Battle of Appomattox Court House
The Battle of Appomattox Court House, fought on the morning of April 9,1865, was one of the last battles of the American Civil War. It was the engagement of Confederate Army general Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the Union Army under Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Lee, having abandoned the Confederate capital of Richmond, after the ten-month Siege of Petersburg, retreated west, Union forces pursued and cut off the Confederates retreat at the village of Appomattox Court House. Lee launched an attack to break through the Union force to his front, when he realized that the cavalry was backed up by two corps of Union infantry, he had no choice but to surrender. The signing of the surrender documents occurred in the parlor of the owned by Wilmer McLean on the afternoon of April 9. On April 12, a ceremony marked the disbandment of the Army of Northern Virginia. This event triggered a series of surrenders across the South, signaling the end of the war, the final campaign for Richmond, the capital of the Confederate States, began when the Union Army of the Potomac crossed the James River in June 1864.
The armies under the command of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant laid siege to Petersburg and Richmond, intending to cut the two cities supply lines and force the Confederates to evacuate. In the spring of 1865 Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee waited for an opportunity to leave the Petersburg lines, aware that the position was untenable, on April 1,1865, Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridans cavalry turned Lees flank at the Battle of Five Forks. The next day Grants army achieved a breakthrough, effectively ending the Petersburg siege. With supply lines cut, Lees men abandoned the trenches they had held for ten months, Lees first objective was to reassemble and supply his men at Amelia Courthouse. His plan was to link up with Gen. Joseph E. Johnstons Army of Tennessee, when the troops arrived at Amelia on April 4, they found no provisions. Lee sent wagons out to the country to forage. The army headed west to Appomattox Station, where a supply train awaited him, Lees army was now composed of the cavalry corps and two small infantry corps.
En route to the station, on April 6 at Sailors Creek, nearly one fourth of the retreating Confederate army was cut off by Sheridans cavalry and elements of the II, two Confederate divisions fought the VI Corps along the creek. The Confederates attacked but were back, and soon after the Union cavalry cut through the right of the Confederate lines. Most of the 7,700 Confederates were captured or surrendered, including Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and eight other general officers. The delay prevented Lee from reaching the station until late afternoon on April 8, allowing Sheridan to reach the station that evening, where he captured Lees supplies and obstructed his path
Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is coterminous with the U. S. Census Bureau-census-designated place of Arlington, as a result, the county is often referred to in the region simply as Arlington or Arlington, Virginia. In 2015, the population was estimated at 229,164. The land that became Arlington was originally donated by Virginia to the United States government to form part of the new federal district of Columbia. In 1846, Congress returned the land southwest of the Potomac River donated by Virginia due to issues involving Congressional representation, the General Assembly of Virginia changed the countys name to Arlington in 1920 to avoid confusion with the adjacent City of Alexandria. The county is situated in Northern Virginia on the bank of the Potomac River directly across from Washington. Arlington is bordered by Fairfax County and City of Falls Church to the northwest and southwest, as of the 2010 census, the population was 207,627. Due to the proximity to downtown Washington, D. C.
It is home to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, the many federal agencies, government contractors, and service industries contribute to Arlingtons stable economy. It is the county in the United States by median family income. According to a 2016 study by Bankrate. com, Arlington is the best place to retire, the area that now constitutes Arlington County was originally part of Fairfax County in the Colony of Virginia. Land grants from the British monarch were awarded to prominent Englishmen in exchange for political favors, one of the grantees was Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, who lends his name to both Fairfax County and the City of Fairfax. George Washington Parke Custis, grandson of First Lady Martha Washington, the estate was eventually passed down to Mary Anna Custis Lee, wife of General Robert E. Lee. The property became Arlington National Cemetery during the American Civil War, the area that now contains Arlington County was ceded to the new United States federal government by the Commonwealth of Virginia.
