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Rheged was one of the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd, the Brittonic-speaking region of what is now Northern England and southern Scotland, during the post-Roman era and Early Middle Ages. It is recorded in several poetic and bardic sources, although its borders are not described in any of them. A recent archaeological discovery suggests that its stronghold was located in what is now Galloway in Scotland rather than, as was speculated, being in Cumbria. Rheged extended into Lancashire and other parts of northern England. In some sources, Rheged is intimately associated with his family, its inhabitants spoke Cumbric, a Brittonic dialect related to Old Welsh. The name Rheged appears as an epithet of a certain Urien in a number of early Welsh poems and royal genealogies, his victories over the Anglian chieftains of Bernicia in the second half of the 6th century are recorded by Nennius and celebrated by the bard Taliesin, who calls him "Ruler of Rheged". He is thus placed squarely in the North of Britain and specifically in Westmorland when referred to as "Ruler of Llwyfenydd".

Legend associates Urien with the city of Carlisle, only twenty-five miles away. Although it is possible that Rheged was a stronghold, it was not uncommon for sub-Roman monarchs to use their kingdom's name as an epithet, it is accepted, that Rheged was a kingdom covering a large part of modern Cumbria. Place-name evidence, e.g. Dunragit α suggests that, at least in one period of its history, Rheged included Dumfries and Galloway. Recent archaeological excavations at Trusty's Hill, a vitrified fort near Gatehouse of Fleet, the analysis of its artefacts in the context of other sites and their artefacts have led to claims that the kingdom was centred on Galloway early in the 7th century. More problematic interpretations suggest that it could have reached as far south as Rochdale in Greater Manchester, recorded in the Domesday Book as Recedham; the River Roch on which Rochdale stands was recorded in the 13th century as Rachet. Such names may derive from Old English reced "hall or house". However, no other place names originating from this Old English element exist, which makes this derivation unlikely.

If they are not of English origin, these place-names may incorporate the element'Rheged' because they lay on or near its borders. Urien's kingdom stretched eastward at one time, as he was "Ruler of Catraeth"; the traditional royal genealogy of Urien and his successors traces their ancestry back to Coel Hen, considered by many to be a mythical figure. All of those listed below may have ruled in Rheged, but only three of their number can be verified from external sources: Meirchion Gul, father of Cynfarch Cynfarch Oer known as Cynfarch fab Meirchion and Cynfarch Gul, father of Urien Urien Rheged, about whom survive eight songs of Taliesin Owain celebrated for having fought the Bernicians, he is recorded in Welsh sources as having baptised Edwin of Northumbria, however, he may have stood sponsor at the baptism, thus becoming Edwin's godfather. Royth, son of Rhun, the last king of Rheged. A second royal genealogy exists for a line of kings, descended from Cynfarch Oer's brother: Elidir Lydanwyn.

According to Bonedd Gwŷr y Gogledd Elidir's son, Llywarch Hen, was a ruler in North Britain in the 6th century. He was driven from his territory by princely in-fighting after Urien's death and was in old age associated with Powys. However, it is possible, because of internal inconsistencies, that the poetry connected to Powys was associated with Llywarch's name at a probably 9th century, date. Llywarch is referred to in some poems as king of South Rheged, in others as king of Argoed, suggesting that the two regions were the same. Searching for Llywarch's kingdom has led some historians to propose that Rheged may have been divided between sons, resulting in northern and southern successor states; the connections of the family of Llywarch and Urien with Powys has suggested to some, on grounds of proximity, that the area of modern Lancashire may have been their original home. After Bernicia united with Deira to become the kingdom of Northumbria, Rheged was annexed by Northumbria, some time before AD 730.

There was a royal marriage between Prince Oswiu of Northumbria and the Rhegedian princess Rieinmelth, granddaughter of Rum in 638, so it is possible that it was a peaceful takeover, both kingdoms being inherited by the same man. After Rheged was incorporated into Northumbria, the old Cumbric language was replaced by Old English, Cumbric surviving only in remote upland communities. Around the year 900, after the power of Northumbria was destroyed by Viking incursions and settlement, large areas west of the Pennines fell without apparent warfare under the control of the British Kingdom of Strathclyde, with Leeds recorded as being on the border between the Britons and the Norse Kingdom of York; this may have represented the political assertion of lingering British culture in the region. The area of Cumbria remained under the control of Strathc

