Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. Governments in Westminster democracies are responsible to parliament rather than to the monarch, or, in a colonial context, to the imperial government, in a republican context, to the president, either in full or in part. If the parliament is bicameral the government is responsible first to the parliament's lower house, more representative than the upper house, as it has more members and they are always directly elected. Responsible government of parliamentary accountability manifests itself in several ways. Ministers account for the performance of their departments; this requirement to make announcements and to answer questions in Parliament means that ministers must have the privileges of the "floor", which are only granted to those who are members of either house of Parliament. Secondly, most although ministers are appointed by the authority of the head of state and can theoretically be dismissed at the pleasure of the sovereign, they concurrently retain their office subject to their holding the confidence of the lower house of Parliament.
When the lower house has passed a motion of no confidence in the government, the government must resign or submit itself to the electorate in a new general election. Lastly, the head of state is in turn required to effectuate their executive power only through these responsible ministers, they must never attempt to set up a "shadow" government of executives or advisors and attempt to use them as instruments of government, or to rely upon their "unofficial" advice. They are bound to take no decision or action, put into effect under the colour of their executive power without that action being as a result of the counsel and advisement of their responsible ministers, their ministers are required to counsel them and to form and have recommendations for them to choose from, which are the ministers' formal, recommendations as to what course of action should be taken. An exception to this is Israel. In the Canadian system, responsible government was developed between 1846 and 1850, with the executive Council formulating policy with the assistance of the legislative branch, the legislature voting approval or disapproval, the appointed governor enacting those policies that it had approved.
It was a transition from the older system whereby the governor took advice from an executive Council, used the legislature chiefly to raise money. After the formation of elected legislative assemblies starting with Nova Scotia in 1758, governors and their executive councils did not require the consent of elected legislators in order to carry out all their roles, it was only in the decades leading up to Canadian Confederation in 1867 that the governing councils of those British North American colonies became responsible to the elected representatives of the people. Responsible government was a major element of the gradual development of Canada towards independence; the concept of responsible government is associated in Canada more with self-government than with parliamentary accountability. It did not regain responsible government until it became a province of Canada in 1949. In the aftermath of the American Revolution, based on the perceived shortcomings of virtual representation, the British government became more sensitive to unrest in its remaining colonies with large populations of European-descended colonists.
Elected assemblies were introduced to both Upper Canada and Lower Canada with the Constitutional Act of 1791. Many reformers thought that these assemblies should have some control over the executive power, leading to political unrest between the governors and assemblies in both Upper and Lower Canada; the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada Sir Francis Bond Head wrote in one dispatch to London that if responsible government were implemented "Democracy, in the worst possible Form, will prevail in our Colonies." After the 1837 Lower Canada Rebellion led by Louis-Joseph Papineau, the 1837–1838 Upper Canada Rebellion led by William Lyon Mackenzie, Lord Durham was appointed governor general of British North America and had the task of examining the issues and determining how to defuse tensions. In his report, one of his recommendations was that colonies which were developed enough should be granted "responsible government"; this term meant the policy that British-appointed governors should bow to the will of elected colonial assemblies.
The first instance of responsible government in the British Empire outside of the United Kingdom itself was achieved by the colony of Nova Scotia in January–February 1848 through the efforts of Joseph Howe. Howe's push for responsible government was inspired by the work of Thomas McCulloch and Jotham Blanchard two decades earlier; the plaque in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly erected by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada reads: First Responsible Government in the British Empire. The first Executive Council chosen from the party having a majority in the representative branch of a colonial legislature was formed in Nova Scotia on 2 February 1848. Following a vote of want of confidence in the preceding Council, James Boyle Uniacke, who had moved
Rhea Sylvia is an extended play by the American metal band Thou. It was released on July 2018 through the independent hardcore punk label Deathwish Inc.. Except for the cover of "The Lasting Dose", the songs on Rhea Sylvia are Thou versions of band member Matthew Thudium's solo material; the EP's musical style is a mix of the band's signature punk/metal sound and grunge artists such as Alice in Chains. Rhea Sylvia one release in a four-part recording project. Leading up to the release of Thou's 2018 fifth studio album, Magus—their first full-length studio album since 2014's Heathen—the band decided to release three EPs, each with its own sonic theme and released through a different label. In May 2018, Thou released The House Primordial, through the label Raw Sugar. Throughout Thou's history, the band has been noted for releasing EPs, split albums and collaborative albums around the release of major solo studio albums. Work for all four related 2018 releases were all released with minimal promotion.
