The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history; the revolutions were bourgeois revolutions and democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states. The revolutions spread across Europe after an initial revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no significant coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries; some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, the regrouping of established government forces. The uprisings were led by ad hoc coalitions of reformers, the middle classes and workers, which did not hold together for long.
Many of the revolutions were suppressed. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, the introduction of representative democracy in the Netherlands; the revolutions were most important in France, the Netherlands, the states of the German Confederation that would make up the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century and the Austrian Empire. The revolutions arose from such a wide variety of causes that it is difficult to view them as resulting from a coherent movement or set of social phenomena. Numerous changes had been taking place in European society throughout the first half of the 19th century. Both liberal reformers and radical politicians were reshaping national governments. Technological change was revolutionizing the life of the working classes. A popular press extended political awareness, new values and ideas such as popular liberalism and socialism began to emerge; some historians emphasize the serious crop failures those of 1846, that produced hardship among peasants and the working urban poor.
Large swaths of the nobility were discontented with royal near-absolutism. In 1846, there had been an uprising of Polish nobility in Austrian Galicia, only countered when peasants, in turn, rose up against the nobles. Additionally, an uprising by democratic forces against Prussia, planned but not carried out, occurred in Greater Poland. Next, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, working in Brussels, had written Manifesto of the Communist Party at the request of the Communist League. Following the March insurrection in Berlin, they began agitating in Germany, they issued their "Demands of the Communist Party in Germany" from Paris in March. The middle and working classes thus shared a desire for reform, agreed on many of the specific aims, their participations in the revolutions, differed. While much of the impetus came from the middle classes, much of the cannon fodder came from the lower classes; the revolts first erupted in the cities. The population in French rural areas had risen causing many peasants to seek a living in the cities.
Many in the bourgeoisie distanced themselves from the working poor. Many unskilled labourers toiled from 12 to 15 hours per day when they had work, living in squalid, disease-ridden slums. Traditional artisans felt the pressure of industrialization. Revolutionaries such as Karl Marx built up a following; the liberalisation of trade laws and the growth of factories had increased the gulf among master tradesmen, journeymen and apprentices, whose numbers increased disproportionately by 93% from 1815 to 1848 in Germany. Significant proletarian unrest had occurred in Lyon in 1831 and 1834, Prague in 1844. Jonathan Sperber has suggested that in the period after 1825, poorer urban workers saw their purchasing power decline steeply: urban meat consumption in Belgium and Germany stagnated or declined after 1830, despite growing populations; the economic crisis of 1847 increased urban unemployment: 10,000 Viennese factory workers were made redundant and 128 Hamburg firms went bankrupt over the course of 1847.
With the exception of the Netherlands, there was a strong correlation among the countries that were most affected by the industrial shock of 1847 and those that underwent a revolution in 1848. The situation in the German states was similar. Parts of Prussia were beginning to industrialize. During the decade of the 1840s, mechanized production in the textile industry brought about inexpensive clothing that undercut the handmade products of German tailors. Reforms ameliorated the most unpopular features of rural feudalism, but industrial workers remained dissatisfied with these and pressed for greater change. Urban workers had no choice but to spend half of their income on food, which consisted of bread and potatoes; as a result of harvest failures, food prices soared and the demand for manufactured goods decreased, causing an increase in unemployment. During the revolution, to address the problem of unemployment, workshops were organized for men interested in construction work. Officials set up workshops for women when they felt they were excluded.
