Reversi is a strategy board game for two players, played on an 8×8 uncheckered board. There are sixty-four identical game pieces called disks, which are light on one side and dark on the other. Players take. During a play, any disks of the opponent's color that are in a straight line and bounded by the disk just placed and another disk of the current player's color are turned over to the current player's color; the object of the game is to have the majority of disks turned to display your color when the last playable empty square is filled. The game of Reversi was invented in 1883. A modern Mattel game, published as Othello and with a change to the board's initial setup, was patented in 1971. Englishmen Lewis Waterman and John W. Mollett both claim to have invented the game of Reversi in 1883, each denouncing the other as a fraud; the game gained considerable popularity in England at the end of the nineteenth century. The game's first reliable mention is in 21 August 1886 edition of The Saturday Review.
Mention includes an 1895 article in The New York Times, which describes Reversi as "something like Go Bang, played with 64 pieces." In 1893, the German games publisher Ravensburger started producing the game as one of its first titles. Two 18th-century continental European books dealing with a game that may or may not be Reversi are mentioned on page fourteen of the Spring 1989 Othello Quarterly, there has been speculation, so far without documentation, that the game has older origins; the modern version of the game—the most used rule-set, the one used in international tournaments—is marketed and recognized as Othello. It was patented in Japan in 1971 by Goro Hasegawa a 38-year-old salesman; the game differs from Reversi in that the first four pieces go in the center, but in a standard diagonal pattern, rather than being placed by players. According to Ben Seeley, another difference is that where Reversi ends as soon as either player cannot make a move, in Othello the player without a move passes.
Hasegawa established the Japan Othello Association on March 1973, held the first national Othello championship on 4 April 1973 in Japan. The Japanese game company Tsukuda Original launched Othello in late April 1973 in Japan under Hasegawa's license, which led to an immediate commercial success; the name was selected by Hasegawa as a reference to the Shakespearean play Othello, the Moor of Venice, referring to the conflict between the Moor Othello and Iago, more controversially, to the unfolding drama between Othello, black, Desdemona, white. The green color of the board is inspired by the image of the general Othello, valiantly leading his battle in a green field, it can be likened to a jealousy competition, since players engulf the pieces of the opponent, thereby turning them to their possession. Othello was first launched in the U. S. in 1975 by Gabriel Industries and it enjoyed commercial success there. Othello game sales have exceeded $600 million and more than 40 million classic games have been sold in over 100 different countries.
Hasegawa wrote How to Othello in Japan in 1974, translated into English and published in the U. S. in 1977 as How to Win at Othello. Kabushiki Kaisha Othello, owned by Hasegawa, registered the trademark "OTHELLO" for board games in Japan and Tsukuda Original registered the mark in the rest of the world. All intellectual property regarding Othello outside Japan is now owned by MegaHouse, a Japanese toy company that acquired PalBox, the successor to Tsukuda Original; each of the disks' two sides corresponds to one player. The game may for example be played with a chessboard and Scrabble pieces, with one player letters and the other backs; the historical version of Reversi starts with an empty board, the first two moves made by each player are in the four central squares of the board. The players place their disks alternately with their colors facing up and no captures are made. A player may choose to not play both pieces on the same diagonal, different from the standard Othello opening, it is possible to play variants of Reversi and Othello where the second player's second move may or must flip one of the opposite-colored disks.
For the specific game of Othello, the rules state that the game begins with four disks placed in a square in the middle of the grid, two facing white side up, two pieces with the dark side up, with same-colored disks on a diagonal with each other. Convention has initial board position such that the disks with dark side up are to the north-east and south-west, though this is only marginally meaningful to play. If the disks with dark side up are to the north-west and south-east, the board may be rotated by 90° clockwise or counterclockwise; the dark player moves first. Dark must place a piece with the dark side up on the board, in such a position that there exists at least one straight occupied line between the new piece and another dark piece, with one or more contiguous light pieces between them. In the below situation, dark has the following options indicated by translucent pieces: After placing the piece, dark turns over all light pieces lying on a straight line between the new piece a
The Van't Hoff equation relates the change in the equilibrium constant, Keq, of a chemical reaction to the change in temperature, T, given the standard enthalpy change, ΔH⊖, for the process. It was proposed by Dutch chemist Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff in 1884 in his book Études de dynamique chimique; this equation is sometimes referred to as the Vukančić–Vuković equation. The van't Hoff equation has been utilized to explore the changes in state functions in a thermodynamic system; the van't Hoff plot, derived from this equation, is effective in estimating the change in enthalpy, or total energy, entropy, or number of accessible microstates, of a chemical reaction. Under standard conditions, the van't Hoff equation is where ln denotes natural logarithm and R is the ideal gas constant; this equation is exact at any one temperature. In practice, the equation is integrated between two temperatures under the assumption that the reaction enthalpy ΔH is constant. Since in reality ΔH and the reaction entropy ΔS do vary with temperature for most processes, the integrated equation is only approximate.
A major use of the integrated equation is to estimate a new equilibrium constant at a new absolute temperature assuming a constant standard enthalpy change over the temperature range. To obtain the integrated equation, it is convenient to first rewrite the van't Hoff equation as d ln K e q d 1 T = − Δ H ⊖ R; the definite integral between temperatures T1 and T2 is ln K 2 K 1 = − Δ H ⊖ R. In this equation K1 is the equilibrium constant at absolute temperature T1, K2 is the equilibrium constant at absolute temperature T2. Combining the definition of Gibbs free energy: Δ G ⊖ = Δ H ⊖ − T Δ S ⊖, where S is the entropy of the system, the Gibbs free energy isotherm equation: Δ G ⊖ = − R T ln K e q, we obtain ln K e q = − Δ H ⊖ R T + Δ S ⊖ R. Differentiation of this expression with respect to the variable T yields the van't Hoff equation. Provided that ΔH⊖ and ΔS⊖ are constant, the preceding equation gives ln K as a linear function of 1/T and hence is known as the linear form of the van't Hoff equation.
Therefore, when the range in temperature is small enough that the standard enthalpy and entropy changes are constant, a plot of the natural logarithm of the equilibrium constant versus the reciprocal temperature gives a straight line. The slope of the line may be multiplied by the gas constant R to obtain the standard enthalpy change of the reaction, the intercept may be multiplied by R to obtain the standard entropy change; the Gibbs free energy changes with the pressure of the thermodynamic system. The van't Hoff isotherm can be used to determine the Gibbs free energy for non-standard state reactions at a constant temperature: T, p = Δ r G + R T ln Q r, where ΔrG is the Gibbs free energy for the reaction, Qr is the reaction quotient; when a reaction is at equilibrium, Qr = Keq. The van't Hoff isotherm can help estimate the equilibrium reaction shift; when ΔrG < 0, the reaction moves in the forward direction. When ΔrG > 0, the reaction moves in the backwards directions. See Chemical equilibrium.
For a reversible reaction, the equilibrium constant can be measured at a variety of temperatures. This data can be plotted on a graph with 1/T on the x axis; the data should have a linear relationship, the equation for which can be found by fitting the data using the linear form of the van't Hoff equation ln K e q = − Δ H ⊖ R T + Δ S ⊖ R. This graph is called the van't Hoff plot and is used to estimate the enthalpy and entropy of a chemical reaction
Between Two Shores is the fifth studio album by Australia vocal duo Vika & Linda Bull. The album features some of the most popular songs of Vika and Linda Bulls's career, including some from their time with Black Sorrows; the album was released on 23 September 2006 via Liberation Records. The album was dedicated to Stuart Speed and Linda's bass player who died during the making of the album. An Amazon.com editorial said: "Highlights include a heavy groove version of the Black Sorrows' hit single of 1989, "Chained to the Wheel". Credits adapted from liner notes. Chris Bekker – acoustic guitar, backing vocals Dion Hirini – acoustic guitar, backing vocals John Watson – drums and percussion Justin Stanford – percussion Vika and Linda – percussion and vocals
Dragon Quest IX: Sentinels of the Starry Skies is a role-playing video game developed by Level-5 for the Nintendo DS. Dragon Quest IX introduced local multiplayer functionality to the series, as well as limited compatibility with Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection, it was the first to be released for a handheld game console, the first to feature spawning of enemies, rather than random encounters. The game retains many of the series' traditional role-playing elements, such as turn-based combat and a level system based on gaining experience points; the game was designed to be the most difficult one in the series, was released in Japan by Square Enix in July 2009, worldwide by Nintendo in July 2010. Dragon Quest IX achieved record-breaking sales within Japan, has set a Guinness World Record for its anonymous communication mode. Critically, the game has been well-received both outside Japan. Dragon Quest IX continues the Dragon Quest tradition of turn-based combat and is considered harder than the other Dragon Quest games before it.
