Retirement is the withdrawal from one's position or occupation or from one's active working life. A person may semi-retire by reducing work hours. An increasing number of individuals are choosing to put off this point of total retirement, by selecting to exist in the emerging state of pre-tirement; some people who have retired from a position with a pre-nominal title military officers, are listed with a post-nominal indicating retirement, e.g. "Admiral John Smith". Many people choose to retire when they are eligible for private or public pension benefits, although some are forced to retire when bodily conditions no longer allow the person to work any longer or as a result of legislation concerning their position. In most countries, the idea of retirement is of recent origin, being introduced during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Low life expectancy and the absence of pension arrangements meant that most workers continued to work until death. Germany was the first country to introduce retirement benefits in 1889.

Nowadays, most developed countries have systems to provide pensions on retirement in old age, funded by employers or the state. In many poorer countries there is no support for. Today, retirement with a pension is considered a right of the worker in many societies. In many western countries, this is a right embodied in national constitutions. Retirement, or the practice of leaving one's job or ceasing to work after reaching a certain age, has been around since around the 18th century. Prior to the 18th century, humans had an average life expectancy between 40 years. In consequence, only a small percentage of the population reached an age where physical impairments began to be obstacles to working. Countries began to adopt government policies on retirement during the late 19th century and the 20th century, beginning in Germany under Otto von Bismarck. A person may retire. However, a country's tax laws or state old-age pension rules mean that in a given country a certain age is thought of as the "standard" retirement age.

As life expectancy increases and more and more people live to an advanced age, in many countries the age at which a pension is awarded has been increased in the 21st century progressively. The "standard" retirement age varies from country to country but it is between 50 and 70. In some countries this age is different for men and women, although this has been challenged in some countries, in some countries the ages are being brought into line; the table below shows the variation in eligibility ages for public old-age benefits in the United States and many European countries, according to the OECD. The retirement age in many countries is increasing starting in the 2010s and continuing until the late 2020s. Notes: Parentheses indicate eligibility age for women when different. Sources: Cols. 1–2: OECD Pensions at a Glance, Cols. 3–6: Tabulations from HRS, ELSA and SHARE. Square brackets indicate early retirement for some public employees. 1 In Denmark, early retirement is called efterløn and there are some requirements to be met.

Early and normal retirement ages vary according to the date of birth of the person filing for retirement.2 In France, the retirement age was 60, with full pension entitlement at 65. In the United States, while the normal retirement age for Social Security, or Old Age Survivors Insurance was age 65 to receive unreduced benefits, it is increasing to age 67 by 2027. Public servants are not covered by Social Security but have their own pension programs. Police officers in the United States may retire at half pay after 20 years of service, or three-quarter pay after 30 years, allowing retirement from the early forties. Military members of the US Armed Forces may elect to retire after 20 years of active duty, their retirement pay is calculated on number of years on active duty, final pay grade and the retirement system in place when they entered service. Members awarded. Retirement pay for military members in US National Guard is based on a point system. Recent advances in data collection have vastly improved our ability to understand important relationships between retirement and factors such as health, employment characteristics and family dynamics, among others.

The most prominent study for examining retirement behavior in the United States is the ongoing Health and Retirement Study, first fielded in 1992. The HRS is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adults in the U. S. ages 51+, conducted every two years, contains a wealth of information on such topics as labor force participation, financial variables, family characteristics and a host of other topics (e.g. expectations, internet use, risk taking, psychosocial


Moneycorp is an international company offering foreign exchange and global payment services to individual and corporate customers. It operates in a number of countries and provides bulk foreign notes and travel money services via a number of travel companies and airlines; the company was established in 1962 and was known as Town Tickets and Tours Limited. It changed its name to TTT Moneycorp Limited in April 1993 and changed this to moneycorp, dropping the TTT as part of a rebranding in 2008. In April 1979 moneycorp obtained a licence from the Bank of England to operate bureaux de change in Central London. Since the company has expanded into numerous airports, offering physical banknotes to travelers. Moneycorp can be found at Gatwick, Bristol and Southend airport. In December 2006 the Royal Bank of Scotland Special Opportunities Fund became a significant shareholder in the Group, as it purchased a stake from the Shlewet Family Trust, the company's former owners, becoming the sole institutional investor in the Group, with a total shareholding of 99.9% in November 2011.

