Restoring the Lost Constitution: The Presumption of Liberty is a 2003 book about the United States Constitution written by Randy Barnett, a professor of law at the Georgetown University Law Center. In the book, Barnett outlines his theory of constitutional legitimacy and construction, he argues for that the Constitution should be interpreted by its "original meaning", distinct from the Founding Fathers' original intent. Restoring the Lost Constitution was awarded the 2005 Lysander Spooner Award for Advancing the Literature of Liberty by Laissez Faire Books. Restoring the Lost Constitution is broken into four parts, each addressing an aspect of the U. S. Constitution. Constitutional Legitimacy – describes the most common arguments for constitutional legitimacy, argues against them in practical terms. Barnett suggests that in practice it is impossible for any constitution to derive its legitimacy from consent, but it must rather derive legitimacy through "necessity" and "propriety". Constitutional Method Constitutional Limits Constitutional Powers The Journal of Libertarian Studies reviewed the book, stating that "though well-intentioned, the book is fatally flawed".
The Future of Freedom Foundation praised Restoring the Lost Constitution, comparing it to "a great symphony on which the composer labored for years, poring over passages again and again to get them just right." The Atlas Society reviewed the book, writing "Despite its occasional lack of focus, Restoring the Lost Constitution is a succinct and accurate distillation of libertarian constitutional theory—and it convincingly shows that this phrase is redundant." Steven G. Calabresi of the Michigan Law Review Association praised the work, citing that it "replaces Richard Epstein's Takings as the leading tome about constitutional law written from a libertarian perspective"; the American Political Science Association reviewed the book, saying that it was "a welcome addition to a never-ending debate". Ronald Kahn of the Law and Politics Book Review wrote that the book was "terrific in demonstrating the natural rights background to our Constitution and demonstrating that all rights cannot be listed in the Constitution", but that "Barnett's fundamental problem is that he allows for'constitutional construction' when originalism cannot tell us which meanings to adopt, but he does not seem to allow for social construction of law, or changing social meanings".
In Ethics Matthew Simpson criticized Restoring the Lost Constitution, stating that while Barnett "argues persuasively that an unprincipled judiciary poses a great threat to constitutionalism in America... his own principle for reading the Constitution, the presumption of liberty, is implausible and flawed". Restoring the Lost Constitution preview at Google Books
Brian Kim is a former hedge fund manager. He founded the now-defunct Liquid Capital Management LLC. In 2011, he was found guilty of fraudulent solicitation and misrepresentation to investors and regulatory organizations, sought an injunction preventing him from trading in commodities futures and foreign currencies. A $12.5 million default judgement was entered against him, he was banned from commodity trading. In 2012, he pleaded guilty to charges including passport fraud, grand larceny, scheme to defraud, violation of the NY General Business Law, falsifying business records to further a Ponzi scheme, he was sentenced to 7 months in prison. Kim was born in the late-mid 1970s in New Jersey, he graduated from Dartmouth College in 1997, where he had majored in economics and minored in art history. He founded the now-defunct Liquid Capital Management LLC, which focused on futures trading, in 2002 and had an office on Broadway in New York City. In 2009, Kim twice appeared on CNBC's financial television news show Squawk Box, speaking as an expert about derivatives trading.
Brian Kim lived in an apartment at Christodora House. He was indicted and arrested in 2009, accused of stealing $435,000 from the Christodora House condo association in 2008. Kim failed to appear at his trial in January 2011, was charged with jumping bail, he had fled to Hong Kong after obtaining a new passport by saying. In fact it had been confiscated by authorities, he was taken into custody in Hong Kong in October 2011, was returned to the United States. After an investigation by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission into his hedge fund business, in February 2011, Kim was charged both civilly and criminally with financial fraud, grand larceny, scheme to defraud for running a $6 million Ponzi scheme from January 2003 through January 2011, cheating at least 45 investors from the West Coast while providing them with fake monthly performance statements. According to prosecutors, he misrepresented the quality of the investments to his clients, while stealing some of the money for himself; the CFTC sued Kim and Liquid Capital in February 2011, charging them with fraudulent solicitation and misrepresentation to investors and regulatory organizations, seeking an injunction preventing them from trading in commodities futures and foreign currencies.
The agency said Kim and his employees told clients that Liquid Capital generated returns of more than 240 percent, when in fact they were losing money, the only funds coming in were from new deposits by clients. In April 2011, Judge Denise Cote of the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York found the defendants guilty of all charges, she entered a default judgment of $12.5 million against him, he and Liquid Capital were banned from further commodity trading. In addition, the court froze his assets. In March 2012, he pleaded guilty to passport fraud, by lying to officials to obtain a passport by saying his was lost, after prosecutors had confiscated his passport, he was sentenced in April 2012 to 14 months in prison, some of which would be served concurrently with his sentence for the Ponzi scheme. On March 16, 2012, Kim pleaded guilty to 9 of 26 counts against him, including grand larceny, scheme to defraud, violation of the NY General Business Law, falsifying business records in connection with the Ponzi scheme charge, stealing $435,000 from the Christadora House.