According to the band, the nature of the surprise release caused some fans to believe all releases were written and recorded quickly. When in fact, Rhea Sylvia was recorded in secret about a year prior to its official release. Rhea Sylvia was released on July 27, 2018. Digital and 12" vinyl copies were released through Deathwish Inc. and some digital copies were sold with alternate cover art. A CD-format compilation album title Ceremonies of Consolidation released through Gilead Media will include all three pre-Magus EPs. Thou promoted the release of Rhea Sylvia with an online stream of "The Only Law" on May 31, 2018. Lars Gotrich of NPR said, when compared to the material of the other two related EPs, the track "sounds like the most natural extension of Thou's sound, but more refined." Revolver described the track as, "part industrial, part goth, part black metal, part sludge, all Thou." Two days before the release of Rhea Sylvia, Thou released the EP's closing track, a cover of Crowbar's "The "Lasting Dose".
Revolver described the track as "particularly filthy feedback-ridden" while MetalSucks said it "pays due homage to their fellow Louisana doom brethren while still holding up as an incredible track in its own right." Rhea Sylvia was well received by music critics. Several critics lauded Thou's incorporation of grunge music into their sound, Bryan Funck's vocal range, the band's sonic experimentation that diversifies their existing and expansive discography. In Paul Simon's review for Allmusic, he concluded: "Rhea Sylvia is one of Thou's more accessible offerings, but it's no less boundary-pushing, it makes a welcome, fitting addition to the group's catalog." In Kevin Stewart-Panko's review for Metal Injection, he said: "In lieu of a proper grunge revival—which will or never happens—Rhea Sylvia offers not only an expansion of the blueprint but shows just how deep Thou’s capacity for diversity runs." "The Only Law" – 4:43 "Unfortunate Times" – 7:56 "Non-Entity" – 3:50 "Deepest Sun" – 3:50 "Restless River" – 4:34" "The Lasting Dose" – 5:43 Rhea Sylvia on Bandcamp
MKS SA is a trader of precious metals. Based in Geneva, the group employs 600 workers and turns over an estimated US$70 million. MKS is a member of the London Bullion Market Association, its subsidiary PAMP has been on the LBMA’s Gold List recognised in the financial services industry as the indicator of quality, since 1987; as a trading house the company's clients include organisations in the financial services industry, such as banks and fund managers, commodities processors such as gold miners and jewellery manufacturers. MKS subsidiary PAMP SA, based in Castel San Pietro in the Swiss canton of Ticino, is a refinery processing gold, silver and palladium; the refinery produces bars and medallions from the precious metals it refines as well as providing semi-finished products to jewellers and watch manufacturers. It counts Harrods among its retail partners, which offers PAMP's minted products to its customers at its bank in its London flagship store; the company was founded in Switzerland in 1979 by Mahmoud Kassem Shakarchi, hence the name MKS.
His son and daughter jointly took over the running of the company in 1983, since when the company has expanded to have staff located in 15 offices in 12 countries around the world. MKS bought PAMP SA in 1981, began to supply gold bars to jewellers, high street banks, investments banks and central banks. PAMP SA is a world leading, independently operated, precious metals refining and fabricating company, member of the MKS Group, it was established in 1977 in Switzerland. It provides vertically integrated services in precious metals, from collection of doré from the mine, through to assaying and delivery of its bars and other products throughout the world; the company produces a complete selection of bullion bars, from 12.5 kilograms to 1 gram and leads the world market for gold bars of 50 grams or less. PAMP operates in India through MMTC-PAMP, a joint venture between the company and MMTC Ltd. MKS is quoted as a gold trading expert in the media. Financial media such as Bloomberg, Financial Times and the San Francisco Chronicle have quoted them.
Bullion Market Association, full members' list Harrods to sell gold bullion for first time, The Telegraph, 15 October 2009. Partnership with PAMP PAMP Shop, Goldavenue