With the passage of the Residence Act in 1790, Congress approved a new permanent capital to be located on the Potomac River, the Residence Act originally only allowed the President to select a location within Maryland as far east as what is now the Anacostia River. However, President Washington shifted the federal territorys borders to the southeast in order to include the city of Alexandria at the Districts southern tip. In 1791, Congress amended the Residence Act to approve the new site, this amendment to the Residence Act specifically prohibited the erection of the public buildings otherwise than on the Maryland side of the River Potomac. As permitted by the U. S. Constitution, the shape of the federal district was a square, measuring 10 miles on each side
Flag and seal of Virginia
The Seal of the Commonwealth of Virginia is the official seal of the Commonwealth of Virginia, a U. S. state. The flag of Virginia consists of the obverse of the seal against a blue background, the flag was first adopted at the beginning of the American Civil War in 1861, and standardized by the General Assembly in February 1950. The flag may be decorated with a fringe along the fly. In 2001, the North American Vexillological Association surveyed its members on the designs of the 72 U. S. state, U. S. territorial, nAVAs members ranked Virginias flag 54th out of the 72. In May 1776 the Virginian colony declared its independence from Great Britain, on July 1,1776, a committee of four was appointed to make a proper seal for the Commonwealth of Virginia. The four men were Richard Henry Lee, George Mason, George Wythe, four days the committees report for a design of the seal was read, and George Mason presented it to the Virginia government. It was voted on and approved that same day and it is not known for certain which members of the committee were chiefly responsible for the design of the seal, but it is generally believed to be principally the work of George Wythe.
The seal makers did not want a design which in any way resembled the style of coats-of-arms used in Great Britain, because of the strong admiration for the Roman Republic felt by the Virginian leaders, the design of the new seal was taken from the mythology of Ancient Rome. They chose a design, as shown above. The obverse of the seal is the seal of Virginia and is used on all the official papers and documents of the Commonwealths government. On this side, a female figure personifying the Roman virtue of Virtus was selected to represent the genius of the new Commonwealth, Virginias Virtus is a figure of peace, standing in a pose which indicates a battle already won. She rests on her spear, its point turned downward to the ground. Her other weapon, a parazonium, is sheathed, it is the sword of authority rather than that of combat. Virtus is typically shown with a bare left breast, this is recognized as the only use of nudity among the seals of the U. S. states. Tyranny lies prostrate beneath the foot of Virtus, symbolizing Great Britains defeat by Virginia, the broken chain in Tyrannys left hand represents Virginias freedom from Britains restriction of colonial trade and westward expansion.
The useless whip in his right hand signifies Virginias relief from the whip of acts of punishment such as the Intolerable Acts. His robe is purple, a reference to Julius Caesar and the Etruscan king of Rome, the motto selected for the obverse of the Virginia seal is Sic semper tyrannis, or in English, Thus always to tyrants. This is a quote from the famous events in Roman history
California in the American Civil War
The State of California did not send its units east, but many citizens traveled east and joined the Union Army there, some of whom became famous. Californias Volunteers conducted operations against the native peoples within the state and in the other Western territories of the Departments of the Pacific. Following the Gold Rush, California was settled primarily by Midwestern and Southern farmers, Democrats dominated the state from its foundation. In the beginning of 1861, as the crisis began, the secessionists in San Francisco made an attempt to separate the state and Oregon from the union. Patriotic fervor swept California after the attack on Fort Sumter, providing the manpower for Volunteer Regiments recruited mainly from the counties in the north of the State. When the Democratic party split over the war, Republican supporters of Lincoln took control of the state in the September elections, Volunteer Regiments were sent to occupy pro-secessionist Southern California and Tulare County, leaving them generally powerless during the war itself.
However some Southerners traveled east to join the Confederate Army, evading Union patrols, others remaining in the state attempted to outfit a privateer to prey on coastal shipping, and late in the war two groups of partisan rangers were formed but none was successful. When California was admitted as a state under the Compromise of 1850, as a result, Southerners in Congress voted against admission in 1850 while Northerners pushed it through, pointing to its population of 93,000 and its vast wealth in gold. Northern California, which was dominated by mining and commercial elites of San Francisco, in the 1856 presidential election, California gave its electoral votes to the winner, James Buchanan. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California State Legislature, approved overwhelmingly by voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado and sent to Washington, D. C. with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However the secession crisis following the election of Lincoln in 1860 led to the proposal never coming to a vote.