Artisans and unemployed workers destroyed industrial machines whe
Μ Sculptoris, Latinized as Mu Sculptoris, is a solitary, orange-hued star in the southern constellation of Sculptor. It is visible to the naked eye as a dim point of light with an apparent visual magnitude of +5.30. This star is located 291 light years from the Sun based on parallax, it is drifting further away with a radial velocity of +16 km/s; this object is an aging K-type giant star with a stellar classification of K1 III. Having exhausted the supply of hydrogen at its core, this star expanded and cooled off the main sequence. At present it has 11 times the girth of the Sun, it is a suspected variable star of unknown type, with its brightness measured as varying from magnitude 5.30 down to 5.33. The star has 1.32 times the mass of the Sun and is radiating 61 times the Sun's luminosity from its swollen photosphere at an effective temperature of 4899 K
Renaldo Levalle Wynn is a former American football defensive end. He was drafted by the Jacksonville Jaguars in the first round of the 1997 NFL Draft, he played college football at Notre Dame. Wynn played for the New Orleans Saints, New York Giants and Washington Redskins. Wynn attended De La Salle Institute in Chicago and gained honors as an All-Midwest selection by Tom Lemming's Prep Football Report and All-State second-team choice by the Chicago Tribune, he was team captain. He gained All-Catholic All-City honors as a senior. Wynn lettered four years in basketball, averaging 12 points 11 rebounds per game while serving as team captain as a senior, he received three letters in track, performing in the long jump. Wynn was recruited by University of Notre Dame in 1992, he was redshirted as a freshman in his first season. During the 1993 season he recorded 19 tackles with three sacks while starting three games at strongside outside linebacker and two games at left defensive end. Wynn played in ten games in 1994, starting the first six at right outside linebacker and four others, including the Fiesta Bowl against the University of Colorado, at left defensive end.
Wynn recorded 47 tackles with one sack, four stops for losses, forced two fumbles and recovered another. He gained All-American honorable mention honors as a junior in 1995 by compiling 57 tackles with six stops for losses and leading the team with 6.5 sacks. In 1996, Wynn played left defensive end as a senior, making 61 tackles with nine sacks, six stops for losses, recovered two fumbles and deflected one pass, he was named Lineman of the Year as a senior. Wynn was selected in the first round of the 1997 NFL Draft by the Jacksonville Jaguars. In 1997, Wynn was named to All-Rookie teams chosen by Pro Football Writers Association/Pro Football Weekly, Football News and College & Pro Football Newsweekly, he played in all 16 games with eight starts. He finished tenth on the team with 60 tackles, as well as two tackles for a loss, 2.5 sacks, one fumble recovery. In 1998, he started in the first 15 games of the season at all four defensive line positions. Wynn finished the year with 58 tackles, one sack, one fumble recovery.
During the 1999 season, he started in 10 of 12 games played finishing with 37 tackles, 1.5 sacks, one forced fumble and one fumble recovery. He started the season's final seven games and both playoff games and finished the postseason with five tackles. In 2000, he started 14 games at strongside defensive end compiling 55 tackles, 3.5 sacks, two tackles for a loss, one forced fumble. In the 2001 season, Wynn ranked sixth on the Jacksonville Jaguars with 75 tackles and tied for fifth with five sacks, both career highs, he started in all 16 games for the first time in his career. Wynn moved to the Washington Redskins for the 2002 season, he was inserted into the starting lineup at defensive end. He played in all 16 games for the second straight season, he posted 42 tackles, recorded 2.5 sacks for 19 yards of loss, three forced fumbles, one fumble recovery. In 2003, Wynn started all 16 games for the third time in his career, he was voted as team captain by his teammates, Wynn posted 30 tackles and two sacks for the season.
During the 2004 season, Wynn had another solid campaign and playing in all 16 games. He recorded three sacks on the season. On September 3, 2007, the Redskins released him. Wynn signed with the New Orleans Saints on September 7, 2007, he appeared in 12 games for the Saints that season including one start, recording 13 tackles and 3.5 sacks. He became a free agent in the 2008 offseason. In May 2008, Wynn visited with the New York Giants, he agreed to terms on a contract with the team on June 1, 2008. The move reunited him with Giants head coach Tom Coughlin, head coach of the Jacksonville Jaguars when Wynn was drafted by the team in 1997. Wynn was re-signed to a one-year contract by the Washington Redskins on March 16, 2009, he was released on October 10 to make room for punter Glenn Pakulak, was re-signed on October 12 when Pakulak was waived. He was released again on October 17. Wynn signed with the Omaha Nighthawks of the United Football League on October 25, 2010. Career statistics and player information from NFL.com · Pro-Football-Reference New York Giants bio Washington Redskins bio