Hudson Motor Car Company
The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson and other brand automobiles in Detroit, from 1909 to 1954. In 1954, Hudson merged with Nash-Kelvinator to form American Motors Corporation; the Hudson name was continued through the 1957 model year. The name "Hudson" came from Joseph L. Hudson, a Detroit department store entrepreneur and founder of Hudson's department store, who provided the necessary capital and gave permission for the company to be named after him. A total of eight Detroit businessmen formed the company on February 20, 1909, to produce an automobile which would sell for less than US$1,000. One of the chief "car men" and organizer of the company was Roy D. Chapin, Sr. a young executive who had worked with Ransom E. Olds.. The company started production, with the first car driven out of a small factory in Detroit on July 3, 1909 at Mack Avenue and Beaufait Street in Detroit, occupying the old Aerocar factory; the new Hudson "Twenty" was one of the first low-priced cars on the American market and successful with more than 4,000 sold the first year.
The 4,508 units made in 1910 was the best first year's production in the history of the automobile industry and put the newly formed company in 17th place industry-wide, "a remarkable achievement at a time" when there were hundreds of makes being marketed. Successful sales volume required a larger factory. A new facility was built on a 22-acre parcel at Jefferson Avenue and Conner Avenue in Detroit's Fairview section, diagonally across from the Chalmers Automobile plant; the land was the former farm of D. J. Campau; until the late 1920s, bodies for Hudson cars were built by Smart. On 1 July 1926, Hudson's new $10 million body plant was completed where the automaker could now build the all-steel closed bodies for both the Hudson and Essex models, it was designed by the firm of renowned industrial architect Albert Kahn with 223,500 square feet and opened on October 29, 1910. Production in 1911 increased to 6,486. For 1914 Hudsons for the American market were now left hand drive; the company had a number of firsts for the auto industry.
The Super Six was the first engine built by Hudson Hudson had developed engine designs and had them manufactured by Continental Motors Company. Most Hudsons until 1957 had straight-6 engines; the dual brake system used a secondary mechanical emergency brake system, which activated the rear brakes when the pedal traveled beyond the normal reach of the primary system. Hudson transmissions used an oil bath and cork clutch mechanism that proved to be as durable as it was smooth. At their peak in 1929, Hudson and Essex produced a combined 300,000 cars in one year, including contributions from Hudson's other factories in Belgium and England. Hudson was the third largest U. S. car maker that year, after Ford Motor Company and Chevrolet. In 1919, Hudson introduced the Essex brand line of automobiles; the Essex found great success by offering one of the first affordable sedans, combined Hudson and Essex sales moved from seventh in the U. S. to third by 1925. In 1932, Hudson began phasing out its Essex nameplate for the modern Terraplane brand name.
The new line was launched on July 1932, with a promotional christening by Amelia Earhart. For 1932 and 1933, the restyled cars were named Essex-Terraplane. Hudson began assembling cars in Canada, contracting Canada Top and Body to build the cars in their Tilbury, plant. In England Terraplanes built at the Brentford factory were still being advertised in 1938. An optional accessory on some 1935-1938 Hudson and Terraplane models was a steering column-mounted electric gear pre-selector and electro-mechanical automatic shifting system, known as the "Electric Hand", manufactured by the Bendix Corporation; this required conventional clutch actions. Cars equipped with Electric Hand carried a conventional shift lever in clips under the dash, which could be pulled out and put to use in case the Electric Hand should fail. Hudson was noted for offering an optional vacuum-powered automatic clutch, starting in the early 1930s. For the 1930 model year Hudson debuted a new flathead inline eight cylinder engine with block and Crankcase cast as a unit and fitted with two cylinder heads.
