Reutlingen is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is the capital of the eponymous district of Reutlingen; as of June 2018, it has a population of 115,818. Reutlingen has a university of applied sciences, founded in 1855 as a weavers' school. Today Reutlingen is home to an established textile industry and houses machinery, leather goods and steel manufacturing facilities, it has the narrowest street in Spreuerhofstraße. Reutlingen is located about 35 km south of the State capital of Stuttgart, it lies in the Southwest corner of Germany, right next to the Swabian Jura, and, why it is called The gateway to the Swabian Jura. The Echaz river, a tributary of the Neckar, flows through the town centre. Along with the old university town of Tübingen, Reutlingen is the centre of the Neckar-Alb region, it is part of the larger Stuttgart Metropolitan Region. The first settlements in the area are believed to date from the 5th century; some time around 1030, Count Egino started to build a castle on top of the Achalm, one of the largest mountains in Reutlingen district.
One of the towers of this castle is open to visitors. The name Reutlingen was first mentioned in writing in the so-called Bempflingen Treaty, dated 1089–90. Around 1180, Reutlingen received market rights and, between 1220 and 1240 it was promoted to city status and city-walls and fortifications were built. Shortly thereafter, from 1247–1343, the town's landmark, the St. Mary's Church was built. In 1377 Reutlingen was the scene of a victory by the Swabian League, formed in the previous year by 14 Swabian cities, led by Ulm, over the Count of Württemberg. In 1519, a Swabian League came to Reutlingen's help when Ulrich, Duke of Württemberg attempted to seize the city. In 1495 and 1516 the jews were exiled from the town; as a result of such struggles, Reutlingen became an Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire, free from allegiance to the Duke of Württemberg. In 1530, Reutlingen's city council signed the Augsburg Confession, in 1580 and the Formula of Concord, key documents of Lutheranism. In 1803, in the wake of the French Revolutionary Wars, Reutlingen lost its independence in the German Mediatisation, being restored to Württemberg.
The worst disaster in the history of Reutlingen happened in 1726, when a major fire swept through the city, destroying 80% of all residential houses and all public buildings, making 1,200 families homeless. The impact of this fire, which lasted three days, is still visible today. During World War II, the wings of the V-1 flying bomb were manufactured in Reutlingen, making the city the target of several allied bombing raids. On 24 July 2016 a Syrian asylum seeker killed a pregnant woman in a machete attack. 1929–1933: Karl Haller 1933–1945: Richard Dederer, NSDAP, 1945–1973: Oskar Kalbfell, SPD, 1973–1994: Manfred Oechsle, CDU, 1995–2003: Stefan Schultes, CDU, since 2003: Barbara Bosch, independent, On Mutscheltag, townspeople gather in halls and homes to play games of dice, the winner of which earns parts or whole Mutschel loaves of bread. The Mutschelspiele consist of small games scored by tally marks, are won both independently and by grand total at the end of the hour or night; this tradition is unique to the city of Reutlingen.
Ernst Boepple, German Nazi official and SS officer executed for war crimes Ferdinand Heim, the "Scapegoat of Stalingrad" Erwin Fischer, jurist Helmuth Naumer, German artist Friedrich Schlotterbeck, resistance fighter and author Walter Vielhauer, trade unionist, resistance fighter Gertrud Lutz, resistance fighter Willy Hack, German SS officer and concentration camp official executed for war crimes Martin Hengel, Protestant parson and historian Willi Betz, founder of biggest forwarding agency in Europe Friedrich Wilhelm Schnitzler, business manager and politician Roland Kayn and composer Ernst Messerschmid, German Space Shuttle astronaut and physicist, D1-Space-Shuttle-Mission Claus Kleber, German television journalist Friedrich List and American economist Dominik Kuhn, Swabian comedian Hans-W. Hubberten, German polar scientist City buses are run by Reutlinger Stadtverkehr, while trains from Reutlingen Hauptbahnhof and Reutlingen West, -Sondelfingen and Reutlingen-Betzingen are run by Deutsche Bahn.
Church of the Virgin Mary, built in Gothic style in the 13th–14th centuries. Nearby is a statue of emperor Frederick II. Marktbrunnen, surmounted by the statue of emperor Maximilian II. Spitalhof, built as a hospital in the 14th century. Damaged by a fire, it was rebuilt in the 18th century. Church of St. Nicholas, built in the 14th century as a chapel. Gerber- und Färberbrunnen, 1920. City Hall, built in 2013. Spreuerhofstraße, the world's narrowest street. Reutlingen University is a university of applied sciences, focusing on hands-on learning, apparent in their mandatory internship for all business majors; the university is an internationally friendly school with over 200 university cooperations worldwide. Classes are taught in German.
