Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The demoscene is an international computer art subculture focused on producing demos: self-contained, sometimes small, computer programs that produce audio-visual presentations. The purpose of a demo is to show off programming, visual art, musical skills. Demos and other demoscene productions are shared at festivals known as demoparties, voted on by those who attend, released online; the demoscene's roots are in the home computer revolution of the late 1970s, the subsequent advent of software cracking. Crackers altered the code of video games to remove copy protection, claiming credit by adding introduction screens of their own, they soon started competing for the best visual presentation of these additions. Through the making of intros and stand-alone demos, a new community evolved, independent of the gaming and software sharing scenes. Prior to the popularity of IBM PC compatibles, most home computers of a given line had little variance in their basic hardware, which made their capabilities identical.
Therefore, the variations among demos created for one computer line were attributed to programming alone, rather than one computer having better hardware. This created a competitive environment in which demoscene groups would try to outperform each other in creating outstanding effects, to demonstrate why they felt one machine was better than another. Demo writers went to great lengths to get every last bit of performance out of their target machine. Where games and application writers were concerned with the stability and functionality of their software, the demo writer was interested in how many CPU cycles a routine would consume and, more how best to squeeze great activity onto the screen. Writers went so far as to exploit known hardware errors to produce effects that the manufacturer of the computer had not intended; the perception that the demo scene was going to extremes and charting new territory added to its draw. There are several categories demos are informally classified into, the most important being the division between freeform demos and size-restricted intros, a difference visible in the competitions of nearly any demo party.
The most typical competition categories for intros are the 64K intro and the 4K intro, where the size of the executable file is restricted to 65536 and 4096 bytes, respectively. In other competitions the choice of platform is restricted; such restrictions provide a challenge for coders and graphics artists, to make a device do more than was intended in its original design. The earliest computer programs that have some resemblance to demos and demo effects can be found among the so-called display hacks. Display hacks predate the demoscene by several decades, with the earliest examples dating back to the early 1950s. Demos in the demoscene sense began as software crackers' "signatures", that is, crack screens and crack intros attached to software whose copy protection was removed; the first crack screens appeared on the Apple II in the late 1970s and early 1980s, they were nothing but plain text screens crediting the cracker or their group. These static screens evolved into impressive-looking introductions containing animated effects and music.
Many cracker groups started to release intro-like programs separately, without being attached to unlicensed software. These programs were known by various names, such as letters or messages, but they came to be known as demos. In 1980, Inc. began using a looping demo with visual effects and music to show off the features of the Atari 400/800 computers in stores. At the 1985 Consumer Electronics Show, Atari showed a demoscene-style demo for its latest 8-bit computers that alternated between a 3D walking robot and a flying spaceship, each with its own music, animating larger objects than seen on those systems; the program was released to the public. In 1985, a large, checkered ball—casting a translucent shadow—was the signature demo of what the hardware was capable of when Commodore's Amiga was announced. Simple demo-like music collections were put together on the C64 in 1985 by Charles Deenen, inspired by crack intros, using music taken from games and adding some homemade color graphics. In the following year the movement now known as the demoscene was born.
The Dutch groups 1001 Crew and The Judges, both Commodore 64-based, are mentioned as the earliest demo groups. Whilst competing with each other in 1986, they both produced pure demos with original graphics and music involving more than just casual work, used extensive hardware trickery. At the same time demos from others, such as Antony Crowther, had started circulating on Compunet in the United Kingdom. On the ZX Spectrum, Castor Cracking Group released their first demo called Castor Intro in 1986; the ZX Spectrum demo scene was slow to start, but it started to rise in the late 1980s, most noticeably in Eastern Europe. The demoscene is a European phenomenon, is predominantly male, it is a competition-oriented subculture, with groups and individual artists competing against each other in technical and artistic excellence. Those who achieve excellence are dubbed "elite", while those who do not follow the demoscene's implicit rules are called "lamers". Both this competitiveness and the sense of cooperation among demosceners have led to comparisons with
Space Invaders Extreme
Space Invaders Extreme is a re-vamped incarnation of the classic arcade game Space Invaders. The DS and PSP versions were released to mark the 30th anniversary of Space Invaders which saw its original arcade release in 1978. An HD version of the game has been remastered by Backbone Entertainment for Xbox Live Arcade with new four-player multiplayer modes and visualizer backgrounds by Jeff Minter, it was released on May 6, 2009 as a wrap-up to the 30th anniversary; the game is played at a fast pace with sound effects. A sequel for the DS titled Space Invaders Extreme 2 was released in Japan on 26 March 2009, North America on 20 October 2009, Europe on 2 October 2009. Space Invaders Extreme was released for Steam in North America on 13 February 2018, to mark the 40th anniversary of Space Invaders, with a price of $19.99, but was discounted by 10% for the first week. The second game to be released for the 40th anniversary will be Groove Coaster on Steam; the player controls a cannon at the bottom of the display - this can move left or right and fire.
