A reticle, or reticule known as a graticule, is a pattern of fine lines or markings built into the eyepiece of a sighting device, such as a telescopic sight in a telescope, a microscope, or the screen of an oscilloscope, to provide measurement references during visual examination. Today, engraved lines or embedded fibers may be replaced by a computer-generated image superimposed on a screen or eyepiece. Both terms may be used to describe any set of lines used for optical measurement, but in modern use reticle is most used for gunsights and such, while graticule is more used for the oscilloscope display, microscope slides, similar roles. There are many variations of reticles. Crosshairs are most represented as intersecting lines in the shape of a cross, "+", though many variations exist, including dots, circles, chevrons, or a combination of these. Most associated with telescopic sights for aiming firearms, crosshairs are common in optical instruments used for astronomy and surveying, are popular in graphical user interfaces as a precision pointer.
The reticle is said to have been invented by Robert Hooke, dates to the 17th century. Another candidate as inventor is the amateur astronomer William Gascoigne. Telescopic sights for firearms just called scopes, are the device most associated with crosshairs. Motion pictures and the media use a view through crosshairs as a dramatic device, which has given crosshairs wide cultural exposure. While the traditional thin crossing lines are the original and still the most familiar cross-hair shape, they are best suited for precision aiming at high contrast targets, as the thin lines are lost in complex backgrounds, such as those encountered while hunting. Thicker bars are much easier to discern against a complex background, but lack the precision of thin bars; the most popular types of cross-hair in modern scopes are variants on the duplex cross-hair, with bars that are thick on the perimeter and thin out in the middle. The thick bars allow the eye to locate the center of the reticle, the thin lines in the center allow for precision aiming.
The thin bars in a duplex reticle may be designed to be used as a measure. Called a 30/30 reticle, the thin bars on such a reticle span 30 minutes of arc, equal to 30 inches at 100 yards; this enables an experienced shooter to deduce, on the basis of the known size of an object in view, the range within an acceptable error limit. Crosshairs were constructed out of hair or spiderweb, these materials being sufficiently thin and strong. Many modern scopes use wire crosshairs, which can be flattened to various degrees to change the width; these wires are silver in color, but appear black when backlit by the image passing through the scope's optics. Wire reticles are by nature simple, as they require lines that pass all the way across the reticle, the shapes are limited to the variations in thickness allowed by flattening the wire; the advantage of wire crosshairs is that they are tough and durable, provide no obstruction to light passing through the scope. The first suggestion for etched glass reticles was made by Philippe de La Hire in 1700.
His method was based on engraving the lines on a glass plate with a diamond point. Many modern crosshairs are etched onto a thin plate of glass, which allows a far greater latitude in shapes. Etched glass reticles can have floating elements. A potential disadvantage of glass reticles is that they are less durable than wire crosshairs, the surface of the glass reflects some light lessening transmission through the scope, although this light loss is near zero if the glass is multicoated. Reticles may be illuminated, either by a plastic or fiber optic light pipe collecting ambient light or, in low light conditions, by a battery powered LED; some sights use the radioactive decay of tritium for illumination that can work for 11 years without using a battery, used in the British SUSAT sight for the SA80 assault rifle and in the American ACOG. Red is the most common color used, as it is the least destructive to the shooter's night vision, but some products use green or yellow illumination, either as a single colour or changeable via user selection.
A graticule is another term for reticle encountered in British and British military technical manuals, came into common use during World War One. The reticle may be located at rear focal plane of the telescopic sight. On fixed power telescopic sights there is no significant difference, but on variable power telescopic sights the front plane reticle remains at a constant size compared to the target, while rear plane reticles remain a constant size to the user as the target image grows and shrinks. Front focal plane reticles are more durable, but most American users prefer that the reticle remains constant as the image changes size, so nearly all modern American variable power telescopic sights are rear focal plane designs. American and European hig
Esquimalt—Juan de Fuca is a former federal electoral district in the province of British Columbia, represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1988 to 2015 It consisted of: the Esquimalt District Municipality and the City of Colwood. The riding was created in 1988 from Esquimalt—Saanich and Cowichan—Malahat—The Islands ridings; this riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Library of Parliament Riding Profile Expenditures - 2008 Expenditures - 2004 Expenditures – 2000 Expenditures – 1997 Website of the Parliament of Canada Map of riding archived by Elections Canada
Paul Curtman is a financial advisor, a former Marine and a Republican former member of the Missouri House of Representatives. He represented the 109th district, which includes parts of Franklin County, Jefferson County, St. Louis County, since 2011. Curtman was born to Judith and Dr. Charles Curtman in Flint, Michigan in 1981, he graduated from Pacific High School and joined the Marines in 1999. Curtman obtained the rank of Sergeant and spent four years on active duty and six years in the reserves. While in the reserves he obtained a degree in political science from the University of Missouri–St. Louis. Curtman became certified as a series 7 Investment Representative and got a job as a financial advisor at a major investment firm, he is a member of the Cornerstone Baptist Church and is the assistant youth director. Curtman decided to run for the state house in 2010, he was unopposed in the Republican primary and faced incumbent representative Michael Frame in the general election. He won with 56.6% of the vote.