In 1860 California gave a plurality of 38,733 votes to Abraham Lincoln, whose 32% of the total vote was enough to win all its electoral votes. During the secession crisis following Lincolns election, Federal troops were under the command of Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, in Benicia, General Johnston strongly believed in the Southern right to secede but regretted that it was occurring. A group of Southern sympathizers in the state plans to secede with Oregon to form a Pacific Republic. The success of their plans rested on the cooperation of General Johnston and he told them to tell this to their Southern friends. Deprived of his aid the plans for California and Oregon to secede from the United States never came to fruition, Union men feared Johnston would aid such a plot and communicated their fears to Washington asking for his replacement. Brig. Gen. Edwin Vose Sumner was soon sent west via Panama to replace Johnston in March 1861, Johnston resigned his commission on April 9, and after Sumner arrived on April 25 turned over his command and moved with his family to Los Angeles.
He would soon travel with other Southerners across New Mexico Territory to Texas and he died at the Battle of Shiloh
Rhode Island in the American Civil War
The state of Rhode Island during the American Civil War, as with all of New England, remained loyal to the Union. Rhode Island furnished 25,236 fighting men to the Union Army, on the home front, Rhode Island, along with the other northern states, used its industrial capacity to supply the Union Army with the materials it needed to win the war. Rhode Islands continued growth and modernization led to the creation of a mass transit system. During the war, Fort Adams near Newport was used temporarily as the United States Naval Academy, in September, the Academy moved to the Atlantic House hotel in Newport and remained there for the rest of the war. In 1862 Fort Adams became the headquarters and recruit depot for the 15th U. S and this regiment, along with several others, had an organization in which the regiment had three eight company battalions. The 3rd Battalion of the 15th Infantry was organized at the fort in March 1864, the USS Rhode Island was a side-wheel steamer commissioned in 1861 for the Union Navy.
It served to intercept blockade runners in the West Indies and was a part of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, anthony, a former governor born in Coventry, was a powerful newspaper owner and staunch advocate of the policies of President Lincoln during the Civil War. The other Senator from Rhode Island, Samuel G, Arnold of Providence, was a Republican, he served in the Union Army until 1862 when he was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of James F. Simmons. Rhode Islands early war governor, William Sprague, accompanied a detachment of troops in the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21,1861. He declined a commission as a general and remained in office. In 1862, he attended the Loyal War Governors Conference in Altoona, which ultimately backed Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation, after failing to be re-elected as governor, he was elected as a U. S. Senator to replace Arnold, taking office in 1863 and serving into Reconstruction, during the war, Sprague married Kate Chase, daughter of Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P.
Chase. On March 4,1863, Sprague became a United States Senator was replaced as governor by prominent businessman, cozzens left office in May when he was succeeded by Governor James Y. Smith who led Rhode Island during the last two years of the war. Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, an arms manufacturer, politician. He rose to command of the Army of the Potomac before his disastrous defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862 and he commanded the Department of the Ohio as well as the IX Corps. He star-crossed field duty ended during the Siege of Petersburg with another fiasco for which he took the blame, the Battle of the Crater. Maj. Gen. Silas Casey of East Greenwich led a division in the Army of the Potomac during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign that suffered losses at Battle of Seven Pines facing George Picketts brigade. He wrote the three-volume System of Infantry Tactics, including Infantry Tactics volumes I and II, published in August 1862 and Infantry Tactics for Colored Troops, the manuals were used by both sides during the Civil War
Kentucky in the American Civil War
Kentucky was a border state of key importance in the American Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln recognized the importance of the Commonwealth when he declared I hope to have God on my side, in a September 1861 letter to Orville Browning, Lincoln wrote, I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game. Kentucky gone, we cannot hold Missouri, nor Maryland and these all against us, and the job on our hands is too large for us. We would as well consent to separation at once, including the surrender of this capitol, being a border state, was among the chief places where the Brother against brother scenario was prevalent. After early 1862 Kentucky came largely under Union control, Kentucky was the site of several fierce battles, including Mill Springs and Perryville. Forrest proved to be a scourge to the Union Army in western Kentucky, kentuckian John Hunt Morgan further challenged Union control, as he conducted numerous cavalry raids through the state. Kentucky was the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln, his wife Mary Todd, Kentuckys citizens were split regarding the issues central to the Civil War.