After 8 years moneycorp was bought by Bridgepoint for £212 million. Since its acquisition by Bridgepoint, moneycorp has undergone a period of international expansion. In August 2015 the company bought a 45% stake in Brazilian currency company Novo Mundo Corretora de Câmbio. Moneycorp has since acquired a majority stake in the Brazilian business. In 2016, whilst celebrating the company's Corporate International Payments business experiencing revenue growth of 28% on the year prior, Nick Haslehurst, CFOO at moneycorp said: “moneycorp’s appetite for overseas expansion is stronger than ever.” In 2016, moneycorp acquired a Gibraltar banking license, leading to the establishment of moneycorp bank. This step was described by moneycorp's CFOO as important in enabling "moneycorp to continue its controlled growth within our existing international markets but support expansion into new markets with stable economies and strong cross-border payments." In London, moneycorp bought the Canary Wharf-based firm, First Rate FX.

Ltd, operating in the foreign exchange industry for 13 years. First Rate FX operate in Dubai, allowing moneycorp the ability to expand their operations in the region. In May 2018, the company acquired US-based corporate international payments business, Commonwealth Foreign Exchange Inc.moneycorp's focus has been on updating their technological offering in recent years, as well as utilising new technology for payments customers. Moneycorp's partners include, The Guardian, CNN, The Telegraph, Sainsburys Bank & G4S. Another source of differentiation for the company has been its focus on security. Moneycorp state that they offer their clients: Sophisticated financial crime monitoring systems Bank grade compliance Fast and automated payment allocation Segregation of client funds The company headquarters are in Victoria, London, UK, with additional offices around the UK and in Ireland, Portugal, the United States, Romania, Hong Kong and Brazil; the company is split into a number of trading divisions, including: Commercial Foreign Exchange - established in 1999, it provides foreign exchange to businesses and individuals, with spot and forward currency delivery, currency options and priority worldwide payments.

Bureau de change - the company operates 35 bureaux de change branches. At airports, including London Gatwick, shopping areas in city centers. Wholesale Banknotes - provides banknotes to businesses and FX providers in the Greater London area. Clients are split across several categories, including: banks, bureaux de change, government bodies, high-street retailers, money transfer businesses and corporate clients. Moneycorp Bank - offering a multi-currency bank account, a platform aimed at simplifying the process of making international payments. Moneycorp US Inc - responsible for the running of the US business. Moneycorp has a money transmitter licence in 46 US states; the purchase of Commonwealth FX gave it a presence in cities including San Francisco, New York City and Washington DC. TTT moneycorp - trading division that encompasses branches in Ireland, Spain and Romania. Moneycorp PTY - the trading division governing the company's operations in Australia, meeting certain regulations that are specific to the country.

Moneycorp FRM - standing for'Financial Risk Management,' moneycorp FRM is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority for the conduct of designated investment business, namely options products and other derivatives. Between them, these divisions offer clients: International Payments, offering prices from an e-auction of a pool of 14+ banks E-wallets Complex FX Structured Products Wholesale Banknotes Deposit Taking Interest-bearing accounts PrePaid integrated MasterCards moneycorp states that it services private clients, businesses looking to make mass payments, banks/financial institutions, importers/exporters, online sellers and offers a bespoke white label service; as of 31 December 2018, moneycorp was authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority for the provision of payment services. Moneycorp is registered as a Money Service Business with HM Revenue and Customs under the Money Laundering Regulations. Moneycorp Financial Risk Management Limited is authorised and regulated by the FCA for the conduct of designated investment business.moneycorp has an E-money licence issued in the EEA, as well as a bank licence.

In Hong Kong, the company is a licensed MSB, it holds a DIFC license in UAE. It is licensed in Australia through being an Agent of an ASIC, whilst it is licensed by BACEN in Brazil.

Pope Gabriel VII of Alexandria

Pope Gabriel VII of Alexandria was the 95th Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of the See of St. Mark, he was born in the area around the monastery of El-Mouharraq, at a young age he became a monk in the wilderness at the Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great. Known for his good conduct and great holiness, he was ordained Patriarch in 1525 A. D. following the death of Pope John XIII. Gabriel's patriarchate witnessed the early years of Ottoman rule in Egypt. Gabriel was patriarch for more than forty years; some of his important accomplishments were the renovation of the monasteries of Saint Anthony, Saint Paul, the first hermit, in the Eastern desert, the monastery of El-Mouharraq in Upper Egypt. Some people in authority asked him to approve things against the welfare of his flock; the Pope chose to leave his Chair and he went to the Monastery of Saint Anthony, for he desired to keep what the Lord said: "Greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends."

The Lord examined him but he endured thankfully, received the blessing that the Lord gave for those persecuted for the sake of righteousness. Pope Gabriel died in 1570 following a brief illness. GeneralMeinardus, Otto F. A.. Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity. American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-977-424-757-6. Atiya, Aziz S; the Coptic Encyclopedia. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. 1991. ISBN 0-02-897025-X The Official website of the Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy See of Saint Mark the Apostle Coptic Documents in French