The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
The Tatars are a Turkic-speaking people living in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries. The name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as; the term Tatars was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass known as the Tartary, dominated by various Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More however, the term refers more narrowly to people who speak one of the Turkic languages; the Mongol Empire, established under Genghis Khan in 1206, allied with the Tatars. Under the leadership of Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan, the Mongols moved westwards, driving with them many of the Mongol tribes toward the plains of Kievan Rus'; the "Tatar" clan still exists among the Mongols and Uzbeks. The largest group by far that the Russians have called "Tatars" are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region, who for this reason are also known as "Tatars", they compose 53% of population in Tatarstan. Their language is known as the Tatar language.
As of 2002 they had an estimated population around 5 million in Russia as a whole. There is a common belief that Russians and Tatars are intermingled, illustrated by the famous saying "scratch any Russian just a little and you will discover a Tatar underneath" and the fact that a number of noble families in Tsardom of Russia and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had Tatar origins. In modern-day Tatarstan, Russian-Tatar marriages are common. Owing to their diverse heritage, Tatars have a vast range of appearances, ranging from East Asian to European; the name "Tatar" originated amongst the nomadic Mongolic-speaking Tatar confederation in the north-eastern Gobi desert in the 5th century. The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions: Kul Tigin and Bilge Khagan monuments as:: Otuz Tatar Bodun and: Tokuz Tatar referring to the Tatar confederation. "Tatar" became a name for populations of the former Golden Horde in Europe, such as those of the former Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian Khanates.
The form "Tartar" has its origins in either Latin or French, coming to Western European languages from Turkish and the Persian language. From the beginning, the extra r was present in the Western forms, according to the Oxford English Dictionary this was most due to an association with Tartarus; the Persian word is first recorded in the 13th century in reference to the hordes of Genghis Khan and is of unknown origin, according to OED "said to be" from tata, a name of the Mongols for themselves. The Arabic word for Tatars is تتار. Tatars themselves wrote their name as تاتار or طاطار; the Chinese term for Tatars was Dada 韃靼 after the end of the Yuan period, but recorded as a term for Mongolian-speaking peoples of the northern steppes during the Tang period. The name "Tatars" was used as an alternative term for the Shiwei, a nomadic confederation to which these Tatar people belonged. Russians and Europeans used the name Tatar to denote Mongols as well as Turkic peoples under Mongol rule, it applied to any Turkic or Mongolic-speaking people encountered by Russians.
However, the name became associated with the Turkic Muslims of Ukraine and Russia, namely the descendants of Muslim Volga Bulgars, Kipchaks and Turkicized Mongols or Turko-Mongols, as well as other Turkic-speaking peoples in the territory of the former Russian Empire. Nowadays Tatar is used to refer to the people, but Tartar is still always used for derived terms such as tartar sauce, steak tartare, the Tartar missile. All Turkic peoples living within the Russian Empire were named Tatar; some of these populations still use Tatar as a self-designation, others do not. Kipchak groups Kipchak–Bulgar branch, or "Tatar" in the narrow sense Volga Tatars Astrakhan Tatars Lipka Tatars Kipchak–Cuman branch Crimean Tatars Karachays and Balkars: Mountain Tatars Kumyks: Daghestan Tatars Kipchak–Nogai branch: Nogais: Nogai Tatars, includes the Karagash subgroup of Nogais—Kundrov Tatars Siberian branch: Siberian Tatars Altay people: Altay Tatars, including the Tubalar or Chernevo Tatars Chulyms or Chulym Tatars Khakas people: Yenisei Tatars, still use the Tatar designation Shors: Kuznetsk Tatars Oghuz branch Azerbaijani people: Caucasus Tatars The name Tatar is an endonym to a number of peoples of Siberia and Russian Far East, namely the Khakas people.
As various nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khan's army in the early 13th century, a fusion of Mongol and Turkic elements took place, the invaders of Rus' and the Pannonian Basin became known to Europeans as Tatars or Tartars. After the breakup of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars became identified with the western part of the empire, known as the Golden Horde; the various Tatar khanates of the early modern period represent the remnants of the breakup of the Golden Horde and of its successor, the Great Horde. These include: the Khanate of Kazan, conquered by the Tsardom of Russia in 1552.