In 1860, slaves composed 19. 5% of the Commonwealths population, the ancestors of many Kentuckians hailed from Southern states like Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, but many Kentucky children were beginning to migrate toward the North. Kentucky, along with North Carolina, boasted the best educational systems in the South, the Commonwealth had produced some of the countrys best known leaders. Breckinridge and Richard M. Johnson both hailed from the state, as did Henry Clay, John J. Crittenden, U. S. President Abraham Lincoln, however, by the time of the Civil War, Kentucky was in a politically confused state. The decline of the Whig Party, which Clay had founded, had left many politicians looking for an identity. Many joined the Democratic Party, a few joined the newly formed Republican Party, the party was composed mainly of former Whigs and Know-Nothings. Kentucky was strategically important to both the North and South, the Commonwealth ranked ninth in population by 1860, and was a major producer of such agricultural commodities as tobacco, wheat and flax.
Geographically, Kentucky was important to the South because the Ohio River would provide a boundary along the entire length of the state. Kentucky governor Beriah Magoffin believed that the rights of the Southern states had been violated and favored the right of secession, Magoffin proposed a conference of slave states, followed by a conference of all the states to secure these concessions. Due to the pace of events, neither conference was ever held. Magoffin called a session of the Kentucky General Assembly on December 27,1860. The majority of the General Assembly had Unionist sympathies, when the General Assembly convened again on March 20, it called for a convention of the border states in the Kentucky capital of Frankfort on May 27,1861
Indian Territory in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, Indian Territory occupied most of what is now the U. S. state of Oklahoma. It served as a region set aside for Native American tribes of the Southeastern United States following the Indian Removal Act. It was occupied by captured Native Americans who had removed from their lands. The Union organized several regiments of Indian Home Guard to serve in the Indian Territory and sometimes adjacent areas of Kansas, the area was largely undeveloped, railroads did not exist in this area and the Union did not have enough troops to control the few roads. Pro-Union Indians had abandoned their own farms because of raids by pro-Confederacy Indians and fled to Kansas or Missouri and it was not feasible to sustain a large military operation by living off the land. This was demonstrated in 1862, when General William Weer led 5,000 men in the Indian Expedition into Indian Territory from Baxter Springs, weers troops captured a Confederate supply train at the Battle of Locust Grove.
However, no Union supplies arrived after that, and the expedition ran short of food, weers men mutinied, arresting Weer and putting Colonel Frederick Salomon in command. The Confederacy took an interest, seeking a source of food in the event of a Union blockade, a connection to western territories. At the onset of war, Confederate forces took possession of the US army forts in the area, in June and July 1861, its officers negotiated with Native American tribes for combat support. After refusing to allow Creek lands to be annexed by the Confederacy, after reaching Kansas and Missouri and Native Americans loyal to the Union formed three volunteer regiments known as the Indian Home Guard. It fought in Indian Territory and Arkansas, the first battle in the territory occurred on November 19,1861. Opothleyahola rallied Indians to the Union cause at Deep Fork, a total of 7,000 men and children resided in his camp. A force of 1,400 Confederate soldiers under Colonel Douglas H. Cooper initiated the Battle of Round Mountain, Opothleyahola moved his camp to a new location at Chustenalah.
