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Respiratory system

The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history. In land animals the respiratory surface is internalized as linings of the lungs. Gas exchange in the lungs occurs in millions of small air sacs called alveoli in mammals and reptiles, but atria in birds; these microscopic air sacs have a rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These air sacs communicate with the external environment via a system of airways, or hollow tubes, of which the largest is the trachea, which branches in the middle of the chest into the two main bronchi; these enter the lungs where they branch into progressively narrower secondary and tertiary bronchi that branch into numerous smaller tubes, the bronchioles. In birds the bronchioles are termed parabronchi.

It is the bronchioles, or parabronchi that open into the microscopic alveoli in mammals and atria in birds. Air has to be pumped from the environment into the alveoli or atria by the process of breathing which involves the muscles of respiration. In most fish, a number of other aquatic animals the respiratory system consists of gills, which are either or external organs, bathed in the watery environment; this water flows over the gills by a variety of passive means. Gas exchange takes place in the gills which consist of thin or flat filaments and lammelae which expose a large surface area of vascularized tissue to the water. Other animals, such as insects, have respiratory systems with simple anatomical features, in amphibians the skin plays a vital role in gas exchange. Plants have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals; the respiratory system in plants includes anatomical features such as stomata, that are found in various parts of the plant.

In humans and other mammals, the anatomy of a typical respiratory system is the respiratory tract. The tract is divided into a lower respiratory tract; the upper tract includes the nose, nasal cavities, sinuses and the part of the larynx above the vocal folds. The lower tract includes the lower part of the larynx, the trachea, bronchi and the alveoli; the branching airways of the lower tract are described as the respiratory tree or tracheobronchial tree. The intervals between successive branch points along the various branches of "tree" are referred to as branching "generations", of which there are, in the adult human about 23; the earlier generations, consisting of the trachea and the bronchi, as well as the larger bronchioles which act as air conduits, bringing air to the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts and alveoli, where gas exchange takes place. Bronchioles are defined as the small airways lacking any cartilagenous support; the first bronchi to branch from the trachea are the right and left main bronchi.

Second only in diameter to the trachea, these bronchi enter the lungs at each hilum, where they branch into narrower secondary bronchi known as lobar bronchi, these branch into narrower tertiary bronchi known as segmental bronchi. Further divisions of the segmental bronchi are known as 4th order, 5th order, 6th order segmental bronchi, or grouped together as subsegmental bronchi. Compared to the, on average, 23 number of branchings of the respiratory tree in the adult human, the mouse has only about 13 such branchings; the alveoli are the dead end terminals of the "tree", meaning that any air that enters them has to exit via the same route. A system such as this creates dead space, a volume of air that fills the airways after exhalation and is breathed back into the alveoli before environmental air reaches them. At the end of inhalation the airways are filled with environmental air, exhaled without coming in contact with the gas exchanger; the lungs contract during the breathing cycle, drawing air in and out of the lungs.

The volume of air moved in or out of the lungs under normal resting circumstances, volumes moved during maximally forced inhalation and maximally forced exhalation are measured in humans by spirometry. A typical adult human spirogram with the names given to the various excursions in volume the lungs can undergo is illustrated below: Not all the air in the lungs can be expelled during maximally forced exhalation; this is the residual volume of about 1.0-1.5 liters. Volumes that include the residual volume can therefore not be measured by spirometry, their measurement requires special techniques. The rates at which air is breathed in or out, either through the mouth or nose, or into or out of the alveoli are tabulated below, together with how they are calculated; the number of breath cycles per minute is known as the respiratory rate. In mammals, inhalation at rest is due to the contraction of the diaphragm; this is an upwardly domed sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.