To the top of the display formations of invaders appear - these must be shot for points and to avoid them destroying the players' cannon. Sometimes a UFO will traverse the top of the screen; this is the same basic design as Space Invaders. Sometimes there are only a handful of invaders in a tight formation, sometimes individual invaders advance down the screen separately from the main formation, sometimes a boss level will be encountered consisting of a large invader and various guards; the invaders themselves have individual properties, such as firing lasers, splitting into duplicates or charging for the ground after being hit once. Bonuses for higher scores can be obtained by doing as instructed by words that flash up on the background, such as hitting invaders of a particular color or particular type. Shooting four invaders of the same color in a row awards one of four power-ups. If a different set of four is shot afterwards, a flashing UFO will appear. Shooting that accesses the Bonus Round, in which a player is given a short time to complete a certain goal, such as defeating so many aliens.
If the task is completed, the game enters'Fever Time', awarding the player with an more powerful up for a short time, allowing the player to get through waves of enemies faster. Getting different combinations of colors can reap different bonuses, such as a roulette UFO that offers bonuses such as Freeze and Extra Player, changing all the aliens to the same color, or turning all enemies turn into UFOs that reap power ups after one hit; the main game sees the player go through 5 stages, depending on the score he/she managed to achieve at the end of the level 2 and beyond, he/she can opt for an easier or harder route, with a total of 11 individual stages. Arcade Mode features a save and retry feature that allows players to continue and restart the game from the level they were on. Ranking mode does not feature these options, but allows the player to post his/her score on the online leaderboards. Stage Mode allows the player to replay any stage. Once the main game has been cleared once, Extreme Mode is unlocked.
Extreme mode is only 5 stages long with no branching paths, since they are more difficult than the regular stages. The Xbox Live Arcade version of the game is the first version to include four-player co-op and versus multiplayer modes. Players can compete both locally and online over Xbox Live. On the DS, two players can compete against each other using either the Single-card download play, Multi-card play, or Nintendo WiFi Connection; the top screen is used to display the remote player's progress. The PSP version only allows local competitive play; the game features an electronic soundtrack with the sound effects keyed to it, integrating the effects with the music and enhancing it. A soundtrack album with tracks from the DS game was released. SPACE INVADERS EXTREME -AUDIO CLUSTER- 1. ExtrEmE 2. Intro #1 3. InvAde yOu 4. Intro #2 5. Outbreak 6. Intro #3 7. Regress 8. Progress 9. Intro #4 10. Gradation 11. Harum 12. Shatter 13. Intro #5 14. REpulse mE 15. Executor 16. Rebel Worm 17. Zero Hour 18. Intro #6 19. Crackle 20.
InvAde yOu -Original Version- 21. Outbreak -Original Version- 22. Regress -Original Version- 23. Gradation -Original Version- 24. REpulse mE -Original Version- 25. InvAde yOu -COSIO'Rainbow'MIX- 26. Outbreak -ONSEN LATINO MIX- 27. ExtrEmE -Ryu☆Remix- Tracks from the PSP version were released several months afterward as part of the Space Invaders 2008 30th anniversary album. Multiple player options for the DS version have been mentioned above, but in gameplay terms both versions are the same, sharing the same levels, attack formations, similar graphics, power-ups. However, the PSP version has crisper graphics due to the higher resolution implemented on the PSP. While the DS version has a soundtrack composed and performed by Taito's in-house sound team Zuntata, the PSP version features music from a guest group of external composers and DJs; the obvious main difference between the two is the use of the second screen on the DS version. This is used to make certain levels Bonus Rounds and Boss Battles, vertically larger.