On December 26,1861, Confederate forces again attacked, this time driving Opothleyahola, in 1862, Union General James G. Blunt ordered Colonel William Weer to lead an expedition into the Indian Territory, the expedition included five white regiments, two Indian regiments and two artillery battalions. The main objective of the expedition was to escort the Indian refugees who had fled to Kansas back to their homes in Indian Territory, a secondary objective was to hold the territory for the Union. Weers expedition met with success at the Battle of Locust Grove in Indian Territory. The expedition camped at Locust Grove for two weeks, waiting for a Union supply train, one detachment from the main force moved on to Fort Gibson, causing the Confederates stationed there to withdraw
Missouri in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, Missouri was a hotly contested border state populated by both Union and Confederate sympathizers. Counting minor actions and skirmishes, Missouri saw more than 1,200 distinct engagements within its boundaries, only Virginia, Missouri was initially settled by Southerners traveling up the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. The compromise was that Maine would enter the Union as a state to balance Missouri. Of the greatest concern for Missouri slave-holders in the years before the war was a law that decreed that if a slave physically entered a free state. The violence along the Kansas–Missouri border foreshadowed the national violence to come, and indeed continued throughout the Civil War. Against the background of Bleeding Kansas, the case of Dred Scott and therefore that African-Americans could not initiate legal action in any court, even when they clearly had what would otherwise be a valid claim. The decision calmed the skirmishes between Missouri and Kansas partisans, but its publicity enraged abolitionists nationwide and contributed to the rhetoric that led to the Civil War.
In 1860, it took 25 days for a message to reach the Pacific coast from what was the westernmost railroad terminus at St. Joseph, the firm of Russell and Waddell proposed to do it in 10 days using a relay system of horses. The resulting Pony Express began operations on April 3,1860, Ulysses S. Grants first commission in the Civil War was to protect the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, which delivered its mail. Scarcely a year after the ride from Missouri to San Francisco. By 1860, Missouris initial southern settlers had been supplanted with a more diversified non-slave-holding population, including former northerners, particularly German, the policy was first put forth in 1860 by outgoing Governor Robert Marcellus Stewart, who had Northern leanings. It was notionally reaffirmed by incoming Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson, who had Southern leanings, however, stated in his inaugural address that in case of federal coercion of southern states, Missouri should support and defend her sister southern states.
A Constitutional Convention to discuss secession was convened with Sterling Price presiding, the delegates voted to stay in the Union and supported the neutrality position. At the time of the 1860 U. S. Census, Missouris total population was 1,182,012, most of the slaves lived in rural areas rather than cities. Of the 299,701 responses to Occupation,124,989 people listed Farmers and 39,396 listed Farm Laborers, the next highest categories were Laborers and Merchants. Less than half the population was listed as native-born. Those who had migrated from other states were predominantly from Kentucky, Virginia, Indiana,906,540 people were listed as born in the United States. Of the 160,541 foreign-born residents of Missouri, most came from the German states, England, France, in the election of 1860, Missouris newly elected governor was Claiborne Fox Jackson, a career politician and an ardent supporter of the South
West Virginia in the American Civil War
The U. S. state of West Virginia was formed out of western Virginia and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War. In the summer of 1861, Union troops under General George McClellan drove off Confederate troops under General Robert E. Lee and this essentially freed Unionists in the northwestern counties of Virginia to form their own government as a result of the Wheeling Convention. After Lees departure, western Virginia continued to be a target of Confederate raids, guerrilla warfare gripped the new state, especially in the Allegheny Mountain counties to the east, where loyalties were much more divided than in the Unionist northwest part of the state. On April 17,1861, the Virginia state convention in Richmond declared secession, nearly all delegates from counties west of the Allegheny Mountains voted against secession, and most people and officials in that area refused any directions from the secessionist state government. On May 15, western Virginia Unionists convened the first session of the Wheeling Convention, many of the delegates were informally or self-appointed, so the Convention only denounced secession and called for a formal election of delegates.
The elected delegates met in the session on 11 June. On 20 June the Convention declared that by acceding to secession, the officials of the government in Richmond had forfeited their offices. The Convention elected replacements for these offices, creating the Restored Government of Virginia. The Restored government was supported in areas where secession was opposed. Union troops held the three northernmost counties in the Shenandoah Valley, and despite the views of most residents. At the Wheeling Convention, some proposed the immediate establishment of a separate state. However, other delegates pointed out that the creation of a new state would require the consent of Virginia, thus it was necessary to establish the Restored Government of Virginia to give that consent, which was granted 20 August 1861. A referendum in October 1861 approved statehood, a convention met. Congress approved statehood that December, with the condition that slavery must be abolished in the new state and this condition required a new constitutional convention and referendum.
