Rhamnus is a genus of about 110 accepted species of shrubs or small trees known as buckthorns, in the family Rhamnaceae. Its species range from 1 to 10 meters tall and are native in east Asia and North America, but found throughout the temperate and subtropical Northern Hemisphere, more locally in the subtropical Southern Hemisphere in parts of Africa and South America. Both deciduous and evergreen species occur; the leaves are simple, 3 to 15 centimeters long, arranged alternately, in opposite pairs, or paired. One distinctive character of many buckthorns is the way the veination curves upward towards the tip of the leaf; the plant bears fruits which are red berry-like drupes. The name is due to the woody spine on the end of each twig in many species. Rhamnus species are shrubs or small to medium-sized trees, with deciduous or evergreen foliage. Branches are end in a woody spine; the leaf blades are pinnately veined. Leaf margins are serrate or entire. Most species have yellowish green, bisexual or unisexual polygamous flowers.
Calyx tube campanulate to cup-shaped, with 4 or 5 ovate-triangular sepals, which are adaxially ± distinctly keeled. Petals 4 or 5 but a few species may lack petals; the petals are shorter than the sepals. Flowers have 5 stamens which are surrounded by and equal in length the petals or are shorter; the anthers are dorsifixed. The superior ovary is free, with 2-4 chambers. Fruits are a 2-4 stoned, berrylike drupe, obovoid-globose or globose shaped. Seeds are obovoid or oblong-obovoid shaped, unfurrowed or abaxially or laterally margined with a long, furrow; the seeds have fleshy endosperm. Rhamnus has a nearly cosmopolitan distribution, with about 150 species which are native from temperate to tropical regions, the majority of species are from east Asia and North America, with a few species in Europe and Africa. North American species include alder-leaf buckthorn occurring across the continent, Carolina buckthorn in the east, cascara buckthorn in the west, the evergreen California buckthorn or coffeeberry and hollyleaf buckthorn in the west.
In South America, Rhamnus diffusus is a small shrub native to the Valdivian temperate rain forests of Chile. Buckthorns may be confused with dogwoods; the two plants are easy to distinguish by pulling a leaf apart. Common buckthorn and glossy buckthorn are considered invasive species in the United States and by many local jurisdictions and state governments, including Minnesota and Wisconsin; the genus has been divided into two subgenera, which are treated as separate genera: Subgenus Rhamnus: flowers with four petals, buds with bud scales, leaves opposite or alternate, branches with spines. Species include: Rhamnus alaternus – Italian buckthorn Rhamnus alnifolia – alderleaf buckthorn, alder-leaved buckthorn Rhamnus arguta – sharp-tooth buckthorn Rhamnus bourgaeana – endemic to Mallorca Rhamnus cathartica – common buckthorn, purging buckthorn Rhamnus crenulata Rhamnus crocea – redberry buckthorn, hollyleaf buckthorn Rhamnus davurica – Dahurian buckthorn Rhamnus diffusa Rhamnus glandulosa Rhamnus globosa – Lokao buckthorn Rhamnus ilicifolia – hollyleaf redberry Rhamnus integrifolia Rhamnus japonica – Japanese buckthorn Rhamnus lanceolata – lanceleaf buckthorn Rhamnus libanotica – Lebanese buckthorn Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris – endemic to Mallorca Rhamnus lycioides Rhamnus orbiculata – Orjen buckthorn Rhamnus palaestina – Rhamnus pallasii – Rhamnus persica – Persian buckthorn Rhamnus petiolaris – Rhamnus pirifolia – island redberry buckthorn Rhamnus prinoides – shiny-leaf buckthorn Rhamnus pumila - dwarf buckthorn Rhamnus saxatilis – rock Buckthorn, Avignon buckthorn, Avignon berry Rhamnus serrata – sawleaf buckthorn Rhamnus smithii – Smith's buckthorn Rhamnus staddo – Staddo Rhamnus taquetii – Jejudo buckthorn Rhamnus utilis – Chinese buckthorn Subgenus Frangula: flowers with five petals, buds without bud scales, leaves always alternate, branches without spines.