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The Sega Master System is a third-generation home video game console manufactured by Sega. It was a remodeled export version of the Sega Mark III, the third iteration of the SG-1000 series of consoles, released in Japan in 1985 and featured enhanced graphical capabilities over its predecessors; the Master System launched in North America in 1986, followed by Europe in 1987, Brazil in 1989. A Japanese version of the Master System was launched in 1987, which has additional features over the Mark III and other regional variants of the console, namely a built-in FM audio chip, a rapid-fire switch and a dedicated port for the 3D glasses. A cost-reduced model known as the Master System II was released in 1990 in North Europe; the original Master System models used both cartridges and a credit card-sized format known as Sega Cards. Accessories for the consoles were released such as a light gun and 3D glasses designed to work with a range of specially coded games, which were sold separately or available in certain bundles.
The Master System II redesign removed the card slot, turning it into a cartridge-only system and was incompatible with the 3D glasses by proxy. The Master System was released in competition with the Nintendo Entertainment System, it had fewer well-reviewed games than the NES, a smaller library, due to Nintendo licensing policies requiring platform exclusivity. Despite the Master System's newer hardware, it failed to overturn Nintendo's significant market share advantage in Japan and North America. However, it attained more success in Europe and Brazil; the Master System is estimated to have sold at 13 million units, excluding recent Brazil sales. Retrospective criticism has recognized its role in the development of the Sega Genesis, a number of well-received games in PAL regions, but is critical of its limited library in the NTSC regions, which were dominated by Nintendo's NES; as of 2015, the Master System was still in production in Brazil by Tectoy, making it the world's longest-lived console.
In the early 1980s, Sega Enterprises, Inc. a subsidiary of the American conglomerate Gulf and Western, was one of the largest arcade game manufacturers active in the United States, with company revenues of $214 million by mid-1982. A downturn in the arcade business starting in 1982 negatively impacted the company, leading Gulf and Western to sell the North American manufacturing and licensing of its arcade games to Bally Manufacturing; the company retained its Japanese subsidiary, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. as well as Sega's North American research and development division. With its arcade business in decline, Sega Enterprises, Ltd. president Hayao Nakayama advocated that the company leverage its hardware expertise to move into the home console market in Japan, in its infancy at the time. Nakayama received permission to proceed; the first model to be developed was the SC-3000, a computer with a built-in keyboard, but when Sega learned of Nintendo's plans to release a games-only console, they began developing the SG-1000 alongside the SC-3000.
The SG-1000 was first released in Japan on July 15, 1983, at a price of JP¥15,000. It was launched on the same day. Shortly after the launch of the SG-1000, Gulf and Western began to divest itself of its non-core businesses after the death of company founder, Charles Bluhdorn, so Nakayama and former Sega CEO David Rosen arranged a management buyout of the Japanese subsidiary in 1984 with financial backing from CSK Corporation, a prominent Japanese software company. Nakayama was installed as CEO of the new Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Following the buyout, Sega released another console, the SG-1000 II, for ¥15,000, it featured a few hardware tweaks including detachable controllers. The SG-1000 II did not sell well, leading to Sega's decision to continue work on the video game hardware used for the system; this resulted in the release of the Sega Mark III in Japan in 1985. Engineered by the same internal Sega team that had created the SG-1000, the Mark III was a redesigned iteration of the previous console.
The CPUs in the SG-1000 and SG-1000 II were Zilog Z80As running at 3.58 MHz, while the Mark III, SC-3000—a computer version of the SG-1000—and Master System feature a Z80A running at 4 MHz. The Mark III and Master System have a slot for Sega Card software without any need for the Card Catcher add-on that the SC-3000 and previous SG-1000 consoles required. According to Edge, lessons from the SG-1000's lack of commercial success were used in the hardware redesign of the Mark III, the console was designed to be more powerful than the Famicom. For the console's North America release, Sega restyled and rebranded the Mark III under the name "Master System", similar to Nintendo's own reworking of the Famicom into the Nintendo Entertainment System; the "Master System" name was one of several proposals Sega's American employees considered, was chosen by throwing darts against a whiteboard, although plans to release a cheaper console referred to as the "Base System" influenced the decision. Sega Enterprises Chairman Isao Okawa endorsed the name after being told it was a reference to the competitive nature of both the video game industry and martial arts, in which only one competitor can be the "Master".
