Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini. Whereas the regular military defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system; the Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have 125,000 military personnel including ground and naval forces, its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. It controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel, its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society, its expanded social, political and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed that of the Shia clerical system.
The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997. In Iran, due to the frequent use of referencing government organizations with one word names as opposed to acronyms or shortened versions, the entire general populace universally refer to the organization as Sepâh. Sepâh has a historical connotation of soldiers, while in modern Persian it is used to describe a corps sized unit, in modern Persian Artesh is the more standard term for an army. Pâsdârân is the plural form of Pâsdâr, which means "Guardian". Members of Sepah are known as Pāsdār, their title and comes after their rank. Apart from the phrase of Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, the Iranian Government and those who identify with the organization use Sepāh-e Pâsdârân, although it is not uncommon to hear Pâsdârân-e Enghelâb, or Pâsdârân as well, it should be noted though that among the Iranian population, among diaspora Iranians, using the word Pasdaran indicates admiration for the organization.
Most foreign governments and the English-speaking mass media tend to use the term Iranian Revolutionary Guards or the Revolutionary Guards. In the US media, the force is referred to interchangeably as the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps or the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps; the US government standard is Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, while the United Nations uses Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps. The force's main role is in national security, it is responsible for internal and border security, law enforcement, Iran's missile forces. IRGC operations are geared towards less traditional duties; these include the control of smuggling, control of the Strait of Hormuz, resistance operations. The IRGC is intended to complement the more traditional role of the regular Iranian military, with the two forces operating separately and focusing on different operational roles; the IRGC is a combined arms force with its own ground forces, air force and special forces. It controls the Basij militia; the Basij is a volunteer-based force, with 300,000 reservists.
The IRGC is recognized as a component of the Iranian military under Article 150 of the Iranian Constitution. It is separate from, parallel to, the other arm of Iran's military, called Artesh. In the waters of the Persian Gulf, the IRGC is expected to assume control of any Iranian response to attacks on its nuclear facilities; the IRGC was formed on 5 May 1979 following the Islamic Revolution of 1979 in an effort to consolidate several paramilitary forces into a single force loyal to the new government and to function as a counter to the influence and power of the regular military seen as a potential source of opposition because of its traditional loyalty to the Shah. From the beginning of the new Islamic government, the Pasdaran functioned as a corps of the faithful; the Constitution of the Islamic Republic entrusted the defense of Iran's territorial integrity and political independence to the regular military, while it gave the Pasdaran the responsibility of preserving the Revolution itself.
Days after Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's return to Tehran on 1 February 1979, the Bazargan interim administration established the Pasdaran under a decree issued by Khomeini on 5 May. The Pasdaran was intended to protect the Revolution and to assist the ruling clerics in the day-to-day enforcement of the new government's Islamic codes and morality. There were other more important, reasons for establishing the Pasdaran; the Revolution needed to rely on a force of its own rather than borrowing the previous regime's tainted units. As one of the first revolutionary institutions, the Pasdaran helped legitimize the Revolution and gave the new government an armed basis of support. Moreover, the establishment of the Pasdaran served notice to both the population and the regular armed forces that the Khomeini government was developing its own enforcement
Maragheh Romanized as Marāgheh. Maragheh is on the bank of the river Sufi Chay; the population consists of Iranian Azerbaijanis who speak the Azerbaijani language. It is 130 kilometres from the largest city in northwestern Iran. Maragheh is an ancient city encompassed by a high wall ruined in many places, has four gates. Two stone bridges in good condition are said to have been constructed during the reign of Hulaku Khan, who made Maragheh the capital of the Ilkhanate. Shortly thereafter it became the seat of the Church of the East Patriarch Mar Yaballaha III. One of the famous burial towers, the Gonbad-e-Kabud, is decorated with decorative patterns resembling Penrose tiles; the 14th century book Al-Vaghfiya Al-Rashidiya describes many of the estates in the town, several of the quanat of the time. Its marble, known throughout Iran as Maragha marble, is a travertine obtained at the village of Dashkasan near Azarshahr about 50 km north-west from Maragheh, it is deposited from water, which bubbles up from a number of springs in the form of horizontal layers, which at first are thin crusts and can be broken, but solidify and harden into blocks with a thickness of about 20 cm.
