Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. Retailers satisfy demand identified through a supply chain; the term "retailer" is applied where a service provider fills the small orders of many individuals, who are end-users, rather than large orders of a small number of wholesale, corporate or government clientele. Shopping refers to the act of buying products. Sometimes this is done to obtain final goods, including necessities such as clothing. Recreational shopping involves window shopping and browsing: it does not always result in a purchase. Retail markets and shops have a ancient history, dating back to antiquity; some of the earliest retailers were itinerant peddlers. Over the centuries, retail shops were transformed from little more than "rude booths" to the sophisticated shopping malls of the modern era. Most modern retailers make a variety of strategic level decisions including the type of store, the market to be served, the optimal product assortment, customer service, supporting services and the store's overall market positioning.
Once the strategic retail plan is in place, retailers devise the retail mix which includes product, place, promotion and presentation. In the digital age, an increasing number of retailers are seeking to reach broader markets by selling through multiple channels, including both bricks and mortar and online retailing. Digital technologies are changing the way that consumers pay for goods and services. Retailing support services may include the provision of credit, delivery services, advisory services, stylist services and a range of other supporting services. Retail shops occur in a diverse range of types and in many different contexts – from strip shopping centres in residential streets through to large, indoor shopping malls. Shopping streets may restrict traffic to pedestrians only. Sometimes a shopping street has a partial or full roof to create a more comfortable shopping environment – protecting customers from various types of weather conditions such as extreme temperatures, winds or precipitation.
Forms of non-shop retailing include online mail order. The word retail comes from the Old French verb tailler, meaning "to cut off, pare, divide in terms of tailoring", it was first recorded as a noun in 1433 with the meaning of "a sale in small quantities" from the Middle French verb retailler meaning "a piece cut off, scrap, paring". At the present, the meaning of the word retail refers to the sale of small quantities of items to consumers. Retail refers to the activity of selling services directly to consumers or end-users; some retailers may sell to business customers, such sales are termed non-retail activity. In some jurisdictions or regions, legal definitions of retail specify that at least 80 percent of sales activity must be to end-users. Retailing occurs in retail stores or service establishments, but may occur through direct selling such as through vending machines, door-to-door sales or electronic channels. Although the idea of retail is associated with the purchase of goods, the term may be applied to service-providers that sell to consumers.
Retail service providers include retail banking, insurance, private healthcare, private education, private security firms, legal firms, public transport and others. For example, a tourism provider might have a retail division that books travel and accommodation for consumers plus a wholesale division that purchases blocks of accommodation, hospitality and sightseeing which are subsequently packaged into a holiday tour for sale to retail travel agents; some retailers badge their stores as "wholesale outlets" offering "wholesale prices." While this practice may encourage consumers to imagine that they have access to lower prices, while being prepared to trade-off reduced prices for cramped in-store environments, in a legal sense, a store that sells the majority of its merchandise direct to consumers, is defined as a retailer rather than a wholesaler. Different jurisdictions set parameters for the ratio of consumer to business sales that define a retail business. See also: History of merchants.
Archaeological evidence for trade involving barter systems, dates back more than 10,000 years. As civilizations grew, barter was replaced with retail trade involving coinage. Selling and buying are thought to have emerged in Asia Minor in around the 7th-millennium BCE. Gharipour points to evidence of primitive shops and trade centers in Sialk Hills in Kashan, Catalk Huyuk in modern-day Turkey and Susa. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, Assyria and Egypt; these markets occupied a place in the town's center. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied permanent premises in alleys that led to the open market-place; these artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days. In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, an open space where, on market days, goods were displayed on mats or temporary stalls. In ancient Rome, trade took place in the forum. Rome had two forums.
The latter was a vast expanse. The Roman forum was
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Sergio Mendes Fedee is a Saint Lucian cricketer who has played for the Windward Islands in West Indian domestic cricket. He plays as a left-handed middle-order batsman. Fedee was born in Unity Village, Guyana, to a Guyanese father and a Saint Lucian mother, moved to Saint Lucia as a child, he was named after the Brazilian musician Sérgio Mendes. Fedee made his senior debut in West Indian domestic cricket at the 2001–02 Red Stripe Bowl, representing the Northern Windward Islands team, competing on a once-off basis, his first-class debut came in February 2004, when he played for the full Windwards team in a Carib Beer Cup game against West Indies B. In 2006 and 2008, Fedee represented the Saint Lucian national team in the Stanford 20/20 tournament, he had little success, with his highest score being 17 runs from 28 balls against the Cayman Islands. Fedee's most recent match for the Windwards came in the 2011–12 Regional Four Day Competition, against Barbados. Since the end of his professional sporting career he has moved to London, United Kingdom and set up several successful companies specialising in Caribbean tourism.
Firstly The Travel Group, a sports and leisure company offering sports tours to some of the United Kingdoms leading boarding schools. Secondly Caribbean Elective, a company offering university students the opportunity to travel to the Caribbean in order to complete a work experience placement in their field of interest. Sergio founded Caribbean Elective in partnership with his business partner Harry Spear. Together they have grown the business which now operates across several Caribbean Islands including Barbados, Saint Lucia and Antigua. Sergio and Harry are considered responsible for the growth of the youth tourism sector in the Caribbean, since the success of Caribbean Elective together they have gone on to found True Caribbean Holidays a company focused on giving its customers authentic Caribbean experiences on their holidays. Player profile and statistics at CricketArchive Player profile and statistics at ESPNcricinfo