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Resonant inductive coupling

Resonant inductive coupling or magnetic phase synchronous coupling is a phenomenon with inductive coupling where the coupling becomes stronger when the "secondary" side of the loosely coupled coil resonates. A resonant transformer of this type is used in analog circuitry as a bandpass filter. Resonant inductive coupling is being used in wireless power systems for portable computers and vehicles. WiTricity type magnetic resonance coupling systems add another set of resonant coils on the "primary" side which pair with the coils on the secondary side. Various resonant coupling systems in use or are under development for short range wireless electricity systems to power laptops, smartphones, robot vacuums, implanted medical devices, vehicles like electric cars, SCMaglev trains and automated guided vehicles. Specific technologies include: WiTricity Rezence eCoupled Wireless Resonant Energy Link Other applications include: Data transmission such as with passive RFID tags and contactless smart cards.

Resonant transformer of CCFL inverter that powers a cold-cathode fluorescent lamp. Couple the stages of a superheterodyne receiver, where the selectivity of the receiver is provided by tuned transformers in the intermediate-frequency amplifiers. High voltage sources for X-ray production; the Tesla coil is a resonant transformer circuit used to generate high voltages, is able to provide much higher current than high voltage electrostatic machines such as the Van de Graaff generator. However, this type of system radiates most of its energy into empty space, unlike modern wireless power systems which waste little energy. Resonant transformers are used in radio circuits as bandpass filters, in switching power supplies. In 1894 Nikola Tesla used resonant inductive coupling known as "electro-dynamic induction" to wirelessly light up phosphorescent and incandescent lamps at the 35 South Fifth Avenue laboratory, at the 46 E. Houston Street laboratory in New York City. In 1897 he patented a device called the high-voltage, resonant transformer or "Tesla coil."

Transferring electrical energy from the primary coil to the secondary coil by resonant induction, a Tesla coil is capable of producing high voltages at high frequency. The improved design allowed for the safe production and utilization of high-potential electrical currents, "without serious liability of the destruction of the apparatus itself and danger to persons approaching or handling it." In the early 1960s resonant inductive wireless energy transfer was used in implantable medical devices including such devices as pacemakers and artificial hearts. While the early systems used a resonant receiver coil systems implemented resonant transmitter coils as well; these medical devices are designed for high efficiency using low power electronics while efficiently accommodating some misalignment and dynamic twisting of the coils. The separation between the coils in implantable applications is less than 20 cm. Today resonant inductive energy transfer is used for providing electric power in many commercially available medical implantable devices.

Wireless electric energy transfer for experimentally powering electric automobiles and buses is a higher power application of resonant inductive energy transfer. High power levels are required for rapid recharging and high energy transfer efficiency is required both for operational economy and to avoid negative environmental impact of the system. An experimental electrified roadway test track built circa 1990 achieved just above 60% energy efficiency while recharging the battery of a prototype bus at a specially equipped bus stop; the bus could be outfitted with a retractable receiving coil for greater coil clearance. The gap between the transmit and receive coils was designed to be less than 10 cm. In addition to buses the use of wireless transfer has been investigated for recharging electric automobiles in parking spots and garages as well; some of these wireless resonant inductive devices operate at low milliwatt power levels and are battery powered. Others operate at higher kilowatt power levels.

Current implantable medical and road electrification device designs achieve more than 75% transfer efficiency at an operating distance between the transmit and receive coils of less than 10 cm. In 1993, Professor John Boys and Professor Grant Covic, of the University of Auckland in New Zealand, developed systems to transfer large amounts of energy across small air gaps, it was putting into practical use as the AGV non-contact power supply in Japan. In 1998, RFID tags were patented. In November 2006, Marin Soljačić and other researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology applied this near field behavior to wireless power transmission, based on strongly-coupled resonators. In a theoretical analysis, they demonstrate that, by designing electromagnetic resonators that suffer minimal loss due to radiation and absorption and have a near field with mid-range extent, mid-range efficient wireless energy-transfer is possible; the reason is that, if two such resonant circuits tuned to the same frequency are within a fraction of a wavelength, their near fields couple by means of evanescent wave coupling.

Oscillating waves develop between the inductors, which can allow the energy to transfer from one object to the other within times much shorter than all loss times, which were designed to be long, thus with the maximum possible energy-transfer efficiency. Since the resonant wavelength is much larger than the resonators, the fiel

Mogli pericolose

Mogli pericolose is a 1958 Italian comedy film written and directed by Luigi Comencini. Sylva Koscina: Tosca, Pirro's wife Dorian Gray: Ornella, Bruno's wife Renato Salvatori: Dr. Federico Carpi Nino Taranto: Pirro Franco Fabrizi: Bruno Mario Carotenuto: Benito "Benny" Bertuetti Giorgia Moll: Claudina Carpi Pupella Maggio: Aurelia "Lolita" Bertuetti Bruno Carotenuto: Tato Maria-Pia Casilio: Elisa Rosalba Neri: Angelina Pina Gallini: Mrs. Zamparini Pina Renzi: Ornella's mother Nando Bruno: Taxi driver Yvette Masson: Corinne Vittoria Crispo: Caterina Ciccio Barbi Mogli pericolose on IMDb