The futuristic final design for the Master System was intended to appeal to Western tastes. The Sega Mark III was released in Japan in October 1985 at a price of ¥15,000. Despite featuring technically more powerful hardware than its chief competition, the Famicom, the Mark III did not prove to be successful at its launch. Difficulties arose from Nintendo's licensing practices with thi
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
The Atari Flashback is a series of dedicated consoles marketed by Atari, Inc. from 2004 to 2011. Since 2011, the consoles have been marketed by AtGames under license from Atari, they are "plug and play" versions of the classic Atari 2600 and Atari 7800 consoles. The systems are powered by an AC adapter, come with a pair of joystick controllers, use standard composite video and monaural audio RCA connectors to connect to a television; the Atari Flashback was released in 2004. The console resembled an Atari 7800 in appearance and came with a pair of controllers which resembled those of the Atari 7800, though they were smaller; the system had twenty games built-in, all developed by Warner Communication's Atari Inc. and Atari Corp. for the 2600 and 7800 game systems. The games which required analog paddle controllers were made to work with the included joysticks, it was designed by Atari veteran Curt Vendel, whose company Syzygy Co. designs other home video game and video arcade products. Atari Inc. gave Syzygy Co. ten weeks to design the product, produce its games, ready it for the 2004 Christmas holiday season.
The Atari Flashback was based on "NES-on-a-chip" hardware, not resembling either of the Atari systems which the Flashback was supposed to represent. As a result, the games it contained were ports and differed in varying degrees from the original games, therefore the Flashback was unpopular with some purists. There was a selection of about 20 games on the original Flashback. One game, was advertised as "unreleased"; the Atari Flashback 2, the successor to the original Atari Flashback console, was released in 2005. It has forty Atari 2600 games built in. A few of the included games are homebrews which were created by enthusiasts in recent years, two of the games were published by Activision; the appearance of the Atari Flashback 2 is reminiscent of the original Atari 2600 console from 1977. It is two-thirds the size of the original and is much lighter in weight; the Flashback 2 console has five buttons. The joysticks bear close similarity to the original Atari 2600 joysticks from 1977, are compatible and interchangeable with them.
The Flashback 2 does not come with paddle controllers, but original paddle controllers can be connected to it and used with its paddle-based games. Curt Vendel and Legacy Engineering returned to develop the Flashback 2. Unlike the original Flashback console, the Flashback 2 contains a single-chip version of circuitry designed by Vendel; as such, the Atari Flashback 2 runs games. The Atari Flashback 2 project was codenamed "Michele", after Vendel's wife, her name is printed on the motherboard. Marty Goldberg, owner of the Electronic Entertainment Museum, was the technical writer for the packed-in manual and full design of the online manual; because of changes in game content during the development and problems with the graphic design company keeping edit revisions straight, the manual which comes with the Flashback 2 has several errors in it including typos. For example, contrary to the manual there is no two-player mode in Centipede, there is no connected-ship gameplay in Space Duel. In the description of Save Mary "Barnaby just blew up the nearby damn" appears.
The available games are arranged into four categories selectable from an on-screen menu. Once a game is selected, the only way back to the menu is to use the power button to turn the console off and on again; the games listed below as hacks used other games' code as a starting point and modified their gameplay or appearance. Homebrews were written from scratch by Atari fans in the 2000s. Unreleased prototypes are games which were developed by Atari Inc. in the 1970s and 1980s but never sold to consumers. A few of the games listed are new and exclusive to the Flashback 2. Adventure Adventure II, a sequel to Adventure, built on its original assembly-based game code Haunted House Return to Haunted House, a sequel to Haunted House, built on the original Adventure's assembly-based game code combined with graphics from the original Haunted House) Secret Quest Wizard Arcade Asteroids of the original Atari 2600 Asteroids with the sprites changed to outlines to more portray the arcade version Arcade Pong, a version of Pong which can use paddle controllers if attached Asteroids Deluxe Battlezone Centipede Lunar Lander Millipede Missile Command Space Duel Caverns of Mars Quadrun Saboteur Space War Yars' Return Yars' Revenge The console includes two hidden titles which require the use of paddle controllers.
The Flashback 2 does not come with paddle controllers, so these games cannot be played unless the user has an original set of Atari 2600 paddle controllers. To access the hidden paddle game menu, the user must press up on the joystick 1 time, pull down 9 times, push up 7 times, pull down 2 times. The
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t