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Rhineland-Palatinate

Rhineland-Palatinate is a state of Germany located in the west of the country. Covering an area of 19,846 km2 and with a population of 4.05 million inhabitants, it is the seventh-most populous German state. Mainz is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Trier and Worms. Rhineland-Palatinate is surrounded by the states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Baden-Württemberg and Hesse, it borders three foreign countries: France and Belgium. Rhineland-Palatinate was established in 1946 after World War II, from territory of the separate regions of the Free State of Prussia, People's State of Hesse and Bavaria, by the French military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Rhineland-Palatinate became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 and shared the country's only border with the Saar Protectorate until it was returned to German control in 1957. Rhineland-Palatinate has since developed its own identity built on its natural and cultural heritage, including the extensive Palatinate winegrowing region, its picturesque landscapes and many castles and palaces.

The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded shortly after the Second World War on 30 August 1946. It was formed from the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province, from Rhenish Hesse, from the western part of Nassau and the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate minus the county of Saarpfalz; the Joint German-Luxembourg Sovereign Region is the only unincorporated area of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This condominium is formed by the rivers Moselle and Our, where they run along the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate or the Saarland; the present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke of Koblenz and Trier of the old Prussian Rhine Province, those parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse west of the River Rhine and belonging to the People's State of Hesse, parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, the former Oldenburg region around Birkenfeld. On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French.

To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums", Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau and Hesse-Palatinate. The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last state in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig. It was called Rhenish-Palatinate; the provisional French government at that time wanted to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine after the Saarland was turned into a protectorate. When the Americans and British, had led the way with the establishment of German federal states, the French came under increasing pressure and followed their example by setting up the states of Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the Saarland joining Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz was named as the state capital in the regulation. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in Koblenz.

On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly took place there, a draft constitution was drawn up. Local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden was nominated on 2 December as the minister president of the new state by the French military government. Adolf Süsterhenn submitted a draft constitution to the Advisory State Assembly, passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote with the absolute majority of the CDU voting for and the SPD and KPD voting against it. One of the reasons for this was that the draft constitution made provision for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947, the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate was adopted by 53% of the electorate in a referendum. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, it was rejected by the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate. On the same date, the first elections took place for the state parliament, the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate.

The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at Koblenz. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month Peter Altmeier succeeded him; the constitutional bodies, the Government, the Parliament and the Constitutional Court, established their provisional seat in Koble

Sola gratia

Sola gratia is one of the five solae propounded to summarise the Lutheran and Reformed leaders' basic beliefs during the Protestant Reformation. These Lutheran and Reformed leaders believed that this emphasis was in contradistinction to the teaching of the Catholic Church, though it had explicitly affirmed the doctrine of sola gratia in the year 529 at the Council of Orange, which condemned the Pelagian heresy; as a response to this misunderstanding, Catholic doctrine was further clarified in the Council of Trent. This Council explained that salvation is made possible only by grace, that the faith and works of men are secondary means that have their origins in and are sustained by grace. During the Reformation and Reformed theologians believed the Catholic view of the means of salvation to be a mixture of reliance upon the grace of God, confidence in the merits of one's own works performed in love, pejoratively called Legalism; these Reformers posited that salvation is comprehended in God's gifts, dispensed by the Holy Spirit according to the redemptive work of Jesus Christ alone.

They argued that a sinner is not accepted by God on account of the change wrought in the believer by God's grace, indeed, that the believer is accepted without any regard for the merit of his works—for no one deserves salvation. It is linked to the five points of Calvinism; the Eastern Orthodox Churches affirm salvation by grace, teaching: So we, as Orthodox Christians, affirm as and unambiguously as any Lutheran, for example, that “salvation is by grace” and not by our works. Unlike medieval Catholicism, Orthodoxy does not hold that a person can build up a “treasury of merits” that will count in our favor at the Judgment Seat of Christ. What will matter is our having surrendered our sin to God through confession, our gestures of love, together with the unshakable conviction that “Jesus Christ is Lord,” and the unique Way to eternal life. Being synergists, those of Wesleyan-Arminian soteriology, such as Methodists, take a different approach to sola gratia than Lutherans and Reformed Christians, holding that God, through prevenient grace, reaches out to all individuals though they have the free will to cooperate with that grace or reject it.

In November 1999, the Lutheran World Federation and the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity issued the "Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification" that said, "By grace alone, in faith in Christ's saving work and not because of any merit on our part, we are accepted by God and receive the Holy Spirit, who renews our hearts while equipping us and calling us to good works."On July 18, 2006, delegates to the World Methodist Conference voted unanimously to adopt the declaration. The Methodists' resolution said the 1999 agreement "expresses a far-reaching consensus in regard to the theological controversy, a major cause of the split in Western churches in the 16th century" about salvation; some conservative Protestants still believe the differences between their views and those of the Catholics remain substantial, however. They insist that this agreement does not reconcile the differences between the Reformist and Catholic viewpoints on this subject. Christian view of the Old Testament Law Law and Gospel Expounding of the Law Articles on the five solas from a conservative Protestant perspective

Niclas Vemmelund

Niclas Vemmelund is a Danish football defender who plays for Middelfart Boldklub in the Danish 2nd Division. He has played for FC Fyn, Odense Boldklub, Stjarnan, IF Brommapojkarna, Derry City and Dundalk. Vemmelund moved from the under 19 youth squad to the full FC Fyn squad in 2010, where he made one cup appearance and 16 league appearances over two years. During the 2011/2012 season he was in the team that won the Danish 2nd Division and subsequent promotion after a playoff with Hellerup IK, he moved to Odense Boldklub in March 2013. Although on the bench 14 times over two years, he did not play in the domestic league for Odense, he did however play a Danish Cup match in a 9-1 away win against FC Udfordringen. Due to a lack of appearances for Odense he joined Stjarnan to play in Icelands premier division, the Úrvalsdeild. In 2014, Vemmelund made 17 league appearances in the season Stjarnan won the Úrvalsdeild for the first time in their history. In the 2014–15 UEFA Europa League that year, he was in teams that beat Bangor City in the first qualifying round, Motherwell in the second qualifying round, Lech Poznań in the third qualifying round.

In the play-offs proper he played in both matches in a 9-0 aggregate defeat to Inter Milan. He returned to Denmark in 2015 but after a few months at BK Marienlyst where he did not feature, in August 2015 he moved on a free transfer to IF Brommapojkarna to play in the Superettan, he played in 9 league matches in a year that Brommapojkarna were relegated to Division 1. He played in one Svenska Cupen match in a 3-0 away win against IF Sylvia. While he was a free agent, Vemmelund underwent a trial with Derry City in December 2015, he was subsequently signed by Derry for the 2016 season in January 2016. Vemmelund has played in the Danish U19 side. Niclas Vemmelund Derry City FC player profiles. Retrieved 10 April 2016. Niclas Vemmelund at Soccerbase Niclas Vemmelund at Soccerway Niclas Vemmelund at WorldFootball.net