When it contracts the sheet flattens. The contracting diaphragm pushes, but because the pelvic floo

José Manuel García-Margallo

José Manuel García-Margallo y Marfil is a Spanish politician who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation from 2011 to 2016. Since 2019, he is a member of the European Parliament. García-Margallo was born in Madrid. In 1960, he joined the Young Spanish Monarchists, he graduated in Law and Economics from the University of Deusto in Bilbao and subsequently received a master's degree in law from Harvard University. His great-grandfather was General Juan García y Margallo, killed in 1893 during the First Melillan campaign, otherwise known as the Margallo War. In 1976, Margallo was one of the founding members of the center-right People's Party, a party unrelated to the current party of the same name. In 1977, that party joined others in forming the Union of the Democratic Centre, a coalition which won the first democratic elections of the modern era in Spain and formed the government from 1977 to 1982. At the 1977 election, he was elected to the Congress of Deputies as member for the single member district of Melilla and was re-elected in 1979, although he lost his seat at the 1982 election to the PSOE.

After the UCD disbanded in 1983, Margallo joined the Democratic Popular Party and returned to the Congress at the 1986 election in representation of Valencia, retaining his seat until 1994 when he resigned after being elected to the European Parliament. Throughout his time in the European Parliament, Margallo served on the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs and Industrial Policy. In this capacity, he led the Parliament's work on the European Banking Authority, he called for the creation of a European Financial Protection Fund that would bail out large banks in times of crisis and would be financed by contributions from banks themselves. Margallo served on the Special Committee on the Financial and Social Crisis between 2009 and 2011 as well as on the Special Committee on the policy challenges and budgetary resources for a sustainable European Union after 2013 between 2010 and 2011. In addition to his committee assignments, he was a member of the parliament's delegation for relations with the countries of Central America.

Margallo led the EU-Election Observer Mission for the 2010 presidential election in Togo. On 22 December 2011, Margallo was inaugurated as Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation in the first cabinet presided by Mariano Rajoy. In March 2012, Margallo announced that, in response to savage killings and human rights abuses in Syria, his country would cease activities at its embassy in Damascus, but would not formally close its mission. In November 2012, Margallo announced that Spain would follow France in announcing it will support a bid of the Palestinian National Authority for enhanced status at the United Nations when the issue goes to a vote of the General Assembly. In 2014, amid negotiations towards an accord with the European Union aimed at opening up Cuba, Margallo irritated Raúl Castro's government with his call for Cuba to grant free travel rights to dissidents arrested in the Black Spring of 2003 and released under strict conditions. During a visit to the country, Margallo was denied an audience with Castro and instead met with First Vice-President Miguel Díaz-Canel.

Following the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action on the nuclear program of Iran in 2015, Margallo led a high-level government and business delegation to Iran, joining other countries drawn to Tehran by the possibility of lucrative opportunities that could be unlocked by a nuclear deal. A day after sanctions against Iran were lifted in January 2016, Margallo entered into negotiations with the Iranian government over the construction of an Iranian-owned oil refinery at the Gibraltar strait. 50 years after coming close to provoking a nuclear disaster and his counterpart John Kerry of the United States agreed in 2015 to remove contaminated soil from an area in southern Spain where an American warplane accidentally dropped hydrogen bombs. The deal, announced on a visit by Kerry to Spain, followed years of wrangling between the two countries over how to clean up the area around the seaside village of Palomares, over which the accident took place in 1966. Margallo did not continue at the post of Foreign minister after the formation of the Second Rajoy Government in 2016.

Margallo has blamed his exit from the Council of Ministers to alleged machinations by Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría. He would remain nonetheless as member of the Congress of Deputies for the rest of its 12th term. Following the resignation of Rajoy to the leadership of the PP and the ensuing celebration of a leadership election in July 2018, Margallo contested the latter facing his bête noire Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría, in addition to another 4 candidates. Margallo commanded only 688 votes from among the party members; as only Sáenz de Santamaría and Pablo Casado passed to the second round, to be voted by party delegates, Margallo endorsed Casado. Margallo was included 7th in the PP list for the 2019 European election. Elected, he became a Member of the European Parliament again. In addition to his committee assignments, he is part of the European Parliament Intergroup on Seas, Rivers and Coastal Areas. Elcano Royal Institute for International and Strategic Studies, member of the board of trustees Instituto Cervantes, ex officio member of the board of trustees Often seen as a controversial figure, Margallo has been critical of Gibraltar.