Nicholas Neszmélyi de Poroszló was bishop of Pécs in the Kingdom of Hungary from 30 March 1346 to 26 March 1360, not long before his death. Nicholas was born into a Polish noble family from Silesia, he was a cleric in the Diocese of Wrocław. He arrived to Hungary as a distant relative of Elizabeth of Poland, Queen of Hungary in 1322, he became an educator of the young Prince Louis. In 1339, the estates of Neszmély returned to the Crown. Nicholas has used his influence to obtain the possessions. Henceforth his name was appeared as Nicholas Neszmélyi in contemporary sources. According to the land survey, he obtained the "estate of Neszmély with arable lands, ferry and land tariffs back and forth, fishing rights in the Danube, two islands, by name Neszmélyi Island and Für Island until the middle of the Danube", along with his cousins and Matthias, he was received Poroszló, Heves County by King Louis I. After that he used the noble title of poroszlói or de Poroszló, he was appointed secret chancellor and chapel ispán in 1344.
He served as Canon of Győr. He was the elected Archbishop of Kalocsa from 15 October 1344 to 9 October 1345, however Pope Clement VI was not confirmed and appointed Stephen Büki as archbishop instead of him, he was appointed Bishop of Pécs on 30 March 1346. He participated in the Neapolitan campaigns of Louis the Great in 1347, he led a 200-strong army to help the Hungarians in L'Aquila. He built a new church in Pécs with eight altars; the church known as Aranyos Mária Chapel. He transported the relic of Livinus from Ghent, Flanders to Pécs in 1351, he placed great emphasis on academic skills of the clergy. He stabilized its economy. Due to his work, the first university of Hungary was founded in Pécs in 1367, during the period of his successor, William of Koppenbach
Titus Veturius Geminus Cicurinus was a Roman Republican patrician politician and general of the gens Veturia. He served. Cicurinus seems to have been the name of two different family branches within the Veturia gens, they were named Crassus Cicurinus and Geminus Cicurinus. Titus Veturius was the twin brother of Gaius Veturius Geminus Cicurinus, consul in 499 BC, his son, Titus Veturius Geminus Cicurinus, named in the twin format, became consul in 462 BC. During his consulship and his colleague Veturius were faced with the popular unrest which led to a secession of the plebs; the two consuls brought the matter before the senate. The consuls were instructed to enrol the army levies from the populace; the senate, beginning to realise the seriousness of the situation, debated the crisis and chose to appoint Manius Valerius Maximus as dictator. A number of military threats emerged, Verginius was assigned three legions to deal with the neighbouring Volsci who had taken up arms. Verginius invaded and waged war against the Volsci, captured the town of Velitrae in which a Roman colony was planted.
After the armies returned to Rome, the dictator resigned his office in disgust at the senate's unwillingness to reach a compromise with the people. On the pretext of some renewed hostilities by the Aequi, the senate ordered the legions to be led out of the city; the people were outraged by this turn of events. In order to escape their military oath, the people contemplated murdering the consuls. Shortly afterwards, the plebs seceded to the Mons Sacer, the crisis continued into the following consular year. List of Roman Republican consuls Roman Republic Veturia First secessio plebis in 494 BC
Harmonium is the second album by American pop singer-pianist Vanessa Carlton, released by A&M Records in the US on November 9, 2004. Carlton co-wrote some of the album with Stephan Jenkins, her then-boyfriend and the lead singer of Third Eye Blind, who produced the album. Harmonium debuted outside the top 20 on the US Billboard 200, sales fell short of those of Carlton's debut album, Be Not Nobody, its only single in the US, "White Houses", was not a top 40 hit. The album wasn't as commercially successful as it's predecessor, which Carlton attributed to poor promotion, led to her departure from A&M Records in mid-2005, she toured through the US during'05 in support of the album. Carlton and Jenkins met and began a relationship in mid-2002, when she and rock band Third Eye Blind, of which Jenkins is lead singer, were on tour together. After seeing Carlton perform live, Jenkins entered her dressing room and expressed interest in producing her music, according to Carlton they "decided quickly, that we had the same vision for the album".
By January 2003, Carlton had written ten songs. "You record more, you write more. I never put a stop to my writing process," she said. Recording of the album was scheduled to begin with producer Daniel Lanois after the conclusion of Carlton's 2003 European concert tour, which ended in February, she wanted Jason Falkner and Nigel Godrich to co-produce the album, she envisioned the album as a "solo girl" version of The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, explaining that it would involve choruses and trumpets, "and it's just real", she said, she mentioned her desire "to establish my place with an album that's undeniably me". Interscope Records chairman Jimmy Iovine suggested that Carlton co-write with Jenkins after Carlton played the album's first five songs for him. Carlton said she felt trepidation about collaborating with Jenkins and that there were "moments when things got intense" between them, but because they had similar intentions for the album and Jenkins "deferred" to and was "sensitive" to her style of piano-playing and the direction in which she wanted to take the album, she "trusted him completely" and called it "a cool collaboration".
Carlton credited Jenkins with helping her to withstand and protect herself from pressures the record label executives, who wanted to influence the recording process, placed on her. Carlton began recording the album in June 2003 at Morningwood Studios in San Francisco, before moving to filmmaker George Lucas's Skywalker Ranch in Marin County, California. During recording, Carlton cited Jeff Buckley, PJ Harvey as additional influences on the album: "Sonically I'd like to use the same approach... If you're going to hear strings, you're going to hear them squeak", she explained, she experimented with sounds reminiscent of the music of The Cure. Before recording began and Jenkins conducted a series of "A-B-ing" tests to compare analog tape with Pro Tools; because they could not tell the difference, they used a mixing board that Carlton said was "similar to what a lot of the old Zeppelin tracks were mixed on, so we were able to get a warm, easy-to-listen-to mix where it didn't come across as'icy' sounding".