In April 2012, Kim was sentenced by Justice Charles H. Solomon in New York State Supreme Court in Manhattan to 5 to 15 years in prison. Kim was to serve 7 months in federal prison on his fraud conviction, serve his 5 to 15 year sentence in state prison. "Ex Parte Statutory Restraining Order Freezing Assets...", CFTC v. BRIAN KIM and LIQUID CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, LLC, Southern District of New York, February 15, 2011 "Order for Entry of Default Judgment Permanent Injunction and Ancillary Equitable Relief against Brian Kim and Liquid Capital Management, LLC", CFTC v. BRIAN KIM and LIQUID CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, LLC, Southern District of New York, April 15, 2011 "Initial Decision on Default", In the Matter of: BRIAN KIM, LIQUID CAPITAL MANAGEMENT, LLC, Registrants, U. S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission, November 9, 2012
The Trésor des Chartes are the ancient archives of the French crown. On 5 July 1194, Philip II of France was defeated by Richard I of England at the Battle of Fréteval. Philip managed to flee but lost his archives, his treasury and the Royal seal which were captured by Richard. After the battle, Philip was forced to re-establish the archives of the Kingdom, the registers and the domestic archives of the French crown and he entrusted Grand Chamberlain Gauthier II of Nemours with this mission which led to the creation of the Trésor des Chartes, the predecessor of what became the Archives Nationales during the French Revolution in 1790. After Gauthier's death in 1204, Keeper of the Seals Guérin was entrusted with this mission. From 1231, the documents were stored in the Royal Palace in Paris. At the end of the reign of Saint Louis, the archives and, from 1300–1302 the registers of the Chancery, were stored on the second floor of the Sainte-Chapelle of the palace along with the Royal Library, on the floor above the French Crown Jewels and the Passion relics.
It was called the "Trésor des Chartes", the "Charters treasury", in Latin Thesaurus chartarum et privilegiorum domini regis. They remained in the chapel until the demolition of the Trésor des Chartes in 1776 after the fire of the Maison du RoiThe archives of Philip IV of France and of his three sons, kings of France, Louis X, Philip V, Charles IV represent a third of the conserved documents; the chests that contained these archives were called "layettes". In 1615, Pierre Dupuy was commissioned by Mathieu Molé, first president of the parlement of Paris, to draw up an inventory of the documents of the Trésor des chartes; this work occupied eleven years. His manuscript inventory is preserved in the original and in copy in the Bibliothèque Nationale, transcriptions are in the national archives in Paris, at the record office in London, elsewhere. Archives nationales
Etacrynic acid or ethacrynic acid, trade name Edecrin, is a loop diuretic used to treat high blood pressure and the swelling caused by diseases like congestive heart failure, liver failure, kidney failure. Unlike the other loop diuretics, etacrynic acid is not a sulfonamide and thus, its use is not contraindicated in those with sulfa allergies. Ethacrynic acid is a phenoxyacetic acid derivative containing a methylene group. A cysteine adduct is formed with the methylene group and this is the active form. Ethacrynic acid is a diuretic, used to treat edema when a stronger agent is required, it injected form. The pill is used to treat edema associated with congestive heart failure and renal disease, accumulation of liquid in the belly associated with cancer or edema, management of hospitalized children with congenital heart disease or nephrotic syndrome; the injected form is used to remove water from the body when needed - for example in acute pulmonary edema - or when a person cannot take the medicine in pill form.
As a diuretic, ethacrynic acid can cause frequent urination, but this resolves after taking the drug for a few weeks. Ethacrynic acid can cause low potassium levels, which may manifest as muscle cramps or weakness, it has been known to cause reversible or permanent hearing loss and liver damage when administered in high dosages. On oral administration, it produces diarrhea. Ethacrynic acid acts by inhibiting NKCC2 in the thick ascending loop of the macula densa. Loss of potassium ions is less marked but chances of hypochloremic alkalosis are greater; the dose response curve of ethacrynic acid is steeper than that of furosemide and, in general, it is less manageable. Ethacrynic acid and its glutathione-adduct are potent inhibitors of glutathione S-transferase family members, which are enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism; this family of enzymes has been shown to have a high rate of genetic variability
This is a list of episodes in the Sweet Valley High television series, which starred real-life twins Brittany and Cynthia Daniel as twin sisters Jessica and Elizabeth Wakefield respectively. The 22 episode first season of Sweet Valley High debuted in syndication on September 5, 1994, ended on February 20, 1995. A DVD of the first season was released on March 8, 2005; the second season of Sweet Valley High debuted in syndication on September 11, 1995 and ended on March 25, 1996. There were 22 episodes. Sweet Valley High, Season Three debuted in syndication on August 26, 1996 and ended on February 10, 1997. There were 22 episodes; this is the first season where Jeremy Vincent Garrett and Shirlee Elliot are brought aboard to replace Ryan Bittle and Bridget Flanery in the roles of Todd Wilkins and Lila Fowler. At this point, the characters were titled in the direction of dumb comic-relief. Sweet Valley High, Season Four was the final season for the show and the first and only season to be aired on a network.
It debuted on UPN on September 15, 1997 and ended on October 14, 1997. There were 22 episodes. No official finale was filmed, as it was believed that the series would be picked up for a fifth season, it introduced Andrea Savage as Renata Vargas as a series regular. Sweet Valley High – list of episodes on IMDb List of Sweet Valley High episodes at TV.com
The UK Albums Chart is one of many music charts compiled by the Official Charts Company that calculates the best-selling albums of the week in the United Kingdom. Since 2004 the chart has been based on the sales of digital downloads. Since 2015, the album chart has been based on streaming; this list shows albums that peaked in the top ten of the UK Albums Chart during 2020, as well as albums which peaked in 2019 but were in the top 10 in 2020. The entry date is. Forty-one albums have been in the top ten so far this year. Twelve albums from 2019 remained in the top ten for several weeks at the beginning of the year. Ten artists have achieved their first top-ten album as a lead artist; the following table does not include acts who had charted as part of a group and secured their first top-ten solo album, or featured appearances on compilations or other artists recordings. Key List of UK Albums Chart number ones of the 2020s General "Six decades of singles charts"; the Official Charts Company. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011.
Retrieved 23 April 2017. Specific 2020 album chart archive at the Official Charts Company