Species include: Rhamnus betulifolia – birchleaf buckthorn Rhamnus californica – California buckthorn, coffeeberry Rhamnus caroliniana – Carolina buckthorn, Indian cherry Rhamnus frangula – alder buckthorn, glossy buckthorn, breaking buckthorn, black dogwood Rhamnus hintonii Rhamnus latifolia Rhamnus purshiana – cascara buckthorn Rhamnus rubra – red buckthorn Some species are invasive outside their natural ranges. R. cathartica was introduced into the United States as a garden shrub and has become an invasive species in many areas there. It is a primary host of the soybean aphid, a pest for soybean farmers across the US; the aphids use the buckthorn as a host for the winter and spread to nearby soybean fields in the spring. Italian buckthorn, an evergreen species from the Mediterranean region, has become a serious weed in some parts of New Zealand on Hauraki Gulf islan
Nir Oz is a kibbutz in southern Israel. It is located in the northwestern Negev desert between Magen and Nirim, covers 20,000 dunams. Nir Oz is under the jurisdiction of Eshkol Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 392. Founded on 1 October 1955, as a Nahal settlement, it was recognized as a kibbutz two months later. Due to its proximity to Gaza, Nir Oz farmers come under Palestinian sniper fire. In 2008, the Israel Defense Forces asked the kibbutz to harvest its potatoes at night to lower the risk of attack. On 5 June 2008, a mortar bomb fired from the Gaza Strip hit the Nirlat paint factory on the kibbutz, killing an employee and wounding four others. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. In addition to agriculture, Nir Oz has a factory for silicon sealant products and an engineering firm. In recent years, Nir Oz has become a major grower of asparagus for export. In 1960, Nir Oz introduced a long-term water saving gardening project on 27 acres of kibbutz land; some 750 drought-resistant plants have been tested.
The garden, designed by landscape architect Hayyim Kahanovich, uses only 50% of the water used in the center and north of the country. The project is conducted in cooperation with Ben Gurion University of the Negev and serves as a study and observation site for researchers, gardeners and students from all over the country. Nir Oz Negev Information Center
Per Second, Per Second, Per Second... Every Second is the only major-label album by Wheat, it was released on Aware Records via a distribution deal with Columbia Records in November 2003. All songs were written by band-members Ricky Brennan Jr. Brendan Harney, Scott Levesque. "I Met a Girl" – 3:59 "Breathe" – 3:16 "These Are Things" – 4:06 "Life Still Applies" – 3:02 "Go Get the Cops" – 3:43 "Some Days" – 3:23 "World United Already" – 4:21 "Hey, So Long" – 2:50 "The Beginner" – 3:39 "Can't Wash It Off" – 3:34 "Closer to Mercury" – 3:51 "This Rough Magic" – 5:26 – 0:31 "Don't I Hold You" – 3:40 The album was recorded and mixed in the fall of 2002 at Room 9 From Outer Space, Tarbox Road Studios, Mansfield Lodge, Conway Recording Studios and Pleasure Studios, Sound Station Seven. The album was mastered by Greg Calbi at Sterling Sound. "Some Days" was featured on the soundtrack to Win a Date With Tad Hamilton! "I Met a Girl" appeared in the movie A Cinderella Story. The 2003 version of "Don't I Hold You" was featured in the Cameron Crowe film Elizabethtown
Minorca was a merchant ship launched in 1799 at Newcastle upon Tyne, England. She made one voyage in 1801 transporting convicts to New South Wales. For her return voyage to Britain she was under contract to the British East India Company. Captain John Leith acquired a letter of marque on 22 April 1801, he sailed from Spithead, England on 21 June 1801 in convoy with Canada and Nile, reached Rio de Janeiro on 29 August. All three vessels arrived at Port Jackson on 14 December 1801; the next day Minorca was at Sydney Cove. Minorca had left with 104 male convicts; the fate of three others is unclear. Minorca left Port Jackson on 6 February 1802 bound for China. By 28 April 1802 Minorca was at Whampoa. For her homeward voyage she reached Macao on 26 May, in company with True Briton and Nile. True Briton parted from the others, Canada had to put back leaky. Minorca was Amboina on 5 August, the Cape on 2 November, St Helena on 1 December, she arrived at the Downs on 10 February 1803. In 1803 her owners sold Minorca to Reeve & Co. Lloyd's Register for 1804 reports that Minorca's master was J. Sunter, her owner Reeve & Co. and her trade Plymouth to Cork.
That entry continued unchanged through 1810. The 1804 volume of the Register of Shipping lists her master as Sanster, her owner as F. Hurry, her trade as London transport, she is last listed in the Register of Shipping in 1806 with Parks, Reeves & Co. owners, trade: London transport. On 9 November 1805 Minorca put into Charleston in distress, but whether she sailed again afterwards is not clear, she had left on 28 October under the command of Captain Wood, in company with Esther, a schooner, all under the escort of HMS Peterell. However, Minorca developed leaks and turned back, joined soon after by Esther, which too had developed leaks, they arrived at the Charleston bar on 3 November and took on board pilots, who informed them of the presence of the French privateer Creole. The privateer approached the two British ships. Minorca succeeded in getting into Charleston, but an engagement developed between Esther and the privateer. Both suffered extensive losses; the men from the privateer proceeded to murder her captain and a number of her crew before taking her into St. Marys, Georgia, on 11 November.