Joint Committee on Government Accountability Ways and Means Economic Development Downsizing State Government On October 24, 2017, Curtman announced he would seek the Republican nomination for State Auditor of Missouri in the 2018 election cycle to unseat Democratic incumbent Nicole Galloway, appointed by Governor Jay Nixon. PaulCurtman.net Official Missouri House of Representatives profile Interest Group Ratings Campaign Finance Information
Maria Bashir is a prosecutor based in Afghanistan, the only woman to hold such a position in the country as of 2009. With more than fifteen years of experience with Afghan civil service - the Taliban, corrupt policemen, death threats, failed assassination attempts - she has seen them all, she was banned from working during the Taliban period, when she spent her time schooling girls illegally at her residence, when it was illegal for women to be seen unescorted by men on the streets. In the post-Taliban era, she was called back into service, was made the Chief Prosecutor General of Herat Province in 2006. With her main focus on eradicating corruption and oppression of women, she has handled around 87 cases in 2010 alone. Recognising her work, the United States Department of State, presented her The International Women of Courage Award, awarded annually to women around the world who have shown leadership, courage and willingness to sacrifice for others for better promotion of women's rights at risk to their own lives.
Bashir featured in the 2011 Time 100, an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world composed by Time. Bashir, the eldest child in her family, was a bright student right from her school days, she received encouragement from her late father to further her studies beyond school level, in a country, restrictive in its attitude towards women. When the entrance exams for her Graduate schooling required her to choose three options, she filled the application with'Law' under all of them; the Minister for Higher Education, who screens and approves the applications, was impressed by her determination and approved her to study law. She graduated in 1994 with a four-year course in Law at Kabul University and underwent a year-long training in Kabul as a prosecutor. In 1996, after graduation, Bashir married the owner of an import business based in China, moved to his city, Herat. Bashir has a daughter; the eldest son studies in Germany, other two are being home schooled, as death threats directed at Bashir and her family make formal schooling difficult.
After her training, Bashir started her career in the Attorney General's office as a Criminal Investigator in Kabul, in Herat. Shortly after her move to Herat, in 1995, the Taliban occupied the city and stopped women from working. Bashir had to stay indoors, like other women, until 2001, when the American invasion enabled women to start working again, at which time she resumed her previous role as Criminal Investigator; the Taliban made ensuring that they remained dependent on men. Bashir started schooling them underground, at her residence, with students smuggling books and other items necessary for their studies inside shopping bags, she believed that the Taliban regime would fall, wanted women to be ready to join the workforce when this happened. The Taliban were aware of her activities, they summoned her husband twice to explain what she was doing. In September, 2006, the Attorney General, regarded as a conservative, visited Herat, for a meeting with prosecutors from four provinces. Bashir was the only woman present.
At the end of his speech, she questioned his policy to improve the Prosecutor's office in relation to allowing women to work there. The Attorney General expressed his approval on the latter, expressed pleasure with her work as assistant prosecutor in the investigation into the death of the Afghan poet and journalist Nadia Anjuman: wherein she had brought murder charges against Nadia's husband. Before leaving Herat in the month, the Attorney General had appointed Bashir as the Chief Prosecutor General of the province. Bashir's appointment was welcomed by the US Government as significant progress in its Westernization of the country after Taliban rule; the US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice flew Bashir to Washington to honour the progress. Bashir, was critical: stating that though the new constitution provided equal rights to women, many judges still subscribed to the old Islamic Sharia Law. After stating that the lack of freedom women have to choose their partners, she noted that while men are not tried for adultery, women were still being stoned to death for similar charges.
Commenting on the biased divorce process and the way husbands win custody of children, she said women preferred suicide to the latter. Briefing more on the prevailing corruption issues in Afghanistan, she suggested a structural reorganisation, with an end to appointing people based on their ethnicity, as was being done by Hamid Karzai, she recommended that the anti corruption efforts can only be successful if they are coupled with salary increases for the public servants, as the meagre salaries that they receive now forces them to look'elsewhere' to supplement them. She showed her concern on the lack of enforcing power of the laws, which makes the legal system powerless. Bashir's appointment was not taken well for her being a woman. Added to it were the anti corruption activities and her emboldening the women victims of domestic abuse to take their husbands to court, she started calling for her resignation. Some Herat based clerics issued a fatwa on unescorted women in public places; this alarmed Bashir.