The revised constitution provided for the abolition of slavery, which took effect on 3 February 1865. On 20 June 1863, the newly proclaimed state of West Virginia was admitted to the Union, including all the western counties, all the northern states had free public school systems before the war, but not the border states. West Virginia set up its system in 1863, over bitter opposition it established an almost-equal education for black children, most of whom were ex-slaves. When Union troops occupied parts of eastern Virginia such as Alexandria and Norfolk and they were not included in West Virginia
Francis Harrison Pierpont
Francis Harrison Pierpont, called the Father of West Virginia, was an American lawyer and Governor of the Union-controlled parts of Virginia during the Civil War. After the war, he was the Governor of all of Virginia during the years of Reconstruction. He was the son of Francis Peirpoint and was born at the Peirpoint Plantation in the Forks of Cheat on the Morgantown-Ices Ferry Road. His middle name, was added by the father in honor of his commanding officer. Virginia lawyers advised the family that in order to hold their grandfathers land they must spell their last name as recorded in the patent, thus Francis used the name Peirpoint throughout all of his life. Francis Harrison utilized Peirpoint throughout most of his life, including during his terms as the Civil War. In 1880, when President Garfield appointed him Collector of Internal Revenue, Pierpont writes that He consented to the change of his name because it was right. While Frank was a boy, his family moved their business to what is today Marion County.
He was a great-grandson of Morgantowns founder Zackquill Morgan, Frank Pierpont was educated in a one-room schoolhouse and by his own reading. Pierpont became linked with the history for the rest of his life. After walking to Pennsylvania, he enrolled in and graduated from Allegheny College, later, he taught school in Harrison County. Then he traveled and became an abolitionist after seeing slaverys abuses in Mississippi and he returned home to Fairmont and handled the familys tanning business as well as became active in the Methodist Church and began studying law. He was admitted to the bar in 1841, in 1848, Pierpont became the local attorney for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Before entering politics, he helped found Fairmont Male and Female Seminary. An active supporter of Abraham Lincoln, Pierpont became more involved in politics as an opponent of Virginias secession from the Union. When Virginia seceded and entered the war, delegates from the counties of Virginia. Declaring that their officials had abandoned their posts, a rump government was established in Wheeling.
Claiming to be the government of the entire Commonwealth of Virginia
West Virginia /ˌwɛst vərˈdʒɪnjə/ is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States. It is bordered by Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the north, West Virginia is the 9th smallest by area, is ranked 38th in population, and has the second lowest household income of the 50 United States. The capital and largest city is Charleston, West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20,1863, and was a key Civil War border state. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States, the unique position of West Virginia means that it is often included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, and the Southeastern United States. It is the state that is entirely within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its historically significant logging and coal mining industries and it is one of the most densely karstic areas in the world, making it a choice area for recreational caving and scientific research.
The karst lands contribute to much of the states cool trout waters and it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, and hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various mound builder cultures survive, especially in the areas of Moundsville, South Charleston. The artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies and they had a tribal trade system culture that crafted cold-worked copper pieces. The Iroquois drove out other American Indian tribes from the region to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a ground in the 1670s. Siouan language tribes such as the Moneton had recorded in the area previously. West Virginia was originally part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776, residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the restored government. Most voted to separate from Virginia and the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863, in 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, which was ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote.
West Virginia abolished slavery and temporarily disfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy, West Virginias history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, and rich natural resources. These were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, a 2010 analysis of a local stalagmite revealed that Native Americans were burning forests to clear land as early as 100 BC. Some regional late-prehistoric Eastern Woodland tribes were involved in hunting and fishing, practicing the slash. Another group progressed to the more time-consuming, advanced companion crop fields method of gardening, continuing from ancient indigenous people of the state, field space and time was given to tobacco growing through to early historic. Maize did not make a contribution to the diet until after 1150 BP
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci