United States International Trade Commission
The United States International Trade Commission is an independent, quasi-judicial, federal agency of the United States that provides trade expertise to both the legislative and executive branches. Furthermore, the agency determines the impact of imports on U. S. industries and directs actions against unfair trade practices, such as subsidies, patent and copyright infringement. The USITC was established by the U. S. Congress on September 8, 1916, as the U. S. Tariff Commission. In 1974, the name was changed to the U. S. International Trade Commission by section 171 of the Trade Act of 1974. Statutory authority for the USITC's responsibilities is provided by the following legislation: Tariff Act of 1930 Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 Trade Expansion Act of 1962 Trade Act of 1974 Trade Agreements Act of 1979 Trade and Tariff Act of 1984 Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994 The U. S. International Trade Commission seeks to: Administer U. S. trade remedy laws within its mandate in a objective manner.
In so doing, the Commission serves the public by implementing U. S. law and contributing to the development and implementation of sound and informed U. S. trade policy. The USITC's five operations are: Import Injury Investigations Intellectual Property-Based Import Investigations Research Program Trade Information Services Trade Policy Support The president nominates and the U. S. Senate confirms the six commissioners who make up the USITC; the president and the secretary of state sign the formal commission. Commissioners' terms are nine years, or, for the remainder of a term, their terms are staggered to end 18 months apart. Commissioners may not be reappointed at the start of a new term unless they have served less than five years, although commissioners stay on past the end of their term until their successor is appointed and confirmed. No more than three of the commissioners may be of the same political party; the chairman and vice chairman's terms are for two years, successive chairmen may not be of the same political party.
Only a commissioner with more than one year of service may be designated chairman. The commissioners are: Rhonda Schnare Schmidtlein David S. Johanson Meredith Broadbent Irving A. Williamson Vacant Vacant On June 26, 2017, President Trump renominated Jason Kearns, a Democrat, for the term ending December 16, 2024. Kearns was nominated by President Obama. On September 28, 2017, President Trump nominated Dennis M. Devaney and Randolph J. Stayin to terms ending on June 16, 2023, June 16, 2026, respectively. Although the USITC is not a court, its administrative law judges conduct trial-type official administrative hearings. If a Section 337 Tariff Act complaint has at least three votes from its six Commissioners, an official investigative hearing will be assigned to an administrative law judge. Several dozen new USITC investigations are filed every year. Judicial review is exercised by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. After the parties have had the opportunity to conduct fact and expert discovery to develop their respective legal positions, the ALJ holds a formal, evidentiary hearing, or trial.
There is no jury. About three months after considering the arguments of the parties, the ALJ renders an initial determination; the full ITC may adopt, modify or reverse the ALJ's initial determination. The ITC's final determination is issued about four months after the ALJ's ID; as part of a large group of legislation passed during the Progressive Era in the early 1900s, U. S. Congress established the United States Tariff Commission in 1916, which had a purpose to apply scientific principles to the study of tariffs and to assist in recommending appropriate tariff levels. Frank Taussig an Economics professor at Harvard University, was named the U. S. Tariff Commission's first Chairman; the first offices of the U. S. Tariff Commission were located at 1322 New York Avenue, Washington D. C. In 1921, the U. S. Tariff Commission moved to the Old Post Office Building at 7th and E Street NW. Effective January 1, 1975, the U. S. Tariff Commission was renamed the U. S. International Trade Commission; the USITC had a number of new responsibilities under the Trade Act of 1974, commission procedures under Section 337 of Tariff Act of 1930 were changed, Section 337 proceedings brought before Administrative Law Judges had to now conform with the Administrative Procedure Act.
Section 337 decisions were made final, instead of advisory, the USITC was authorized to issue cease and desist orders in addition to exclusion orders. In 1988, the USITC moved its quarters from the Old Post Office Building to the building it remains in to this day, 500 E Street SW. Past commissioners of the USITC include: Daniel R. Pearson (R–MN.
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Robert M. La Follette
Robert Marion La Follette Sr. was an American lawyer and politician. He served as the Governor of Wisconsin. A Republican for most of his career, he ran for President of the United States as the nominee of his own Progressive Party in the 1924 presidential election. Historian John D. Buenker describes La Follette as "the most celebrated figure in Wisconsin history." Born and raised in Wisconsin, La Follette won election as the Dane County District Attorney in 1880. Four years he was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he was friendly with party leaders like William McKinley. After losing his seat in the 1890 election, La Follette embraced progressivism and built up a coalition of disaffected Republicans, he sought election as governor in 1898 before winning the 1900 gubernatorial election. As governor of Wisconsin, La Follette compiled a progressive record, implementing primary elections and tax reform. La Follette won re-election in 1902 and 1904, but in 1905 the legislature elected him to the United States Senate.
He emerged as a national progressive leader in the Senate clashing with conservatives like Nelson Aldrich. He supported President William Howard Taft but broke with Taft after the latter failed to push a reduction in tariff rates, he challenged Taft for the Republican presidential nomination in the 1912 presidential election, but his candidacy was overshadowed by that of former President Theodore Roosevelt. La Follette's refusal to support Roosevelt alienated many progressives, though La Follette continued to serve in the Senate, he lost his stature as the leader of that chamber's progressive Republicans. La Follette supported some of President Woodrow Wilson's policies, but he broke with the president over foreign policy. During World War I, La Follette was one of the most outspoken opponents of the administration's domestic and international policies. With the Republican Party and the Democratic Party each nominating conservative candidates in the 1924 presidential election, left-wing groups coalesced behind La Follette's third-party candidacy.
With the support of the Socialist Party, farmer's groups, labor unions, others, La Follette appeared to be a serious threat to unseat Republican President Calvin Coolidge. La Follette stated that his chief goal was to break the "combined power of the private monopoly system over the political and economic life of the American people," and he called for government ownership of railroads and electric utilities, cheap credit for farmers, the outlawing of child labor, stronger laws to help labor unions, protections for civil liberties, his diverse coalition proved challenging to manage, the Republicans rallied to claim victory in the 1924 election. La Follette won 16.6% of the popular vote, one of the best third party performances in U. S. history. He died shortly after the presidential election, but his sons, Robert M. La Follette Jr. and Philip La Follette, succeeded him as progressive leaders in Wisconsin. Robert La Follette was born on a farm in Primrose, Wisconsin, on June 14, 1855, he was the youngest of five children born to Josiah La Follette and Mary Ferguson, who had settled in Wisconsin in 1850.
Josiah descended from French Huguenots. Josiah died less than a year after Robert was born, in 1862 Mary married John Saxton, a wealthy, seventy-year old merchant. La Follette's poor relationship with Saxton made for a difficult childhood. Though his mother was a Democrat, La Follette became, like most of his neighbors, a member of the Republican Party. La Follette began attending school at the age of four, though he worked on the family farm. After Saxton died in 1872, La Follette, his mother, his older sister moved to the nearby town of Madison. La Follette began attending the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1875 and graduated in 1879, he was a mediocre student, but established a student newspaper. He was influenced by the university's president, John Bascom, on issues of morality and social justice. During his time at the university, he became a vegetarian, declaring that his diet gave him more energy and a clear head. La Follette met Belle Case while attending the University of Wisconsin, they married on December 31, 1881, at her family home in Baraboo, Wisconsin.
She became a leader in the feminist movement, an advocate of women's suffrage and an important influence on the development of La Follette's ideas. La Follette was admitted to the state bar association in 1880; that same year, he won election as the district attorney for Dane County, beginning a long career in politics. He became a protege of George E. Bryant, a wealthy Republican Party businessman and landowner from Madison. In 1884, he won election to the United States House of Representatives, becoming the youngest member of the subsequent 49th Congress, his political views were broadly in line with those of other Northern Republicans at the time. He did, however stray from the wishes of party leaders, as he voted for the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 and the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, he denounced racial discrimination in the Southern United States and favored the Lodge Bill, which would have provided federal protections against the mass disenfranchisement of African Americans in the South.
At 35 years old, La Follette lost his seat in the 1890 Democratic landslide. Several factors contributed to his loss, including a compulsory-education bill passed by the Republican-controlled state legislature in 1889; because the law required major subjects in schools to be taught in En
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
United States Statutes at Large
The United States Statutes at Large referred to as the Statutes at Large and abbreviated Stat. are an official record of Acts of Congress and concurrent resolutions passed by the United States Congress. Each act and resolution of Congress is published as a slip law, classified as either public law or private law, designated and numbered accordingly. At the end of a Congressional session, the statutes enacted during that session are compiled into bound books, known as "session law" publications; the session law publication for U. S. Federal statutes is called the United States Statutes at Large. In that publication, the public laws and private laws are numbered and organized in chronological order. U. S. Federal statutes are published in a three-part process, consisting of slip laws, session laws, codification. Large portions of public laws are enacted as amendments to the United States Code. Once enacted into law, an Act will be published in the Statutes at Large and will add to, modify, or delete some part of the United States Code.
Provisions of a public law that contain only enacting clauses, effective dates, similar matters are not codified. Private laws are not codified; some portions of the United States Code have been enacted as positive law and other portions have not been so enacted. In case of a conflict between the text of the Statutes at Large and the text of a provision of the United States Code that has not been enacted as positive law, the text of the Statutes at Large takes precedence. Publication of the United States Statutes at Large began in 1845 by the private firm of Little and Company under authority of a joint resolution of Congress. During Little and Company's time as publisher, Richard Peters, George Minot, George P. Sanger served as editors. In 1874, Congress transferred the authority to publish the Statutes at Large to the Government Printing Office under the direction of the Secretary of State. Pub. L. 80–278, 61 Stat. 633, was enacted July 30, 1947 and directed the Secretary of State to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large.
Pub. L. 81–821, 64 Stat. 980, was enacted September 23, 1950 and directed the Administrator of General Services to compile, edit and publish the Statutes at Large. Since 1985 the Statutes at Large have been prepared and published by the Office of the Federal Register of the National Archives and Records Administration; until 1948, all treaties and international agreements approved by the United States Senate were published in the set, but these now appear in a publication titled United States Treaties and Other International Agreements, abbreviated U. S. T. In addition, the Statutes at Large includes the text of the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, the Constitution, amendments to the Constitution, treaties with Indians and foreign nations, presidential proclamations. Sometimes large or long Acts of Congress are published as their own "appendix" volume of the Statutes at Large. For example, the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 was published as volume 68A of the Statutes at Large.
Revised Statutes of the United States Procedures of the United States Congress Enrolled Bill Federal Register United States Reports California Statutes Laws of Florida Laws of Illinois Laws of New York Laws of Pennsylvania This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the U. S. Government Publishing Office. How Our Laws Are Made, by the Parliamentarian of the House of Representatives. Volumes 1 to 18 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Library of Congress Volumes 1 to 64 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Congressional Data Coalition via LEGISWORKS.org Volumes 65 to 125 of the Statutes at Large made available by the GPO and the Library of Congress via FDsys Sortable by Bills Enacted into Laws, Concurrent Resolutions, Popular Names, Presidential Proclamations, or Public Laws. Volumes 1–124 of the Statutes at Large made available by the Constitution Society Public and private laws from 104th Congress to present from the Government Printing Office, in slip law format with Statutes at Large page references Early United States Statutes includes Volumes 1 to 44 of the Statutes at Large in DjVu and PDF format, along with rudimentary OCR of the text.
United States Statutes and the United States Code: Historical Outlines, Lists and Sources from the Law Librarians' Society of Washington, DC Second Edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States
Woman suffrage parade of 1913
The woman suffrage parade of 1913 the Woman Suffrage Procession, was the first suffragist parade in Washington, D. C, it was the first large, organized march on Washington for political purposes. The procession was organized by the suffragists Alice Paul and Lucy Burns for the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Thousands of suffragists marched down Pennsylvania Avenue on Monday, March 3, 1913, the day before President Woodrow Wilson's inauguration; the parade's purpose, stated in its official program, was to "march in a spirit of protest against the present political organization of society, from which women are excluded". The event kicked off Paul's campaign to refocus the suffrage movement on obtaining a national constitutional amendment for woman's suffrage; the demonstration consisted of a parade with floats, a various groups representing women at home, in school, in the workplace. At the Treasury Building, a pageant of allegorical tableaux was acted out during the procession. District police failed to keep the enormous crowd out of the street, impeding the marchers' progress.
Many participants were subjected to heckling from spectators, though there were many supporters present. The final act was a rally at the Memorial Continental Hall with prominent speakers, including Anna Howard Shaw and Helen Keller; some negative publicity prior to the march resulted from the announcement that blacks from Howard University would be marching in the parade and some people incorrectly suggested that Paul had tried to keep them from participating. Black women and men did participate in the procession and were not treated differently by the spectators; the march and the attention that it attracted were monumental in advancing women's suffrage in the United States. American suffragists Alice Paul and Lucy Burns spearheaded a drive to adopt a national strategy for women's suffrage in the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Paul and Burns had seen first-hand the effectiveness of militant activism while working for Emmeline Pankhurst in the Women's Social and Political Union in Britain.
Their education included rallies and demonstrations, knowledge of which the two would put to work back in America. They had first-hand experience with imprisonment as a backlash against suffrage activism, they had suffered force-feeding. They were not afraid to be provocative knowing the potential consequences; the procession would be their first foray into moving into militant mode on a national stage. Paul and Burns found that there were many suffragists who supported the WSPU's militant tactics, including Harriot Stanton Blatch, Alva Belmont, Elizabeth Robins, Rhetta Child Dorr. Burns and Paul recognized that the women from the six states that had full suffrage at the time comprised a powerful voting bloc, they submitted a proposal to Anna Howard Shaw and the NAWSA leadership at their annual convention in 1912. The leadership was not interested in changing the state-by-state strategy and rejected the idea of holding a campaign that would hold the Democratic Party responsible. Paul and Burns appealed to prominent reformer Jane Addams, who interceded on their behalf, resulting in Paul being appointed chair of the Congressional Committee.
Up until this time, the woman's suffrage movement had relied on oratory and written arguments to keep the issue before the public. Paul believed. While her tactics were non-violent, Paul exploited elements of danger in her events, her plan for using visual rhetoric was intended to have lasting impact. She felt it was time for women to stop begging for suffrage and demand it with political coercion instead. Though the suffragists had staged marches in many cities, this would be the first time for Washington, it would be the first large political demonstration in the nation's capital. The only previous similar demonstration was made by a group of 500 men known as Coxey's Army protesting unemployment in 1894. At the time Paul and Burns were assigned to lead the Congressional Committee of the NAWSA, it was a shadow committee headed by Elizabeth Kent, wife of a California congressman, with an annual budget of ten dollars that went unspent. With Paul and Burns at the helm, the committee revived the push for a national suffrage amendment.
At the end of 1913, Paul reported to the NAWSA that the committee had raised and expended over $25,000 on the suffrage cause for the year. Paul and Burns persuaded NAWSA to endorse an immense suffrage parade in Washington, D. C. to coincide with newly-elected President Woodrow Wilson's inauguration the following March. The NAWSA leadership turned over the entire operation to the committee, they organized volunteers and raised funds in preparation for the parade with little help from the NAWSA. Affiliates of NAWSA from various states organized groups to march and activities leading up to the march, such as the Suffrage Hikes. Once the board approved the parade in December 1912, they appointed Dora Lewis, Mary Ritter Beard, Crystal Eastman to the committee, though they all worked outside of Washington. All money Paul collected had to be directed through the NAWSA. Paul arrived in D. C. in December 1912 to begin organizing the event. By the time the Congressional Committee had its first meeting on January 2, 1913 in its new Washington, D. C. headquarters, more than 130 women showed up to start work.
Using the list of former committee members, Paul found few still alive or in the city, but she did find assistance. Among local suffragists, she was aided by attorney Florence Etheridge and teacher Elsie Hill, daughter of a congressman. Kent, the former committe
Mario García Menocal
Aurelio Mario Gabriel Francisco García Menocal y Deop was the 3rd President of Cuba, serving from 1913 to 1921. His terms as president saw Cuba's participation in World War I. Born in Jagüey Grande, Cuba, García Menocal was thirteen when he was sent to boarding schools in the United States, first at the Chappaqua Mountain Institute in New York, at the Maryland Agricultural College. In 1884, he went to Cornell University where he graduated in 1888 from the School of Engineering. While at Cornell University, he was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity; as a young man he was involved in Cuba's fight for independence from Spain. When Cuba did receive independence following the Spanish–American War, García Menocal became a leading conservative politician. Mario García Menocal was elected President in 1912 and became known for his strong support of business and corporations, he was reelected in 1916. In his most notable action, García Menocal authorized Cuba's declaration of war against the German Empire on April 7, 1917, entering World War I a day after the United States.
This was believed by many to be an attempt to get the United States to give more support to his government. In December, war was declared against Austria-Hungary. While in office, García Menocal hosted the 1920 Delta Kappa Epsilon National Convention, the first international fraternity conference outside the US, which took place in Cuba. Private trains were hired from New England to Florida where the invited men and their families could travel in comfort and style, upon arrival in Cuba, each man was gifted a gold-trimmed box of cigars. García Menocal's hospitality is still remembered in the fraternity to this day. After his presidency, García Menocal continued to be involved in politics, running for President again in 1924, he went into exile in the United States when it failed. After less than five years he returned to Cuba and ran for President a final time in 1936, he died in Santiago de Cuba. García Menocal was married to Mariana Seva y Rodríguez and they had three children, Mario, Raúl and Georgina García Menocal y Seva.
Argote-Freyre, Frank. Fulgencio Batista: From Revolutionary to Strongman. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-3701-6. OCLC 59223855. Fogle, Homer William Jr.. The Deke House at Cornell: A Concise History of the Delta Chi Chapter of Delta Kappa Epsilon, 1870–1930. Cf. pp. 27, 57, 60, 64, 66–69. Retrieved 2010-12-02. Minot, John Clair. "The Convention in Havana", Delta Kappa Epsilon Quarterly, XXXIX, 1, p. 1–25. Otero, Juan Joaquin. Libro De Cuba, Una Enciclopedia Ilustrada Que Abarca Las Artes, Las Letras, Las Ciencias, La Economia, La Politica, La Historia, La Docencia, Y ElProgreso General De La Nacion Cubana - Edicion Conmemorative del Cincuentenario de la Republica de Cuba, 1902-1952. Media related to Mario García Menocal at Wikimedia Commons