SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Revelation

In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities. Some religions have religious texts which they view as divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired. For instance, Orthodox Jews and Muslims believe that the Torah was received from Yahweh on biblical Mount Sinai. Most Christians believe that both the New Testament were inspired by God. Muslims believe. In Hinduism, some Vedas are considered apauruṣeya, "not human compositions", are supposed to have been directly revealed, thus are called śruti, "what is heard"; the 15,000 handwritten pages produced by the mystic Maria Valtorta were represented as direct dictations from Jesus, while she attributed The Book of Azariah to her guardian angel. Aleister Crowley stated that The Book of the Law had been revealed to him through a higher being that called itself Aiwass. A revelation communicated by a supernatural entity reported as being present during the event is called a vision.

Direct conversations between the recipient and the supernatural entity, or physical marks such as stigmata, have been reported. In rare cases, such as that of Saint Juan Diego, physical artifacts accompany the revelation; the Roman Catholic concept of interior locution includes just an inner voice heard by the recipient. In the Abrahamic religions, the term is used to refer to the process by which God reveals knowledge of himself, his will, his divine providence to the world of human beings. In secondary usage, revelation refers to the resulting human knowledge about God and other divine things. Revelation from a supernatural source plays a less important role in some other religious traditions such as Buddhism and Taoism. Inspiration – such as that bestowed by God on the author of a sacred book – involves a special illumination of the mind, in virtue of which the recipient conceives such thoughts as God desires him to commit to writing, does not involve supernatural communication. With the Age of Enlightenment in Europe, beginning about the mid-17th century, the development of rationalism and atheism, the concept of supernatural revelation itself faced skepticism.

In The Age of Reason, Thomas Paine develops the theology of deism, rejecting the possibility of miracles and arguing that a revelation can be considered valid only for the original recipient, with all else being hearsay. Thomas Aquinas believed in two types of individual revelation from God, general revelation and special revelation. In general revelation, God reveals himself through his creation, such that at least some truths about God can be learned by the empirical study of nature, cosmology, etc. to an individual. Special revelation is the knowledge of God and spiritual matters which can be discovered through supernatural means, such as scripture or miracles, by individuals. Direct revelation refers to communication from God to someone in particular. Though one may deduce the existence of God and some of God's attributes through general revelation, certain specifics may be known only through special revelation. Aquinas believed; the major theological components of Christianity, such as the Trinity and the Incarnation, are revealed in the teachings of the church and the scriptures and may not otherwise be deduced.

Special revelation and natural revelation are complementary rather than contradictory in nature. "Continuous revelation" is a term for the theological position that God continues to reveal divine principles or commandments to humanity. In the 20th century, religious existentialists proposed that revelation held no content in and of itself but rather that God inspired people with his presence by coming into contact with them. Revelation is a human response; some religious groups believe a deity has been revealed or spoken to a large group of people or have legends to a similar effect. In the Book of Deuteronomy, Yahweh is said to have been revealed upon giving the Ten Commandments to the Israelites at Mount Sinai. In Christianity, the Book of Acts describes the Day of Pentecost wherein a large group of the followers of Jesus experienced mass revelation; the Lakota people believe Ptesáŋwiŋ spoke directly to the people in the establishment of Lakota religious traditions. Some versions of an Aztec legend tell of Huitzilopochtli speaking directly to the Aztec people upon their arrival at Anåhuac.

Some emperors, cult leaders, other figures have been deified and treated as though their words are themselves revelations. Some people hold that God can communicate with man in a way that gives direct, propositional content: This is termed verbal revelation. Orthodox Judaism and some forms of Christianity hold that the first five books of Moses were dictated by God in such a fashion. One school of thought holds that revelation is non-verbal and non-literal, yet it may have propositional content. People were divinely inspired by God with a message, but not in a verbal-like fashion. Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel has written, "To convey what the prophets experienced, the Bible could either use terms of descriptions or terms of indication. Any description of the act of revelation in empirical categories would have produced a caricature; that is.