The game allows players to have a cooperative wireless multi-player experience with up to four players. Multiplayer play requires a game cartridge for each player; the game includes only one save slot. In part due to Dragon Quest IX's design as a multiplayer game, party members are characters created and chosen by the player. Unlike previous games, the player has more control over their character's appearance. While Dragon Warrior III and Dragon Quest IV: Chapters of the Chosen allowed players to choose between playing a hero or a heroine, Dragon Quest IX offers more customization by allowing players to define themselves with characteristics such as hair styles and skin tones; each character can be customized, both throughout the game. During character creation selectable features include, hair style and color, eye shape and color, body type, skin tone, for characters other than the protagonist, vocation. Customizing a character continues into the main game with weapons and armor, now visible during battles and while exploring the world map and towns.
Weapons and armor equippable include one weapon, a shield, a helmet, body armor, leg armor, gloves and accessories. Each playable character has a vocation that determines his or her stat, usable weapons and armor, spells. Six vocations are available early in the game: warrior, priest, martial artist and minstrel. An additional six classes can be unlocked through successful completion of quests; the protagonist starts as a minstrel, when additional party members first become available, they can be created with any of the six starting vocations. To have a character become a different vocation the player must talk to "Jack of Alltrades" of Alltrades Abbey or use the sage's ability "Jack's Knack"; the ability to change a character's active vocation can be unlocked through gameplay. Characters have separate levels and experience totals for each vocation, a character's stats and spells are based on his or her active vocation; the game includes a skill system similar to the one in Dragon Quest VIII, each vocation has five skills: one skill exclusive to the vocation, three weapon skills shared with one or more other vocations, either Shield or Fisticuffs, an unarmed skill.
As characters gain levels, they obtain skill points, which can be spent to increase any of the current vocation's skills. Whenever the points invested in a skill reach a certain threshold, a new ability or trait is gained, with the 10th and final ability or trait gained at 100 points. In the case of weapon skills, the 100 point trait allows a character to use the relevant weapon with any vocation, while the 100 point shield trait allows any vocation to use shields. Abilities and traits which have been gained through the skill system are carried over to other vocations, as are unspent skill points. Battle is conducted from a combination of third-person perspectives; the character plans his or her attack from a first person perspective, selecting which opponents to target and switches to a moving third-person view to watch the main character's party and the monsters battle for the round. Combat includes a combo system available both to monsters; when two or more identical attacks are performed consecutively on the same opponent the attack damage increases by a multiplier.
A two-hit combo receives a 1.1x multiplier, a three-hit combo a 1.5x multiplier, a four-hit combo a 2.0x multiplier. Experience points earned from battle are divided amongst all party members based on level. Characters who are killed during a battle still receive some experience as well, depending on how much of the battle they remained alive for; the tension system from Dragon Quest VIII makes a return, allowing characters to store up power to increase the potency of the next attack or spell. Some monsters will be provoked when certain actions are performed: provoked enemies will focus their attacks on the offending party member, which could be a problem if one character ends up provoking many enemies in one action as they run a great risk of being targeted by a combo; the protagonist's actions are controlled directly by the player, while other party members can either be controlled directly or assigned various AI modes such as Show No Mercy
Tambourhinoceros is a Danish indie record label. The label was created by two members of the band Oh No Ono in 2009 as a way for the founders to show the "burning love we have for music", its first release was Kristen and Marie's debut EP in May 2010. Tambourhinoceros became internationally known for its production of Danish indie pop band Treefight for Sunlight, which received positive ratings in both the US and the UK. On that band's debut album, A Collection of Vibrations for Your Skull, a song entitled "Tambourhinoceros Jam" was included, assumed to be a tribute to the record label. Since the label has released internationally successful artists like Iceage, Palace Winter and Efterklang among others. In 2011, Tambourhinoceros was awarded with a Gaffa Award for its contribution to the Danish music scene. Whilst it is a record label, Tambourhinoceros is doing publishing, graphic design and web design for their artists. Aske Zidore left the label in 2012, since early 2013 Tue Kjerstein & Kristoffer Rom have been the managing directors.