It is a singularly beautiful substance, being of pink, greenish, or milk-white color, streaked with reddish copper-colored veins. It is sold worldwide under such names as Azarshar Red or Yellow. Late Miocene strata near Maragheh have produced rich harvests of vertebrate fossils for European and North American museums. A multi-national team reopened the foissil site in 2008; the city is situated in a narrow valley running nearly north and south at the eastern extremity of a well-cultivated plain opening towards Lake Urmia, the world's sixth-largest saltwater lake, which lies 30 km to the west. The town is encompassed by a high wall ruined in many places, has four gates. Maragheh is surrounded by extensive vineyards and orchards, all well watered by canals led from the river, producing great quantities of fruit; the hills west of the town consist of horizontal strata of sandstone covered with irregular pieces of basalt. On a hill west of the town are the remains of the famous Maragheh observatory called Rasad Khaneh, constructed under the direction the Ilkhanid king, Hülagü Khan for Nasir al-Din al-Tusi.
The building, which no doubt served as a citadel as well, enclosed a space of 340 by 135 meters, the foundations of the walls were 13 to 2 meters in thickness. The observatory was constructed in the thirteenth century and was said to house a staff of at least ten astronomers and a librarian, in charge of the library which contained over 40,000 books; this observatory was one of the most prestigious during the medieval times in the Islamic Empire during the golden age of Islamic science. The famous astronomer Ibn al-Shatir did much of his work in this observatory. University of Maragheh Payam-e Noor University of Maragheh Azad University of Maragheh For a complete list see: Category:People from Maragheh Goražde, Bosnia and Herzegovina, E. Makovicky: 800-year-old pentagonal tiling from Maragha and the new varieties of aperiodic tiling it inspired. In: I. Hargittai, editor: Fivefold Symmetry, pp. 67–86. World Scientific, Singapore-London Peter J. Lu and Paul J. Steinhardt: Decagonal and Quasi-crystalline Tilings in Medieval Islamic Architecture, Science 315 1106-1110 Official website Maragheh in Enc.
Britannica The Columbia Encyclopedia Photography of Gunbad-i-Qabud Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Center of Maragha Biography of A'bd alqader ibn Ghaibi al Hafiz al Maraghi Maragheh photos More photos and Information of Maragheh, Tishineh
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Iran)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is an Iranian government ministry headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, a member of cabinet. The current Minister of Foreign Affairs is Mohammad Javad Zarif, approved by the Parliament on 15 August 2013 after being nominated by the President; the first minister of foreign affairs of Iran was Mirza Abdulvahab Khan, who served from 1821 to 1823. The incumbent minister is Mohammad Javad Zarif, appointed on 15 August 2013 to succeed Ali Akbar Salehi; the current officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are: Minister of Foreign Affairs — Mohammad Javad Zarif Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs — Morteza Sarmadi Deputy for Legal & International Affairs — Abbas Araghchi Deputy for Administrative & Executive Affairs — Mehdi Danesh-Yazdi Deputy for Arab-African Affairs — Hossein Jaberi Ansari Deputy for European & American Affairs — Majid Takht-Ravanchi Deputy for Parliamentary & Iranian Affairs — Hassan Ghashghavi Spokesman & Head of the Center for Public and Media Diplomacy — Abbas Mousavi Deputy for Asia & Pacific Affairs — Ebrahim Rahimpour Head of the Center for International Education and Research — Mohammad Kazem Sajjadpour Director-General for Political Affairs and International Security Affairs - Hamid Baeidinejad Since 5 September 2013, the Ministry has been responsible for the negotiation of the Comprehensive agreement on Iranian nuclear program, carried out by the Supreme National Security Council.
The building of the Ministry was completed in 1939. Politics of Iran Foreign relations of Iran List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Iran
Ali Akbar Salehi
Ali Akbar Salehi is an Iranian academic and the head of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. He served as head of AEOI from 2009 to 2010 and was appointed to the post for a second time on 16 August 2013. Before his appointment of his current position, he was foreign affairs minister from 2010 to 2013, he was the Iranian representative in the International Atomic Energy Agency from 1998 to 2003. Salehi was born in Iraq, on 24 March 1949 to ethnic Persian parents, he received a bachelor of science degree in physics from the American University of Beirut in 1971 and a PhD in nuclear engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1977. Salehi is fluent in Arabic, in addition to his native Persian. Salehi is full professor and was chancellor of the Sharif University of Technology and a member of the Academy of Sciences of Iran and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Italy, he served as the chancellor of the Sharif University of Technology from 1982 to 1985 and once again from 1989 to 1993.