In February 2015 he ordered the closure of the Instituto Cervantes in Gibraltar stating that there was no need for Spanish classes in Gibraltar as'everyone speaks except for the apes'. In June 2016 Margallo said Spain would demand contro

Kavikulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit University

Kavikulguru Kalidas Sanskrit University is an institution dedicated to the advanced learning of Sanskrit, considered one of the oldest languages on earth. It is in Ramtek in the state of Maharashtra in India; the university provides coursework in Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Education, Master of Arts, Master of Philosophy, a Ph. D. degree. KKSU is unique in nature in that it has innovative academic program and syllabus which focuses on a modern approach to the Sanskrit language. In addition to preserving traditional Sanskrit, it emphasizes on the study of science and technology in ancient India, described in old Sanskrit texts. Maharashtra state was lacking an independent Sanskrit university before 1997. After the efforts of experts, KKSU was established on 18 September 1997 and named after Kalidas, a legendary poet and Sanskrit pundit whose poems and dramas are praised all over the world, he is referred as "Shakespeare of India". It is believed that he wrote his poems while in the town of Ramtek — the reason for establishing the university at this place.

Shrikant Jichkar was the first vice-chancellor of KKSU. Pankaj Chande was the vice-chancellor till 2012. From January 2013, Uma C. Vaidya was the vice-chancellor of KKSU till Sept.2017. Since December 2017 Shrinivasa Varkhedi is the vice-chancellor of KKSU. Official website

Javanrud County

Javanrud County is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran, part of what is unofficially referred to as Iranian Kurdistan. The capital of the county is Javanrud. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 62,259, in 13,629 families; the county is subdivided into two districts: the Central Kalashi District. The county has one city: Javanrud; this county is bounded in the north and west to Paveh County, in the south-east to Ravansar County, in the south-west to Sarpol-e Zahab County. اطلس گیتاشناسی استان‌های ایران

Shara Gillow

Shara Gillow is an Australian cyclist, who rides for UCI Women's WorldTeam FDJ Nouvelle-Aquitaine Futuroscope. She was selected to represent Australia at the 2012 Summer Olympics, where she finished 13th in the time trial and 39th in the road race. Nicknamed Shaza, Gillow was born on 23 December 1987 in Queensland, her father David Gillow is an Olympic cyclist. She attended Nambour Christian College was home schooled and obtained a Bachelor of Language from Western Sydney Institute; as of 2012, she lives in Queensland. Beyond cycling, Gillow is a surfer. Gillow is a road cyclist, her events are Individual Time Trial. She did not become a professional cyclist until she was twenty years old, taking inspiration from her father to get involved with the sport. Gillow has been coached by Martin Barras since 2010, her coach said "Gillow was one of the most physically gifted cyclists he had seen, but tended to be too conservative and protective when competing." Her primary training base is with a secondary training base in Australia.

She is a member of the Sunshine Coast Cycling Club. She has cycling scholarships with Australian Institute of Sport, she was a member of the GreenEDGE–AIS professional cycling team. Gillow finished 4th at the 2011 Memorial Davide Fardelli in Italy, she finished 3rd at the Thüringen Rundfahrt der Frauen in Germany. She finished 9th overall at the 2011 Giro d'Italia Femminile in Italy, she finished 8th at the 2012 La visite chrono du Gatineau in Canada. She finished 7th at the 2012 Prologue GP Elsy Jacobs in Luxembourg, she finished 1st in the individual time trial and 2nd in the road event at the 2012 Oceania Road Championships in Queenstown, New Zealand. She finished 2nd at the 2012 Women's Tour of New Zealand, she finished 1st in the individual time trial event at the 2012 Australian Road Championships in Learmonth, Australia. Gillow was selected to represent Australia at the 2012 Summer Olympics in the road race and individual time trial. Prior to the Olympics, she raced with Australia's GreenEDGE–AIS team in the Giro Donne.