Christopher Lee Canty is a former American football defensive end. He was drafted by the Dallas Cowboys in the fourth round of the 2005 NFL Draft, he played for the New York Giants, winning Super Bowl XLVI with them over the New England Patriots in 2011, the Baltimore Ravens. He played college football at Virginia. Chris Canty was born in The New York, he grew up in the Co-op City section of the borough until he moved to North Carolina at age 15. He did not play football until his junior year. Canty helped lead his team to the North Carolina Independent Schools Athletic Association State Championship in 1999 on his way to earning All-Conference and All-State honors as a senior tight end and defensive end after recording 20 receptions for 400 yards and 89 tackles and seven sacks, he finished his prep career with 12 sacks and two fumble recoveries. He was a two-year letterman and all-conference honoree for the basketball team. While at Virginia, Canty was a two-time second-team All-Atlantic Coast Conference selection.
He led all conference defensive linemen in tackles as a junior. In 2002, despite missing three games due to injury, Canty finished his sophomore season with 86 tackles, four tackles for losses, four pass deflections, three quarterback pressures, three fumble recoveries, two sacks while starting eight of the 11 games. In 2003, Canty was named second-team All-ACC, Lineman of the Year in Virginia and recipient of the Ned McDonald Award as UVA's Most Outstanding Defensive Player after registering a career-high 104 tackles, 12 tackles for losses, 12 pressures and four sacks, he became only the second down lineman in school history to record more than 100 tackles in a season. His schoolwork helped him earn All-ACC Academic honors. In 2004, he received his bachelor's degree in African American studies in May and took graduate course work in secondary education during his senior year. Canty's season was cut short in the fourth game of the season when he tore his ACL, MCL and PCL in his left knee. At the time, he had posted seven tackles for losses, a sack and a forced fumble.
Canty suffered a serious eye injury at a nightclub in Scottsdale, Arizona, in late January 2005. While Canty said he was nothing more than a bystander in an altercation, he evidently was hit with a glass bottle in left eye, forcing him to have immediate surgery to repair a detached retina. Canty was drafted in the fourth round of the 2005 NFL Draft by the Dallas Cowboys. After entering his senior season as a potential first round draft choice, he fell because of the knee injury he suffered as a senior, as well as a detached retina in his left eye, inflicted in the spring prior to the draft; the Cowboys traded their fifth round pick in 2005 and a fourth rounder in 2006 to the Philadelphia Eagles in order to move up. Canty signed a three-year, $1.3 million contract with the Cowboys. After working throughout the spring and summer to rehabilitate his knee and recover from the injured retina, Canty was on the field one week into training camp; as a rookie, he registered 35 tackles, was second on the team with five tackles for loss and tied for fourth on the club with 2.5 sacks.
Canty played in the season opener at the San Diego Chargers and recorded his first NFL tackle along with a quarterback pressure. Against the Washington Redskins, he added his first career sack with a third-quarter tackle of Mark Brunell, he was third on the team, first among linemen with a season-high six tackles at the Oakland Raiders. He added a half sack and a tackle for a loss. Canty had two tackles against the Philadelphia Eagles as the defense limited the Eagles to 129 total yards, including just 19 on the ground, the fourth lowest rushing total in franchise history. Canty had a season-high two quarterback pressures against the Arizona Cardinals as well as a tackle and a tackle for a loss. At Philadelphia, he played on first and second downs, recorded two tackles, a tackle for a loss and a forced fumble. Canty led all linemen with three tackles and added his second sack of the season against the Denver Broncos. At the New York Giants, he earned his first NFL start, replacing Ellis at right end, recorded four tackles.
He started, the next week against the Kansas City Chiefs and led all defensive linemen with five tackles despite suffering a sprained ankle during the game. He did not start but did play at Washington after missing two days of practice due to the injured ankle, he recorded a tackle for a loss at the Carolina Panthers. In the season finale against the St. Louis Rams, Canty led all defensive linemen with five tackles and had a tackle for a loss. In 2006, the team moved to a 3-4 defense and Canty earned the starting role at right defensive end, he went on to start Dallas's lone playoff game. He recorded 1 sack. In 2007, he registered 43 tackles, 3.5 sacks, 2 passes defensed. In the Cowboys lone playoff game, their third game against the New York Giants on the season, Canty registered three tackles, one sack and one pass defensed. After the Cowboys made the decision to give a five-year extension to Jay Ratliff, on June 11, 2008 season, Canty signed a one-year tender offer worth $2.017 million to remain with the team.
He started all 16 games for a third consecutive year, producing 37 tackles, 3 sacks and a career-high 5 passes defensed. On March 1, 2009, Canty signed with the New York Giants, he was named the starter at right defensive tackle in team's 4-3 defense, but missed eight games with knee and hamstring injuries. In 2011, he registered career-high ma