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
Saharna Nouă is a commune in Rezina District, Moldova. It is composed of three villages: Buciușca, Saharna and Saharna Nouă, located on the right side of the Dniester River. Saharna Monastery is situated at the distance of 110 km from Chișinău city; the monastic complex is a natural reservation and carved into the cliff side. Info about Saharna Nouă commune at localitati.casata.md Info about Saharna village Info about Buciușca village
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; the concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, philosophy and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, education, or manners; the level of cultural sophistication has sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.
In common parlance, culture is used to refer to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century; some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives are common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions; when used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time.
In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture, or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is situated within the value system of a given culture; the modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection, his use, that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, through artifice, become human."In 1986, philosopher Edward S.
Casey wrote, "The word culture meant'place tilled' in Middle English, the same word goes back to Latin colere,'to inhabit, care for, worship' and cultus,'A cult a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by Richard Velkley:... meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is implied in these authors when not expressed as such. In the words of anthropologist E. B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices and material expressions, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively; this ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, is thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is used to denote the co
Șoldănești is a district in the north-east of Moldova, with the administrative center at Șoldănești. As of 1 January 2011, its population was 43,300. Localities with the earliest documentary attestation are Dobrusa, Olişcani, Răspopeni, Salcia are certified in period 1437–1448. In the 16th–18th centuries, continued economic development and has been a marked increase in the population. Since late 18th and early 19th century, the region's economic decay occurs as a result of the constant wars led by Poland, the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire for influence in the region. In 1812 Treaty of Bucharest divides Basarabia from the Principality of Moldova, the first being ceded to Russia. In 1918, after the collapse of the Russian Empire, Basarabia decide union with the motherland Romania, during this period district, is part of Soroca County. Basarabia is again busy this time of the USSR after the Molotov-Ribbentrop Treaty. In 1991 as a result of the proclamation of Independence of Moldova, part of the Soroca County, in 2003 became administrative unit of Moldova.
Soldanesti district is located in north-eastern of Moldova, is the neighborhood north and west Florești District, in the north-east Camenca District, in east Rîbnița District, south Telenești and Rezina districts. The territory is located within the Plateau of Nistru, the relief is moderately and represented by plateaus, low hills and dales wide and hilly interfluvial shaped strings. Sometimes come across isolated dome-shaped hills. On the plateau are widespread erosion and landslides. In the district high fertility soils are characterized by prevalent in typical chernozem and carbonated ordinary and brown soil of forest closed. Average reliability of the soil according to the Land Register of the Republic of Moldova is 74-point average of districts of 63 points. Maximum altitude in district is the hill Zahorna, with 338 meters; the climate is temperate continental, average temperature of January −4.50 °C, 21.00 °C in July, the average annual precipitation is 500–560 mm. Average wind speed 4–6 m\s.
The fauna of the district is typical of Central Europe is characterized by: foxes, hares, wild boars, deer and wolves. Of birds there are: quail, hawks, crows and others. Forests occupy 19.3% of the district and are complemented by oak, lime, hornbeam and others. Plants include: nettle, clover, wormwood and others; the main mineral resources located in the district stands metallic resources, most of the stock is near the Mihuleni – limestone. Olişcani deposits – gravel. Soldanesti, Olişcani, Vadul Raşcov – clay. Alcedar, Dobruşa, Răspopeni – sand; the district is located in the Nistru River basin, the river Ciorna is the main river in the district. You meet many sources of drinking water, groundwater is at depths between 0.5 m and 10–15 m. Localities: 33 Administrative center: Soldanesti Cities: Soldanesti Villages: 10 Communes: 22 1 January 2012 the district population was 43,000 of which 17.5% urban and 82.5% rural population. Births: 536 Deaths: 720 Growth Rate: -184 Christians – 98.9% Orthodox Christians – 98.2% Protestant – 0.7% Seventh-day Adventists – 0.3% Pentecostals – 0.2% Baptists – 0.1 Evangelicals – 0.1% Other – 0.8% No Religion – 0.3% Being a predominantly agricultural district, the main efforts are focused on supporting and developing priority directions of agriculture.