Citations References Bateson, Charles. The Convict Ships. Brown, Son & Ferguson. OCLC 3778075. Duncan, Archibald The British Trident, Or, Register Of Naval Actions: Including Authentic Accounts Of All The Most Remarkabel Engagements Of Sea In Which The British... Of The Spanish Armada To The Present Time.... Hackman, Rowan Ships of the East India Company.. ISBN 0-905617-96-7
The Traveler Redress Inquiry Program is a program managed by the Department of Homeland Security in the United States that allows people who face security-related troubles traveling by air, receive excessive security scrutiny, or are denied entry to the United States, to file their grievances with and seek redress from the DHS. TRIP is intended for people who have unfortunate interactions with the United States Customs and Border Protection while entering or exiting the United States, for people traveling within the United States who are denied or delayed because their name is on a No Fly List or other Federal Government watchlist. While DHS TRIP can be used to file complaints about the behavior of Transportation Security Administration officials, complaints about the TSA can be filed online directly with the TSA website; the latter are handled by the Multicultural Branch within the TSA. TRIP launched on February 21, 2007. Upon launch, it was tentatively praised by the National Business Travelers Association and the Association of Corporate Travel Executives.
Anita Ramasastry wrote for FindLaw that, although an improvement over the status quo, TRIP still did not accord travelers sufficient due process. A 165-page report was prepared by the Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General based on a field investigation between March 2008 and September 2008. Released September 11, 2009, it was released publicly with some sensitive security information redacted in October 2009; the report found numerous inefficiencies in the program and scope for improvement in security, privacy and timeliness. One of the problems noted by the report was that after DHS cleared a particular individual from the watchlist, airlines might still be using outdated versions of the list and might therefore flag cleared individuals. DHS said it was planning to transition to the Secure Flight program where the responsibility of managing the watchlist would rest with the government rather than with airlines, thereby eliminating the need to coordinate list updates with airlines.
In July 2009, the Electronic Frontier Foundation requested copies of all complaints submitted to DHS TRIP. In January 2010, DHS released a summary in lieu of the actual complaints. Official page
Crescent Mills is a census-designated place in Plumas County, United States. Crescent Mills is located 3.5 miles southeast of Greenville. The population was 196 at the 2010 census, down from 258 at the 2000 census. In 1821 Mary A Zubea was born. Four years Frank Joseph Stampfli was born; when these two became adults they married. Frank Joseph Stampfli immigrated to the United States, he registered to pioneer out West where the Stampfli family settled in what is known today as Crescent Mills, CA and Indian Valley. In 1867 Mary A Stampfli was buried on the Stampfli Ranch creating the family cemetery. A tall headstone marked. Lewis Stampfli followed in 1869 and Frank joined his wife in the family cemetery in 1892; the local Native Americans of the Maui do and the Stampfli family had made relationships. Relationships between the Maui do and the Stampfli's included local organizations such as the Indian Mission and marriage. Stampfli's married with the Peck family; the second generation of Stampfli's and Peck's continued to branch out with other families that had settled within the area as well.
In the early 1930s Pearl Peck moved away from the Stampfli Ranch and moved to San Francisco where she met and married David "Bud" Strong, an owner of a large nursery garden. They had David Strong Jr. and younger brother Deryl Glen Strong. Within a year after Deryl was born Pearl became home sick and asked her family to move back to Crescent Mills where Bud Strong Purchased the Stampfli Ranch; the Stampfli Ranch covered the west side of Main Street up the mountainside out to the east into a large flat valley named Indian Valley. The corner of Stampfli Lane and Main Street marks the middle of the Ranch. Crescent Mills post office opened in 1870. Crescent Mills is located at 40°5′47″N 120°54′46″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.2 square miles, all of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Crescent Mills had a population of 196; the population density was 46.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Crescent Mills was 172 White, 1 African American, 15 Native American, 0 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 0 from other races, 8 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 26 persons. The Census reported that 196 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 93 households, out of which 21 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 43 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 7 had a female householder with no husband present, 4 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 5 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 2 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 35 households were made up of individuals and 11 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11. There were 54 families; the population was spread out with 37 people under the age of 18, 7 people aged 18 to 24, 32 people aged 25 to 44, 78 people aged 45 to 64, 42 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.3 males. There were 115 housing units at an average density of 27.1 per square mile, of which 64 were owner-occupied, 29 were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.9%. 140 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 56 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 258 people, 98 households, 73 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 60.8 people per square mile. There were 114 housing units at an average density of 26.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 84.88% White, 6.20% Native American, 3.49% from other races, 5.43% from two or more races. 11.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 98 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.1% were married couples living together, 18.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families. 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.14. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 29.1% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $30,268, the median income for a family was $30,357. Males had a median income of $26,591 versus $33,125 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $16,640. About 14.5% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.9% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. In the state legislature, Crescent Mills is in the 1st Senate District, represented by Republican Brian Dahle, the 1st Assembly District, represented by Republican Megan Dahle. Federally, Crescent Mills is in California's 1st congressional district, represented by Republican Doug LaMalfa