While chancellor, Salehi was involved in an attempt to obtain dual-use technologies from a European supplier, according to David Albright of the Institute for Science and International Security, citing some 1,600 telex documents from the 1990s. He was chancellor of Imam Khomeini International University for two years. An ISIS report claims the Physics Research Center acted as a front in the late 1980s and early 1990s to obtain illicit nuclear technologies. ISIS claims. Salehi was appointed as permanent representative of Iran to International Atomic Energy Agency by the president Mohammad Khatami on 13 March 1997 and remained in the post until 22 August 2005. On 18 December 2003, Salehi signed the Additional Protocol to the safeguard agreement, on behalf of Iran, he was replaced by Pirooz Hosseini. Salehi was deputy secretary-general of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference under Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu from 2007 to 2009, he resigned on 16 July 2009 when President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad appointed Salehi as the new head of Iran's Atomic Energy Organization, replacing Gholam Reza Aghazadeh who resigned on 10 July.
Salehi resigned from office on 23 January 2011. On 13 December 2010, Ahmadinejad dismissed Manouchehr Mottaki for unknown reasons and appointed Salehi in an acting capacity. On 23 January 2011, Ahmadinejad nominated Salehi to become foreign minister; the Iranian Parliament voted him on 30 January and he became the foreign minister of Iran, gaining 146 positive votes. The European Union and the Treasury of the United Kingdom had put Salehi into the sanction list as an asset freeze target on 18 November 2009 due to his previous involvement in Iran's nuclear programme; the EU waived this designation when he became foreign minister in 2010. His term as foreign minister ended on 15 August 2013 when Mohammad Javad Zarif took the position in the elected President Hassan Rouhani's government. A day after, Rouhani appointed Salehi as head of Atomic Energy Organization for a second time on 16 August 2013. Salehi replaced Fereydoon Abbasi in the post; as the head of the AEOI when Iran was facing increased scrutiny in light of International Atomic Energy Agency findings, Salehi was designated for financial sanctions and travel restrictions by the European Union and the United Kingdom.
Salehi and Ernest Moniz joined 2015 Geneva Iran and P5+1 nuclear talks to discuss more about technical aspects of Iran nuclear program. Salehi has been selected among the ten people who mattered the year 2015 by Nature magazine because of his role in nuclear talks. Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant List of Iranian officials
Shamseddin Hosseini is an Iranian politician, who served as the minister of economic affairs and finance from 2008 to 2013. Hosseini was born in Tonakaboon, Mazandaran province, in 1967, he holds a PhD in economics from Islamic Azad University. Hosseini taught at Payame Noor University and Allameh Tabatabai University. In 2007, he was appointed minister of economic affairs and finance. Hosseini's term ended on 15 August 2013 and he was replaced by Ali Tayebnia in the post. After leaving office, Hosseini was appointed vice president of Iranian University on 20 August formed by Mahmoud Ahmedinejad
Mohammad Soleimani is an Iranian politician and former Minister of Communication and Information Technology. He is an electrical engineer and a professor at Iran University of Science and Technology, he was born in Kazerun. Soleimani was born in Kazerun, he received a BSc in 1978 from Shiraz University in Iran and a MSc in 1981 and a PhD in 1983 in high-frequency electronics from Pierre-and-Marie-Curie University. Soleimani met with China's Deputy Prime Minister Huang Ju on 27 October 2005, signed the convention establishing the Asia and Pacific Space Cooperation Organization. Iran's first satellite Sinah-1 was launched with help from the Government of Russia from Polstesk space base in Murmansk province in northwestern Russia. Ahmad Talebzadeh, Iran's Aerospace Organization head attended the meeting; when he returned to Tehran he told reporters, "By placing Iran's Sina-1 in its designated orbit, we have joined the group of countries enjoying space technology. It was a big achievement." The 2005 World Summit on the Information Society was held in Tunisia from 16 to 19 November 2005.
12,000 officials from 50 different national governments, the United Nations, various non-governmental organizations participated. Per Soleimani's wishes, "non-discriminatory access" to information technology was approved. Presidency Bio Academic credentials
Ali Asghar Fani is an Iranian politician and former Minister of Education. He took the office as acting minister on 23 August 2013 after parliament rejected nominated Mohammad-Ali Najafi for the post, he was nominated for the post by President Hassan Rouhani and was voted for by the parliament. He resigned from his position on 19 October 2016, as part of President Rouhai's cabinet reshuffling, he served as acting minister in 2005