News-Times called it a "butt-rock masterpiece". David Jeffries of Allmusic said, "The most frustrating thing about WWIII is that it's so darn inconsistent." All tracks are written by Lucia Cifarelli, Jules Hodgson, Sascha Konietzko, Andy Selway unless otherwise noted. Sascha Konietzko – programming, synths, bass Jules Hodgson – guitar, bass, banjo, piano, drums Andy Selway – drums, vocals Lucia Cifarelli – vocals Raymond Watts – vocals Bill Rieflin – drums, loops Cheryl Wilson – vocals Curt Golden – harmonica Mona Mur – "dominance" KMFDM DØTKØM WWIII lyrics at the official KMFDM website