She finished 13th in 39th in the road race. In September 2016 it was announced that Gillow would join FDJ Nouvelle-Aquitaine Futuroscope for the 2017 season. Source: Official website "Shara Gillow at GreenEDGE Cycling". Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012. Shara Gillow at Cycling Archives Shara Gillow at CQ Ranking Shara Gillow at ProCyclingStats Shara Gillow at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com

Trent Severn

Trent Severn is a Canadian folk trio composed of Emm Gryner, Dayna Manning, Lindsay Schindler. Founded in 2011, all three women contribute to the songwriting process, they released their self-titled debut album under the imprint Dead Daisy Records. The band was nominated for two 2013 Canadian Folk Music Awards, toured and performed around Canada until announcing a hiatus on January 21, 2019. In 2011 Emm Gryner approached fellow Canadian singer-songwriter Dayna Manning about forming a folk band, Manning's childhood friend and violinist Laura C. Bates joined soon thereafter. Gryner and Manning had co-billed a number of stages early in their careers, had both been raised in Ontario, they named the trio Trent Severn, after Trent-Severn Waterway in Southern Ontario. All three women contribute to the songwriting and the vocals, reference Canadian culture and landscapes in their music, they typically do all instrumentals themselves, with Manning on banjo or guitar, Gryner with a bass and stomp box, Bates with a fiddle/violin and sometimes percussion.

They sold out a number of their early shows playing on CBC Radio's Q. They released their self-titled 10-track debut album on Nov 6, 2012, under the imprint Dead Daisy Records. Excluding a guest appearance by Joel Plaskett on the track “Bluenose On a Dime” and percussion by Dave Tolley, all the music is arranged and performed by the band; the writing and mixing process overall had taken fourteen months. The album received heavy airplay on CBC Radio, reviews were positive. According to one reviewer, the album "contains a distinctly folk feel reminiscent of Joni Mitchell or Gordon Lightfoot." Post City praised the balanced feel between tracks, stating "For the most part, the album laid-back, twangy trend, punctuated by a couple of fast-paced and upbeat numbers here and there. The result is a warmly nostalgic record padded with darkly pensive instrumentation... Trent Severn sing and play with the weight carried by old souls, but they can still throw in a wink with playful verses and jaunty songs."

The band was nominated for two 2013 Canadian Folk Music Awards. Trent Severn tours and plays both large and small events, many informal and outdoors. In 2013 Manning arranged an original folk version of "O Canada" with three part vocal harmony, which Trent Severn performed at the flag raising ceremony on Parliament Hill, Ottawa on July 1, 2013; the band has an ongoing campaign to have people send postcards from across Canada. On March 15, 2013, they became the first band to receive a phone call to a concert from space, when they played a live song for Commander Chris Hadfield while he was on the international space station. On Canada Day of that year the band was part of Hadfield's first performance back on earth, of "Space Oddity" by David Bowie. CurrentEmm Gryner - vocals, bass, stomp box Dayna Manning - vocals, banjo floor percussion Lindsay Schindler - vocals, fiddle, Laura C. Bates - vocals, fiddle, floor percussion "Album Review: Trent Severn's self-titled debut". Post City. November 27, 2012.

"Trent Severn Interview". The Toronto Quarterly. December 2012. "Trio in songwriting mode during hometown concert swing". St. Marys Journal Argus. August 28, 2013. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. "Video: Chris Hadfield talks to Trent Severn from International Space Station". YouTube. March 16, 2013. "Video: Chris Hadfield Space Oddity". Trent Severn Band. July 8, 2013. TrentSevernBand.ca Trent Severn on Facebook