Introduction, Passacaglia and Fugue

Introduction and Fugue in E minor, Op. 127, is an extended composition for organ by Max Reger, composed in 1913 and dedicated to Karl Straube who played the premiere in Breslau on 24 September. It was published in November that year in Berlin by Bock. Reger composed the work in Meiningen, Germany in April and May 1913, he wrote the organ piece with the intent for it to be performed for organ concerts, rather than for church services, called "in grand style". Reger composed the work on a commission for the opening celebrations of a new concert hall in Breslau, the Centennial Hall. Reger revived organ concert music. In Karl Straube, he had an organist and friend, able to play technically difficult music, to influence the composition; the markings for expression are believed to have been influenced by Straube. Reger dedicated the work to Straube who played the first performance in Breslau on 24 September 1913; the composition was published in November 2013 in Berlin by Ed. Bote & G. Bock; the work is structured in three sections, the introduction, a passacaglia with 26 variations, a double fugue.

The variations build in intensity towards the fugue. The organist David Goode wrote that the introduction begins with dense chromaticism and flourishing figuration; the passacaglia is based on a theme. 26 variations are grouped in the sections: a first, intensifying speed and texture, a second as a meditative centre, a third, again intensifying towards the fugue. He notes Reger's "effective control of pace and excitement"; the Max-Reger-Institute holds Reger's manuscript of the work, intended for the engraver. Reger, Max. Sämtliche Orgelwerke. Band 6. Choralfantasien. Wiesbaden/Leipzig/Paris: Breitkopf & Härtel. Pp. 91–147. The Canadian composer Healey Willan heard the work, played by his friend Dalton Baker; when Baker said "that such a work could only have been composed by a'German philosophical mind'" Willan was challenged to write a composition of the same structure, completed in 1916. Clements, Andrew. "Reger: Introduction and Fugue. The Guardian. Retrieved 10 December 2018. Dawes, Chris. "Theatricality in Healey Willan's Introduction and Fugue for organ". Archived from the original on 11 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018. Goode, David. "Introduction and Fugue in E minor, Op 127". Hyperion Records. Retrieved 10 December 2018. Hörnicke, Richard. "Orgel-Winterspiele in St. Bonifatius mit Regers "Phantasie und Fuge über B-A-C-H" eröffnet". Wiesbadener Kurier. Archived from the original on 11 December 2018. Retrieved 10 December 2018. Popp, Susanne. Busch, Hermann J.. Zur Quellenlage der Regerschen Orgelwerk. Zur Interpretation der Orgelmusik Max Regers. Kassel: Merseburger Verlag. Straube, Karl, ed.. Briefe eines Thomaskantors. Stuttgart. P. 236. Thissen, Paul. "Anmerkungen zu Max Regers Orgelmusik". Diocese of Paderborn. Archived from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2018-12-04. "Introduction, Passacaglia und Fuge e-Moll Op. 127 / für Orgel". Max-Reger-Institute. 2016. "Volume I/2-3 Fantasias and fugues, sonatas, suites". Max-Reger-Institute. 2016. "Music manuscripts". Max-Reger-Institute. 2016. "1913". Max-Reger-Institute. 2016. Introduction, Passacaglia und Fuge, Op.127: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project Max Reger / Introduction and Fugue for organ in E minor, Op. 127 AllMusic


Mänttä-Vilppula is a town and municipality of Finland. The municipalities of Mänttä and Vilppula were consolidated into a single municipality on January 1, 2009, it is located in the Pirkanmaa region. The town has a population of 9,978 and covers an area of 657.08 square kilometres of which 122.61 km2 is water. Neighbouring municipalities are Juupajoki, Jämsä, Ruovesi and Virrat; the municipality is unilingually Finnish. Major lakes in the area include the lakes Ruovesi and Keurusselkä. Eero Rahola Lydia Wideman Veikko Ennala Marjatta Moulin Keijo Liinamaa Risto Siltanen Laura Huhtasaari Emmi Pekka Koskela Media related to Mänttä-Vilppula at Wikimedia Commons Town of Mänttä-Vilppula – Official website

Forced landing

A forced landing is a landing by an aircraft made under factors outside the pilot's control, such as the failure of engines, components or weather which makes continued flight impossible. For a full description of these, see article on emergency landing; however the term means a landing, forced by interception. A plane may be compelled to land through the use, or threat of use, of force, if it strays off course into hostile foreign territory; the customary procedure is for the military plane to approach the airliner from below and to the left, where his plane is visible from the left seat where the captain sits. The forcing plane waggles his wings to signal the demand for a forced landing. International law regulates the treatment of intruding aircraft:... aircraft that fail to identify themselves, enter the airspace without a necessary permission, deny to follow a prescribed route, head towards a prohibited zone, or violate of a prohibition of flight may, by strict observance of the relevant standards and procedures, as a last resort, be intercepted, escorted to the adequate route or out of the prohibited airspace, or forced to land by military aircraft of the territorial state.