A 2.75 inch bore and 4.5 inch stroke displaced 218.8 cubic inches developing 80 horsepower at 3,600 rpm with the standard 5.78:1 compression ratio. The 5-main bearing crankshaft had 8 integral counterweights, an industry first, employed a Lanchester vibration damper. Four rubber blocks were used at engine mount points. A valveless oil pump improved the Hudson splash lubrication system; the new eights were the only engine offering in the Hudson line, supplanting the Super Six, which soldiered on in the Essex models. At the 1931 Indianapolis 500, Buddy Marr's #27 Hudson Special finished tenth. In 1936, Hudson revamped its cars, introducing a new "radial safe
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Georges Paulin was a dentist, noted automobile designer and hero of the French Resistance during the Second World War. Born 1902 in a working class section of Paris, Paulin would design the 1935 Peugeot 601 C Eclipse, the first production retractable hardtop convertible. Between 1934 and 1938, he was the designer for French coachbuilder Marcel Pourtout. Among his designs were a Panhard coupe, a Unic cabriolet, a Delage D8, the "water drop" Talbot-Lago, the Darl'mat Peugeot roadsters used in 1937 and 1938 at Le Mans. Richard Adatto, author of a book on French aerodynamic styling of the era, said "Paulin became the leading French stylist of the time... Everything he touched was designed with aerodynamics in mind, he was conscious of fuel efficiencies and the aerodynamic efficiencies that could be created by the lines of the car. You could go faster, which meant you could put a smaller engine in the car and it could go faster though it was a small car."Pourtout, Emile Darl'mat, Paulin collaborated in the creation of the revolutionary Eclipse roof, the first power-operated retractable hardtop, patented by Paulin in 1931 and in 1934 was used in the Peugeot 402BL Éclipse Décapotable, a small coupe.
Carrosserie Pourtout produced Eclipse versions of the Peugeot 301, 401, 402 and 601, the Lancia Belna, models from Hotchkiss and Panhard. From 1938 to 1939, he worked for Rolls-Royce-Bentley. For them he designed the Corniche 1 in the Comet Competition. Additionally, he designed one of the most significant pre-war Derby Bentleys, the Embiricos Bentley B27LE, built again by Pourtout; this car departed from standard Bentley practice, by not using the standard Bentley grille, in favor of hiding it behind a streamlined grille. Amazingly this car was entered in the 1949 Le Mans 24 heures du Mans where it finished 6th overall and entered the two subsequent races finishing 14th and 22nd, with over 120,000 miles on the odometer. From an automobile, purchased in 1993, restored as a 100 point chassis, Gary Moore from California created a roadster, based upon Paulin's design, B25GP which will be displayed next to its predecessor at Pebble in 2019 - Bentley's centennial; this automobile took over 14 years to complete with some of California's master craftsman weighing in with buck fabrication, metalwork and interior finishing.
In July 1940, while he was an engineer at Avions Kellner-Béchereau, Georges Paulin began working with British Intelligence to fight the Nazis. Discovered by the Gestapo thanks to French Vichy elements he was arrested in 1941 and condemned to death by a German military tribunal, he was executed March 1942. An escape plan had been arranged by the British, but Paulin declined to use it, sacrificed himself in order to protect his team, he was posthumously awarded the Croix de Guerre and the Médaille de la Résistance by the French government. The Kellner Affair: Matters of Life and Death by Peter M. Larsen and Ben Erickson. Details Jacques Kellner and George Paulin involvement in the French Resistance. Photographs of a 1938 Peugeot 402 Éclipse Décapotable Designed for Rolls Royce, the Corniche on the Bentley MK V chassis
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
The trunk, dickie or compartment of a car is the vehicle's main storage compartment. The trunk or luggage compartment is most located at the rear of the vehicle. Early designs included an exterior rack mounted on the rear of the vehicle to which it was possible to attach a real luggage trunk. Designs integrated the storage area into the vehicle's body and evolved to provide a streamlined appearance; the main storage compartment is provided at the end of the vehicle opposite to which the engine is located. Some mid-engined or electric cars have luggage compartments both in the front and in the rear of the vehicle. Examples include the Volkswagen Type 3, Porsche 914, Porsche Boxster, Toyota MR2, Tesla Model S; the mid-engined Fiat X1/9 has two storage compartments, although the rear one is small accessible, cuboid in shape. Rear-engined cars have the trunk situated in front of the passenger compartment. Sometimes during the design life of the vehicle the lid may be restyled to increase the size or improve the practicality and usefulness of the trunk's shape.