1302

Year 1302 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. April 10 - First meeting of the Estates General of the Kingdom of France, convened by Philippe IV, at Notre-Dame Paris. May 18 – Bruges Matins: The French garrison in Bruges is massacred at night, by members of the local Flemish militia. June 12 – Rakvere, receives Lübeck city rights. July 11 – Battle of the Golden Spurs: the County of Flanders gains a major victory over the Kingdom of France. July 27 – Battle of Bapheus: The Ottoman Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, heralding the Turkish conquest of Bithynia. September 24 – Charles II of Naples makes peace with Frederick III of Sicily under the Treaty of Caltabellotta, ending the War of the Sicilian Vespers. September 26 – Fall of Ruad: The last Crusader stronghold in the Levant is conquered. October 4 – A peace treaty between the Byzantine Empire and the Republic of Venice ends the Byzantine–Venetian War. November 18 – Boniface VIII publishes the Papal bull Unam Sanctam. Roger de Flor founds the Catalan Company, with soldiers jobless after the Treaty of Caltabellotta.

Castile occupies the harbor of Algiers. Jičín, Bohemia is chartered as a city. Pope Boniface VIII suppresses the Franciscans; the Estates General of France meets for the first time. Dante Alighieri is exiled from Florence by the Black Guelphs. Robert the Bruce, king of Scotland, reconciles with Edward I of England. Philip IV of France confiscates Jewish property; the Confucian Temple is erected in Beijing. December 7 – Azzone Visconti, Lord of Milan date unknown Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Islamic scholar Andrew Corsini, Italian bishop Domhnall II, Earl of Mar January 19 – Al-Hakim I, Caliph of Cairo March 9 or March 9 1301 – Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel March 20 – Ralph Walpole, Bishop of Norwich May 2 – Blanche of Artois, former queen consort and regent of Navarre July 11 – Pierre Flotte, French politician and lawyer September 18 – Eudokia Palaiologina, Empress of Trebizond November 17 or November 17 1301 – St. Gertrude the Great, German saint December 26 – Valdemar, King of Sweden, 1250–1275 December 31 – Frederick III, Duke of Lorraine date unknown Godfrey Giffard, English bishop and politician Hu Sanxing, Song dynasty Chinese historian probable Cimabue, Florentine painter who discovered Giotto Infanta Sancha of Portugal

Aberconwy Abbey

Aberconwy Abbey was a Cistercian foundation at Conwy transferred to Maenan near Llanrwst, in the 13th century was the most important abbey in the north of Wales. A Cistercian house was founded at Rhedynog Felen near Caernarfon in 1186 by a group of monks from Strata Florida Abbey. About four or five years they moved to Conwy, in 1199 were given large grants of land by Llywelyn the Great who had become ruler of Gwynedd. Llywelyn was regarded as the founder of the house, thanks to his support it came to hold more land than any other Welsh abbey, over 40,000 acres. On Llywelyn's death in 1240 he was buried at the abbey, his son and successor Dafydd ap Llywelyn was buried here in 1246. In 1248 Llywelyn's other son, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, who had died trying to escape from the Tower of London in 1244, was reburied at Aberconwy after the abbot of Aberconwy, together with the abbot of Strata Florida, had arranged for his body to be repatriated from London; the abbot of Aberconwy was an important figure in the negotiations between Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and the English crown in the century, in 1262 was entrusted with the task of being Llywelyn's sole representative in negotiations.

In 1282, Edward I of England surrounded Snowdonia with a massive army. On 11 December Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Tywysog Cymru, was murdered. In 1283 King Edward I of England obliged the monks to move from Conwy to Maenan, further up the Conwy valley, so he could construct a castle and walled town at Conwy; the move had been completed with Edward financing the building of a new abbey. In the 15th century the abbot, John ap Rhys, became involved in a dispute with Strata Florida Abbey and led some of his monks and some soldiers on a raid on that abbey; the abbey was valued at £162 in 1535 and was suppressed in 1537. Little remains of the Maenan Abbey buildings, but the original abbey church in Conwy was adapted to become the parish church of St Mary & All Saints and although much rebuilt over the centuries some parts of the original church remain; the other buildings of the abbey are thought to have been located east of the church. R. N. Cooper Abbeys and Priories of Wales ISBN 0-7154-0712-0 Bibliographical sources and images of the abbey