Deadstick landing Emergency landing Hard landing The Shooting down of Korean Airlines Flight 007 by the USSR and the Future of Air Safety for Passengers Farooq Hassan – The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 712–725

Annexation of Nicoya

The annexation of the Partido de Nicoya to Costa Rica is a historical event that refers to the incorporation of the territory of Nicoya to the State of Costa Rica, which occurred on July 25, 1824. The annexation went through a plebiscite that took place in the city of Nicoya, in which, in the open town hall, the inhabitants of the municipalities of Nicoya and Santa Cruz voted to join Costa Rica, while the town of Guanacaste, today the city of Liberia, declined the annexation, however, on March 18, 1825, said population became part of Costa Rica by a law issued by the Congress of the Federal Republic of Central America; the term annexation of Guanacaste to refer to this event is considered incorrect. The annexation of the Nicoya Party is an anniversary of Costa Rica, celebrated with civic and cultural events in schools and communities across the country every July 25. Guanacaste's official motto is "De la patria por nuestra voluntad" for this reason. Nicoya became a legal political and legal entity subject to the Villa de Bruselas township, controlled by the government of Castilla del Oro.

In 1527, the Spanish Crown created the Province of Nicaragua, segregating it from Castilla de Oro, included the territory of the Kingdom of Nicoya, since it was requested to establish whether the territory of the Villa de Bruselas belonged to the Province of Nicaragua, or if it remained under the authority of Castilla de Oro, a Royal Decree of April 21, 1529 resolved the conflict in favor of the Province of Nicaragua, when the Villa had ceased to exist. In 1554, the Corregimiento de Nicoya was established; the Mayoralty of Nicoya became an entity, directly dependent on the Royal Audience of Guatemala. In 1555, as a result of the war of conquistadors in the viceroyalty of Peru, the Audiencia of Guatemala appointed Coroner of Nicoya to Pedro Ordóñez de Villaquirán. In 1566, Miguel Jiménez Ferrer was named Mayor of Nicoya, becoming the Corregimiento in Mayoralty of Nicoya. Although the Corregidor and the Mayoralty had the same faculties, the difference was that the Corregidor was appointed by the Audiencia, while the Mayor was appointed directly by the King through the Council of the Indies.

The High Mayor of Nicoya continued to depend on the province of Nicaragua until 1588. In 1573, the Province of Costa Rica was created to replace the Province of Nuevo Cartago y Costa Rica. In 1576, Diego de Artieda Chirino y Uclés was appointed governor in charge of the three entities: Nicaragua and Costa Rica; this situation was maintained until 1588, when Artieda was deposed by the Audiencia of Guatemala, autonomy was granted to the three entities separately. Between 1588 and 1593, Nicoya enjoyed political autonomy, both in Costa Rica. In 1593, it was decided to add the Mayor of Nicoya to the province of Costa Rica, when King Phillip II confirmed the capitulations given to Diego Artieda Chirino in 1573, appointing Fernando de la Cueva y Escobedo. During the period 1593 to 1602 period, the governor of Costa Rica was appointed at the same time Mayor of Nicoya; this situation was maintained until 1602. From 1602 and for eighty years, the Mayor of Nicoya enjoyed political autonomy in its functions, independent of the colonial governments of Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

Their high mayors or corregidores were directly appointed in Guatemala, their faculties were those of minor governorates. This condition was maintained until 1786 when the intendancy regime was created in the Kingdom of Guatemala. In 1786, the High Mayor of Nicoya was once again united to the Province of Nicaragua, when it was incorporated as a party to the Intendency of León, created as a political-administrative dependency of the Kingdom of Guatemala, through the Royal Decree of December 23, 1786 The Party of Nicoya was under the government of a Subaltern Political Chief. In 1812, the Intendancy of Leon was united with the Province of Costa Rica, in a new circumscription, the Province of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, but during the Bourbon Restoration in Spain it was again divided into two entities: Intendencia de León and Provincia de Costa Rica. In 1820, when the Constitution of Cádiz was restored in 1812, the Province of Nicaragua and Costa Rica were reestablished. On December 13, 1820, the new Provincial Council divided the territory into seven parties: Segovia, El Realejo, León, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.

After September 15, 1821, the signing of the Central American Declaration of Independence, Miguel González Saravia y Colarte, Political Chief Superior and President of the Provincial Delegation of the Province of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, signed on September 28, 1821, act of conditional independence of the Province of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, known as the Acta de los Nublados, on October 11, 1821, the act of absolute independence of the Province of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. However, on October 15, 1821, the Cabildo of Cartago agreed to annul the votes cast and to adopt the decision to stay out of the events, without assuming any commitment to Guatemala or León. On October 29, 1821, an open meeting was held in Cartago, in which a document was drawn up proclaiming the independence of Costa Rica from the Spanish Government. On December 1, 1821, the Covenant of Concord was proclaimed, which restores the Provinc