Examples of this include the Beetle redesign to the 1970s'Super Beetle' and the pre-war and 1950s post war Citroën Traction Avant. The door or opening of a cargo area may be hinged at side, or bottom. If the door is hinged at the bottom it is termed a tailgate in the United States, they are used on station wagons and pickup trucks, as well as on some sport utility vehicles. Traditional drop-down station wagon and pickup tailgates can serve as a mount for a workbench. Traditional U. S. station wagons included a roll down window retracting into the tailgate to load small items or to allow the tailgate to be opened down on its bottom mounted hinges. Because of the potential for carbon-monoxide fumes, the tailgate window on station wagons should be closed whenever the engine is running. Two-way station wagon tailgates may be hinged at the side and the bottom so they can be opened sideways like a regular door, or drop downwards as load platform extenders, they are designed with special handle for opening in the selected direction on special hinges after the window is lowered.
A three-way design, used by Ford allows for the tailgate to be opened like a door with the window up. General Motors developed a clam shell style "disappearing" design where the rear window rolls up into the roof and the tailgate slides down and beneath the load floor. If the door is hinged at the top it is termed a hatch, is used on a hatchback. A bottom opening door is now common on sport utility vehicles; the trunk lid is the cover that allows access to the main luggage compartment. Hinges allow the lid to be raised. Devices such as a manually positioned prop rod can keep the panel up in the open position. Counterbalancing torsion or other spring can be used to help elevate and hold open the trunk lid. On cars with their trunk in the rear, lids sometimes incorporate. A rear lid may have a decorative air spoiler. On many modern cars, the trunk lids can be unlocked with the car's key fob. In 1950, Ford introduced a trigger catch to allow for one-handed lifting until the trunk lid was automatically caught in the open position.
In 1952, Buick marketed its counterbalanced trunk lid that "practically raises itself" and the automatic locking mechanism. In 1956, the Packard "Predictor" show car designed by Richard A. Teague debuted at the Chicago Auto Show featuring innovations such as a power operated trunk lid. In 1958, the remote activated electric trunk release was introduced by U. S. automakers in production vehicles. The 1965 AMC Cavalier concept car featured a trunk lid with dual-action, scissor-type hinges allowing the panel to be opened like a normal trunk lid, or to be horizontally elevated to the height of the car's roof line for greater utility when hauling large and bulky items. Both the hood and trunk lid were made from identical stampings and interchangeable; the locking of the trunk may be achieved together with the passenger compartment. Some cars include a function to remotely open the trunk; this may be achieved through a variety of means: release of the latch whereby the doorseals push the decklid away from the lock, the trunk is open, the lid may not have revealed the opening.
Release of the latch whereby a spring pushes the decklid away from the lock and open, the trunk is open, the lid reveals the opening. Release of the latch and actuation of a drive, whether hydraulic or electric, which pushes the decklid away from the lock; this may be electrically closed again. The usage of the word "trunk" comes from it being the word for a large travelling chest, as such trunks were attached to the back of the vehicle before the development of integrated storage compartments in the 1930s; the usage of the word "dickie" comes from the British word for a rumble seat, as such seats were used for luggage before cars had integrated storage. In France, from 1900 onwards, the luggage maker Moynat became the indisputable market leader in automobile luggage, for which the house developed a number of patented products including the rear-attached limousine trunk with custom fitted suitcases. In 1928 came the side or lateral slidi
The Lancia Augusta is a small passenger car produced by Italian car manufacturer Lancia between 1933 and 1936. It made its première at the 1932 Paris Motor Show; the car was powered by a 1,196 cc Lancia V4 engine. During the 1920s, Lancia had been known as producers of sports cars and middle sized sedans: the smaller Augusta represented a departure from that tradition, contributed to a significant growth in Lancia's unit sales during the 1930s. In terms of volumes sold, the Augusta was overwhelmed by Fiat's much more aggressively priced 508 Ballila. Lancia started its French operations on 1 October 1931. At its first factory outside of Italy, at Bonneuil-sur-Marne, Lancia built the Augusta and Aprilia models, although named them Belna and Ardennes. 3,000 Augusta/Belna and 1,500 Aprilia/Ardennes were built. Of the 3,000 Belnas built between 1934 and 1938, 2,500 were saloons and 500 bare chassis. Georges Paulin had invented the retractable hardtop and subsequently sold it to French coachbuilder Marcel Pourtout.
Carrosserie Pourtout built several models based on the French-built Lancia Belna. Lancisti.net — Community for Lancia owners and enthusiasts Article on the 75th anniversary of the Augusta/Belna, with period and contemporary images of the French factory