But the state authorities paid no heed to her requests and in 2007, a bomb exploded outside her home, around the time when her children would be playing outside. It was raining and hence her children were indoors. Seeing the threats to her life, the American government hired armed guards and provided her with an armed land cruiser. In another incident, one of her body
Typhochrestus is a genus of sheet weavers, first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884. As of June 2019 it contains thirty-seven species, found in Europe, North America, on Greenland: Typhochrestus acoreensis Wunderlich, 1992 – Azores Typhochrestus alticola Denis, 1953 – France Typhochrestus berniae Bosmans, 2008 – Spain Typhochrestus bifurcatus Simon, 1884 – Spain, Algeria Typhochrestus bogarti Bosmans, 1990 – Portugal, France, Morocco Typhochrestus brucei Tullgren, 1955 – Sweden Typhochrestus chiosensis Wunderlich, 1995 – Greece, Turkey Typhochrestus ciliiunti Barrientos & Febrer, 2018 – Spain Typhochrestus curvicervix – Tunisia Typhochrestus cyrenanius Denis, 1964 – Libya Typhochrestus digitatus – Europe, North Africa Typhochrestus djellalensis Bosmans & Bouragba, 1992 – Algeria Typhochrestus dubius Denis, 1950 – France Typhochrestus epidaurensis Wunderlich, 1995 – Greece Typhochrestus fortunatus Thaler, 1984 – Canary Is. Typhochrestus hesperius Thaler, 1984 – Canary Is. Typhochrestus ikarianus Tanasevitch, 2011 – Greece Typhochrestus inflatus Thaler, 1980 – Switzerland, Italy, Caucasus Typhochrestus longisulcus Gnelitsa, 2006 – Ukraine Typhochrestus madeirensis Crespo, 2013 – Madeira Typhochrestus mauretanicus Bosmans, 1990 – Morocco, Algeria Typhochrestus meron Tanasevitch, 2013 – Israel Typhochrestus montanus Wunderlich, 1987 – Canary Is.
Typhochrestus numidicus Bosmans, 1990 – Algeria Typhochrestus paradorensis Wunderlich, 1987 – Canary Is. Typhochrestus pekkai Bosmans & Oger, 2014 – France Typhochrestus penevi Komnenov, 2014 – Macedonia Typhochrestus pygmaeus – Canada, Greenland Typhochrestus sardus Bosmans, 2008 – Sardinia Typhochrestus simoni Lessert, 1907 – Europe Typhochrestus sireti Bosmans, 2008 – Spain Typhochrestus spatulatus Bosmans, 1990 – Morocco, Algeria Typhochrestus splendidus Bosmans, 1990 – Algeria Typhochrestus sylviae Hauge, 1968 – Norway Typhochrestus uintanus – USA Typhochrestus ultimus Bosmans, 1990 – Algeria Typhochrestus virilis Bosmans, 1990 – Algeria List of Linyphiidae species
Herman A. "Bud" Millikan was the head coach of the University of Maryland Terrapins men's basketball team from 1950 to 1967. He compiled a 243–182 record; the former coach died on January 28, 2010 at the age of 89. Millikan was born in Maryville and played on the Maryville High School basketball team that won the 1937 Missouri State High School Basketball Championship at a time when there were no divisions in state tournament play, he married his high school sweetheart Maxine. Millikan followed Henry Iba who had coached at Northwest Missouri State University while Millikan was growing up in Maryville to Oklahoma A&M. At Oklahoma State He was an "All American", president of the student body and captain of the baseball and basketball teams, he was an assistant coach to Iba in its 1944 National Championship team. Iba gave him the nickname of "Buddy", shortened to "Bud." Millikan, a member of the Oklahoma State ROTC did not serve in World War II because of asthma. He returned to coach at Maryville High School and other schools in Iowa.
Iba arranged the meeting. After Iba returned to Missouri after the interview it was announced on the radio that Millikan had accepted an offer from Southwest Missouri State University although in fact he had not formally accepted the offer but it prompted Maryland to tell him they could pay him more. Among his players at Maryland were Gary Williams and Joe Harrington. Williams in his autobiography “Sweet Redemption” wrote, “I played for a first-rate coach in Bud Millikan, but after that, nothing was first-rate in the Maryland basketball program…You couldn’t play for Bud Millikan unless you were willing to play hard on the defensive end of the court. In practice, we would practice two and half hours of defense and spend about ten minutes on offense.” According to the Daytona Beach Morning Journal, Millikan was "praised for his coaching ability but criticized as a recruiter of talent."He coached the team to an NCAA Elite 8 appearance in 1958. During his time Cole Field House was built. Millikan did not like the size of the field house saying at one point "It's like playing on a neutral court" with seats too far from the courts.
His successor Lefty Driesell added a few thousand seats around the court raising the hometown decibel level. Every senior who played for him graduated from the school, he imposed a discipline where players were required wear the team blazer when traveling and in warm-ups players wore towels around their necks in an ascot-like manner. Millikan was replaced by his assistant, Frank Fellows, he died in Roswell, Georgia