Arable land constitutes – 32 351 ha, perennial plantations – 3544 ha, pastures – 4761 ha. Industrial enterprises of all types of ownership manufactured in January–September 2010 production of 6.846 million lei worth at current prices. The volume index of industrial production from January–September 2009 was 96.6%. In district 31 educational institutions working with a number of 5242 students. In educational institutions operating in the district 509 teachers. Preschool – 28, children in kindergarten – 1458, teachers – 152. Soldanesti district is a district with a preponderance of right-wing parties. AEI get good results here. During 2001–2009, the district was a predominantly communist. District is one of the founding members of Euroregion Dniester. During the last three elections AEI had an increase of 76.6% The district works: amateur artistic groups – 124, of which 13 bands as "model", public libraries – 34 of them five children, schools of music – 2, the school district fine arts – 1. 82 craftsmen working in the district of its four members of the craftsmen.
Works: a hospital with general fund of 135 beds, the center of family doctor in the composition of which are 12 family physician offices, 3 health centers, two health centers and 7 autonomous health offices. Andrei Lupan – Writer and chairman of Moldovan Writers' Union. Dumitru Matcovschi – Writer and member of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova, He was a founder of the Popular Front of Moldova Mihai Volontir – Actor Simeon G. Murafa – Politician and director of the newspaper Cuvânt moldovenesc Teofil Ioncu – Basarabian politician
Moldova the Republic of Moldova, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north and south. The capital city is Chișinău. Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia became autonomous and the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic until it was integrated into Romania in 1918 following a vote of its assembly; the decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 allowed the establishment, within the Ukrainian SSR, of a Moldavian autonomous republic on partial Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of the Dniester. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR.
On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was under way, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994; the strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester river has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP, its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent. Moldova is the least visited country in Europe by tourists with only 11,000 annually recorded visitors from abroad. Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and aspires to join the European Union.
The name "Moldova" is derived from the Moldova River. The origin of the name of the river remains unclear. According to a legend recounted by Moldavian chroniclers Dimitrie Cantemir and Grigore Ureche, Prince Dragoș named the river after hunting an aurochs: following the chase, the prince's exhausted hound Molda drowned in the river; the dog's name, given to the river, extended to the Principality. For a short time in the 1990s, at the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the name of the current Republic of Moldova was spelled "Moldavia". After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the country began to use Moldova; the name Republic of Moldova is designated by the United Nations. The prehistory of Moldova covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic which begins with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area of Southeastern Europe some 44,000 years ago and extends into the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity in Greece. In 2010 N. K. Anisjutkin discovered Oldowan flint tools at Bayraki.
During the Neolithic stone-age era, Moldova's territory stood at the centre of the large Cucuteni–Trypillia culture that stretched east beyond the Dniester River in Ukraine and west up to and beyond the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. The people of this civilization, which lasted from 5500 to 2750 BC, practised agriculture, raised livestock and made intricately-designed pottery. In antiquity, Moldova's territory was inhabited by Dacian tribes. Between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, the south was intermittently under the Roman, Byzantine Empires. Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, the territory of modern Moldova was invaded many times in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, including by Goths, Avars, Magyars, Cumans and Tatars. Friar William of Rubruck, who visited the court of the Great Khan in the 1250s, listed "the Blac", or Vlachs, among the peoples who paid tribute to the Mongols, but the Vlachs' territory is uncertain. Rubruck described "Blakia" as "Assan's territory" south of the Lower Danube, showing that he identified it with the northern regions of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
The Bolohoveni, a Vlach population, is mentioned by the Hypatian Chronicle in the 13th century. The chronicle shows that this land is bordered on the principalities of Halych and Kiev. Archaeological research identified the location of 13th-century fortified settlements in this region. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voloscovti, Volcovti and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper; the Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by Daniel of Galicia's troops. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic–Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory. On the border between Halych and the