Len Hutton

Sir Leonard Hutton was an English cricketer who played as an opening batsman for Yorkshire County Cricket Club from 1934 to 1955 and for England in 79 Test matches between 1937 and 1955. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack described him as one of the greatest batsmen in the history of cricket, he set a record in 1938 for the highest individual innings in a Test match in only his sixth Test appearance, scoring 364 runs against Australia, a milestone that stood for nearly 20 years. Following the Second World War, he was the mainstay of England's batting. In 1952, he became the first professional cricketer of the 20th Century to captain England in Tests. Marked out as a potential star from his teenage years, Hutton made his debut for Yorkshire in 1934 and established himself at county level. By 1937, he was playing for England and when the war interrupted his career in 1939, critics regarded him as one of the leading batsmen in the country, the world. During the war, he received a serious injury to his arm while taking part in a commando training course.

His arm never recovered, forcing him to alter his batting style. When cricket restarted, Hutton resumed his role as one of England's leading batsmen; as a batsman, Hutton built his style on a sound defence. Although capable of attacking strokeplay, both Yorkshire and England depended on him, awareness of this affected his style. Hutton remains statistically among the best batsmen to have played Test cricket. Hutton captained the England Test team between 1952 and 1955, although his leadership was at times controversial, his cautious approach led critics to accuse him of negativity. Never comfortable in the role, Hutton felt that the former amateur players who administered and governed English cricket did not trust him. In 23 Tests as captain, he lost four with the others drawn. Worn out by the mental and physical demands of his role, Hutton retired from regular first-class cricket during the 1955 season. Knighted for his contributions to cricket in 1956, he went on to be a Test selector, a journalist and broadcaster.

He worked as a representative for an engineering firm until retiring from the job in 1984. Hutton remained involved in cricket, became president of Yorkshire County Cricket Club in 1990, he died a few months afterwards in September 1990, aged 74. Hutton was born on 23 June 1916 in the Moravian community of Fulneck, the youngest of five children to Henry Hutton and his wife Lily. Many of his family were local cricketers and Hutton soon became immersed in the sport, which he both played and read about with enthusiasm, he practised in the playground of Littlemoor Council School, which he attended from 1921 until 1930, at Pudsey St Lawrence Cricket Club, which he joined as a junior. At the age of 12, he made his first appearance for Pudsey St Lawrence's second eleven and by 1929 had reached the first team. Locals encouraged him to meet the Yorkshire and England cricketer Herbert Sutcliffe, a neighbour, from whom Hutton received coaching in Sutcliffe's garden. Sutcliffe was impressed by the young batsman, commended him to Yorkshire as a good prospect.

Following this endorsement, Hutton went to the county's indoor practice shed at Headingley in February 1930. George Hirst, a former Yorkshire cricketer responsible for assessing and coaching young players, believed that Hutton's batting technique was already complete. Bill Bowes, the Yorkshire pace bowler, was impressed, helped Hutton to correct a minor flaw in his technique. Hutton was sufficiently encouraged to decide to attempt a career in professional cricket, but at the prompting of his parents decided to learn a trade as well. During 1930, he watched the Australian Don Bradman hit 334 at Headingley in a Test match a record individual score in Tests—which he himself would surpass eight years later; that year, Hutton enrolled at Pudsey Grammar School where he spent a year studying technical drawing and quantitative work before joining his father at a local building firm, Joseph Verity. After becoming a professional cricketer, Hutton continued to work for the company during winter months until 1939.

By 1933, Hutton was opening the batting for the Pudsey St Lawrence first team in the Bradford Cricket League. By close observation of his opening partner, the former Yorkshire county batsman Edgar Oldroyd, Hutton further developed his batting technique in defence; the local press soon identified Hutton as a player of promise after he scored a match-winning 108 not out in the Priestley Cup. Senior figures within Yorkshire cricket identified him as a potential successor to Percy Holmes as an opening partner to Sutcliffe. In the 1933 season Hutton was selected for the Yorkshire Second Eleven. Although he failed to score a run in either of his first two innings, over the season he scored 699 runs at an average of 69.90. Yorkshire appointed Cyril Turner as Hutton's mentor. Hutton made his first-class debut for Yorkshire in 1934, at the age of 17 the youngest Yorkshire player since Hirst, 45 years earlier. In his first match, against Cambridge University, he was run out for a duck but scored an unbeaten 50 runs in his second match.

He played for the rest of the se


Aarsele is a village in the Belgian province of West Flanders and a subdivision of the city of Tielt. The earliest written reference to Aarsele dates from 1038 when it appears as Arcela, a Germanic word joining arda and sali. In earlier times Aarsele was under the rule of the Kortrijk who had holdings divided into several fiefdoms such as Donsegem and Hogenhove; some fiefdoms belonged to ecclesiastical orders including the abbeys of Lobbes and of Baudelo and Saint-Baafs in Ghent. The main fiefdom however was Gruuthuse; the achterlenen did not have title, which resided with the wealthy Lewis de Bruges, famous for hosting Edward IV of England at his Bruges home after the king was exiled in 1471. Lewis was a well known bibliophile whose collection of illuminated manuscripts was given, but for a few exceptions, to Louis XII of France. Jan of Bruges was the last male descendant from the Gruuthuse line. After his death at the end of the 16th century, the fiefdom passed to Jakob II of Luxembourg, and by the marriage of his daughter to Jan van Egmont, the fiefdom was transferred to the house of Egmont.

In 1568, the son of Jan van Egmont, was decapitated on orders from Philip II of Spain in Brussels. After his death successively two childless sons came into possession of Gruuthuse. In 1617, for the next two generations, the fiefdom was held by the Richardot family; the marriage of Guillaume to Carla-Eugenia brought an end to the feudal system, or Ancien Régime. As Aarsele was situated on the road between Ghent and Tielt it was not immune to plunder, thus the municipality was devastated by the geuzen, a confederacy of nobles and malcontents, in 1580. During the 17th century French armies laid waste to the town in 1646 and 1690. Between those infamous dates, in 1666 Aarsele was visited by the plague; the Delmerens Mill called Termote Mill, is a registered grain and oil mill dating from 1897, which ceased to operate in 1956. Saint Martins Church is a nationally registered structure, with an interesting interior, a pulpit dating from about 1200 and splendid glass windows. On the south side two bas relief sculptures are a memorial to the battle, fought in Aarsele in May 1940.

In 1909, the building was rebuilt in field stone in rectangular steeple. Nearby is Hooge Crater, site of a former village destroyed during World War I and a memorial to fallen soldiers who died in the area

Ostap Veresai

Ostap Mykytovych Veresai was a renowned minstrel and kobzar from the Poltava Governorate of the Russian Empire. He helped to popularize kobzar art both beyond. Veresai was born in 1803 in the village of Pryluky county, Poltava Governorate, he was the only child of a serf family. His father, Mykyta Veresai, was a congenitally blind violinist. At age 4, Veresai lost his sight. From an early age, Veresai was interested in the bandura, he was quoted in life: "...when a kobzar came to my father's house, I would stand near him, I do not know, more excited. The kobzar would suggest:'You Mykyto give this boy to learn, maybe he becomes a kobzar.'" At age 15, Veresai's father apprenticed him to a kobzar in the village of Berezivka, where Veresai spent only one week. After spending four years at home, Veresai again attempted to undertake studies under a kobzar. There, Veresai met the kobzar Yefym Andriyshevsky and became formally apprenticed to him for a term of three years. However, after several months, Andriyshevsky passed away.

After Andriyshevsky's death, Veresai was apprenticed to Semen Koshoviy from the nearby village of Holinka. Veresai spent 9 months apprenticed to Koshoviy, who he found to be exploitative. Veresai thus spent a total of nine months in apprenticeship instead of the traditional three years. Veresai first attracted the attention of folklorist and Russian painter Lev Zhemchuzhnikov, who spent considerable time in Ukraine between 1852–56; the painter visited the Galagan estate in Sokyryntsi, Ternopil Oblast, where Veresai was married and lived at the time. After their meeting and Veresai became friends. In 1871, Pavlo Galagan took Veresai to Kiev for the opening of the "Pavlo Galagan Collegium" to introduce the kobzar from Sokyryntsi to his guests. Veresai had, only performed in a village setting, it is possible that it is on this trip Mykola Lysenko recorded the melodies of dumas and songs which became the basis for his monograph The characteristics of musical peculiarities of Ukrainian dumas and songs performed by the kobzar Veresai.

The ethnographer Pavlo Chubinsky recorded all of the texts to the songs and dumas which Veresai had in his repertoire. In 1873, the directors of the Southwestern Branch of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society, chaired by Galagan, held an unscheduled meeting of the Society at Galagan's request with the goal of introducing Veresai to its members as an example of ancient Ukrainian poetic works. At the meeting, attended by 28 members and 60 invited guests, the following papers were read: "Ostap Veresai – one of the last Ukrainian kobzars", by O. Rusov The Characteristics of musical peculiarities of Ukrainian dumas and songs performed by the kobzar Veresai", by Mykola Lysenko. At this meeting, Veresai performed the dumas The Escape of the three brothers from Oziv from Turkish Captivity, About Fedir the one without kin, the humorous song Shchyhol, the dance melody Kozachok. Veresai was claimed to be the last of his kind. After this meeting, Veresai performed at a number of other academic conferences.

Veresai gained further fame for his performance of Duma about Fedor Bezrodny and other works on August 29, 1874 at the third Russian Archaeological Conference, which began on August 14, 1874 in Kiev. His performance was covered by the London magazine Atheneum, which published both a summary of the conference as well as an article by the folklorist and writer William Ralston Shedden-Ralston, which compared Veresai to the rhapsodes of ancient Greece. French conference delegate Alfred Rambaud wrote of Veresai's performance in an article titled "Ukraine and its historic songs": One wonderful summer evening we gathered in the University garden to listen to the kobzar. One lamp, hiding in the greenery, lit up the face of the kobzar, whose voice sounded like the song of a nightingale... When Ostap performed one of his humorous songs, it is worth while looking at the way he would dance to the accompaniment of the music, while playing difficult notes on the bandura; the same can be said about the dancing motive.

His life is different from those Homeric tales. The villager Ostap Veresai is a direct descendant of the ancient Slavonic singers, he is the legal inheritor of the Boyan and other nightingales of the past... In February 1875, Veresai was invited by the ethnographic sector of the Russian Geographical Society to Saint Petersburg. There, he performed at the painters' guild. Veresai was received by positive reviews by Saint Petersburg press outlets; the newspaper Novosti wrote: The singer—a seventy-year-old man, is able to capture the listeners sympathy, his singing, marked by deep artistry and much feeling leaves a deep impression with the listeners. According to the experts, Veresai as a singer, was born with a talent and through his dumas would bring to life ancient Ukraine, with numerous reminiscences of the past Veresai's popular success in Saint Petersburg allowed him to pay for the construction of a larger house for his family of 15 in Sokyryntsi. In the autumn of 1881 and spring of 1882, Veresai traveled to

Testament of Abraham

The Testament of Abraham is a pseudepigraphic text of the Old Testament. Composed in the 1st or 2nd century CE, it is of Jewish origin and is considered to be part of the apocalyptic literature, it is regarded as scripture by Beta Israel Ethiopian Jews, but not by any other Jewish or Christian groups. It is treated as one of a trio of similar works, the other two of which are the Testament of Isaac and Testament of Jacob, though there is no reason to assume that they were a single work. All three works are based on the Blessing of Jacob, found in the Bible, in their style; the Qur'an contains a reference to The Scrolls of Abraham in Sura 87, which has no apparent relation to anything in this text. The Greek text of the Testament of Abraham is preserved in two quite different recensions: the long recension, which has a more developed and linear story, survives in about thirty manuscripts, among which the more important are A, E and B. the short recension, where the episodes are sometime abrupt and not logically connected but with an earlier wording, has survived in about nine manuscripts, among which the more important are A and E.

There is no consensus among scholars as to which recension is nearer the original, or whether we shall suppose one or more original texts. The early scholars, as James, but recently Ludlow, working on the narrative viewpoint, support the priority of the long recension; this view has been challenged for example by Turner, who studied the text from a linguistic point of view, by Schmidt, who worked on manuscript E of the short recension, not available to the early editors. The text is preserved in Slavonic, Ethiopic, Coptic Bohairic and Arabic; these versions, apart one Romanian recension, follow the content of the Greek short recension. The Greek Text was first edited, with an English translation and introduction, by M. R. James in 1892; the Greek text was early edited by Vassiliev in 1893. As regards its origin James writes: "The Testament was put together in the second century by a Jewish Christian, who for the narrative portions employed existing Jewish legends, for the apocalyptic, he drew on his imagination".