Several instruments were tracked using analog tape. According to Carlton, Jenkins was "generous" with his knowledge as a producer and taught Carlton about the recording studio, helping her to "realize the way the song is enveloped is sometimes more important than the song in some ways." Carlton wrote each song with arrangements in mind and played it on the piano for Jenkins, who joined in on drums, they began devising the arrangements. Recording was completed at The Record Plant in Los Angeles because, as Carlton put it, "When you're in the middle of a bunch of cows, the pace of things tends to slow down." The album, which took a year to record, was mixed at Olympic Studio in London, at Waystation Studio in Beverly Hills, at South Beach Studios in Miami Beach, Florida by mixers including Mark "Spike" Stent and Tom Lord Alge. According to Carlton, her label "wasn't happy" about the decisions she made during the making of the album. Jenkins played instruments and performed programming and mixing work on the album, he recorded backing vocals with Carlton on several songs, including "She Floats", in which their vocals were edited to make it sound as if a forty-member choir were singing.
"White Houses" was the first song Carlton and Jenkins wrote together, Lindsey Buckingham of the band Fleetwood Mac played acoustic guitar on the track after Jenkins met Buckingham, recording in the same building, invited him to listen to the song. Carlton said the process of Buckingham writing and recording the riff "happened fast, turned out amazing". Several other guest musicians worked on the album. Pharrell of the production duo The Neptunes, who were working with Good Charlotte, contributed backing vocals to "Who's to Say". Two of the three drummers on the album were Abe Laboriel Jr. who played on Be Not Nobody, Bryan "Brain" Mantia of the band Primus. Third Eye Blind guitarists Tony Fredianelli and Arion Salazar appear, as does former Red Hot Chili Peppers member Jesse Tobias. Carlton said she wanted to record a duet with Fleetwood Mac lead singer Stevie Nicks but never got the chance.
The 1934 Cork Senior Hurling Championship was the 46th staging of the Cork Senior Hurling Championship since its establishment by the Cork County Board in 1887. The draw for the opening round fixtures took place at the Cork Convention on 28 January 1934; the championship began on 25 March 1934 and ended on 7 October 1934. St. Finbarr's were the defending champions. Divisional side Seandún fielded a team in the championship for the first time. On 7 October 1934, Glen Rovers won the championship following a 3-2 to 0-6 defeat of St. Finbarr's in the final; this was their first championship title and the first of eight successive championship titles. Seandún became the first divisional team to reach the semi-final stage of the championship. An attendance of 18,516 was returned for the final, thousands more are believed to have entered the grounds through various unauthorised entrances and it was estimated that 25,000 people were present, it was a new attendance record for a final
Histoire de ma vie is an autobiography by George Sand covering her life up to shortly before the Revolution of 1848. The autobiography was published in Paris in 1855 by Victor Lecou. George Sand had planned as early as 1835, shortly after the end of her relationship with Alfred de Musset, to write her memoirs, she started in April 1847 and, with many interruptions for other work, finished her memoirs in 1855. In the autobiography the dates and the succession of events are not veracious; the work consists of extensive rewriting of letters that she sent and received. Histoire de ma vie is a literary masterpiece with value as a family history. Avec une rare lucidité, elle analyse le «devenir soi» d’un caractère, rappelle sa petite enfance à Nohant, les conflits familiaux qui la déchirent, les tensions qui habitent une famille brisée par la mort du père, la grande mélancolie qui s’ensuit, jusqu’à sa tentative de suicide à 17 ans. Si elle évoque admirablement le passé, Sand sait aussi dire le présent et l’avenir: elle expose ses vues sur le devenir de la société, le rôle de la religion, la condition des femmes.
Histoire de ma vie reste un modèle de vivacité, de courage, de franchise et de détermination. The 1856 edition published in Paris by Michel Lévy Frères consists of 5 separate books with a total of 13 chapters. Histoire de ma vie is organized into 5 parts: Histoire d’une famille de Fontenoy à Marengo. Gallimard published in 1970 an edition, edited by Georges Lubin and translated into English by a team of translators led by Thelma Jurgrau; the translation was published by State University of New York Press in 1991 with the title Story of My Life: The Autobiography of George Sand. It was an open secret, it was the strangeness of her private life, the many stories about her, that first caused intense excitement about her early writings. All through her career she kept up a personal relation with her readers, telling them in prefaces to her novels, or in Les Lettres d’un voyageur, something about her own state of mind, her own judgment of her performances. Of course it was never the real George Sand that appeared in these confidences, but the ideal George Sand of the moment.
The same half-imaginary being is the heroine of L’Histoire de ma vie, a book useful to the student of the psychology of Madame Dudevandt. The incomplete autobiography has been called a romance, she was borne by her own courage and intellectual energy into the tempest of opinions, was tossed hither and thither among unscrupulous men, for whom she was more than a match