James holds that the book is referred to by Origen, Luc. xxxv. With the exception of x.xi. the work is a legend and not an apocalypse. To the above conclusions Schürer, takes objection, denies the reference in Origen, asserting that there are no grounds for the assumption of a partial Jewish origin. Kohler on the other hand has given adequate grounds for regarding this apocryph as in the main an independent work of Jewish origin subsequently enlarged by a few Christian additions, it is Kohler's stance that most scholars follow today; the Testament of Abraham was written in Greek, by someone living in Egypt at the time. This is due to the fact that the vocabulary found in the text is quite similar to the vocabulary used in the books of the Septuagint, which were being written at that time, in addition to other books, such as 3 Maccabees, that we know were written around that time in Egypt. In addition, there are aspects of the story that seem to reflect aspects of Egyptian life, such as the three judgments which mirror the three levels of Egyptian government.

These reasons for the place of origin being Egypt are only supported by the long recension of the Testament of Abraham. The short recension therefore has no definite date of origin. While it would be logical to assume that it had its origins in the same place and time as the long recension, as there is no concrete evidence, any Jewish cultural center could therefore be a possibility for its origin; this testament deals with Abraham's reluctance to die and the means by which his death was brought about. Overall, the long recension is about twice as long as the short recension, though both relate the same overall plot. Chapter 1: God tells the angel Michael to "Go down … to my friend Abraham and speak to him concerning death, so that he might put his affairs in order." This exact phrasing comes from the long recension. The long recension includes a list of Abraham's virtues highlighting his hospitality, it mentions that he was at the "Oak of Mamre"; the conversation between God and Michael is longer than in the short recension.

Chapter 2: Michael comes down to earth and finds Abraham in a field. They greet each other, Michael dodges a few questions about his origins, causing Abraham to treat Michael as an ordinary man. Abraham invites Michael to his home and offers Michael the use of a horse to get there, which Michael refuses; the precise phrasing and order of the conversation changes between the recensions, but the overall effect of the conversations is similar between the two recensions. The biggest difference is that in the short recension, Abraham speaks about how he was named, while in the long recension, the question dodging is longer. Additionally, the long recension mentions again. Chapter 3: On the way back to the house, a tree speaks to Abraham, though Abraham does not draw attention to the tree; when they get to the house, Abraham tells Isaac to wash Michael's feet. This causes Michael to cry, his tears become precious stones. In the long recension, Isaac recognizes. Additionally, Abraham takes Michael's tears (that were turned into preci

She Used to Wanna Be a Ballerina

She Used to Wanna Be a Ballerina is the seventh album by Buffy Sainte-Marie, released in 1971. Her previous album Illuminations having sold so poorly as to lose Vanguard a considerable sum of money, the label placed considerable pressure on Sainte-Marie to come up with something that would sell in larger numbers. To this effect, She Used to Wanna Be a Ballerina was recorded with guitar from Ry Cooder and Neil Young and assistance from the latter's backing band Crazy Horse. There was a change in focus of the material: covers of contemporary songs, which she had never recorded before, accounted for five of the eleven songs. Vanguard boss Maynard Solomon, who had produced her first five albums and most of Illuminations, surrendered production duties to Neil Young producer Jack Nitzsche, to marry Sainte-Marie after she wrote "Up Where We Belong" with him in the early 1980s; this label-driven effort to achieve increased commercial success did pay off when "Soldier Blue", the theme song from the movie of the same name reached number 7 in the UK Singles Chart and was a hit throughout Europe.

It failed to chart in the States and the album dented the Billboard Top 200, which served to strain the relationship between Sainte-Marie and Vanguard and paved the way for their split in 1973 after Quiet Places. Soldier Blue single received a silver disc award for 50,000 sales in Sweden. All songs composed by Buffy Sainte-Marie except. "Rollin' Mill Man" – 2:18 "Smack Water Jack" – 3:21 "Sweet September Morning" – 2:53 "She Used to Wanna Be a Ballerina" – 2:17 "Bells" – – 4:37 "Helpless" – 3:11 "Moratorium" – 4:14 "The Surfer" – – 2:38 "Song of the French Partisan" – 3:16 "Soldier Blue" – 3:21 "Now You've Been Gone for a Long Time" – 2:53 Buffy Sainte-Marie – vocals Jesse Ed Davis, Neil Young, Ry Cooder – guitar Jack Nitzsche – piano Merry Clayton – background vocals Gayle Levantharp Crazy Horse Billboard