The Monkees are an American rock and pop band active between 1966 and 1971, with reunion albums and tours in the decades that followed. They were formed in Los Angeles in 1965 by Bob Rafelson and Bert Schneider for the American television series The Monkees, which aired from 1966 to 1968; the musical acting quartet was composed of Americans Micky Dolenz, Michael Nesmith, Peter Tork. The band's music was supervised by producer Don Kirshner, backed by the songwriting duo of Tommy Boyce and Bobby Hart; the four actor-musicians were allowed only limited roles in the recording studio for the first few months of their five-year career as "the Monkees". This was due in part to the amount of time required to film the television series. Nonetheless, Nesmith did compose and produce some songs from the beginning, Tork contributed limited guitar work on the sessions produced by Nesmith. All four contributed lead vocals to various tracks, they fought for the right to collectively supervise all musical output under the band's name, acting as musicians, singers and producers.
Following the television show's cancellation in 1968, the Monkees continued to record music until 1971, after which the group broke up. A revival of interest in the television show came in 1986, which led to a series of reunion tours and new records; the group has reunited and toured several times since with different line-ups and varying degrees of success. Jones died in February 2012 and Tork died in February 2019. Dolenz and Nesmith remain active members of the group. Dolenz described The Monkees as being "a TV show about an imaginary band... that wanted to be the Beatles, never successful". The success of the show led to the actor-musicians becoming one of the most successful bands of the 1960s; the Monkees have sold more than 75 million records worldwide making them one of the biggest selling groups of all time with international hits, including "Last Train to Clarksville", "Pleasant Valley Sunday", "Daydream Believer", "I'm a Believer". Newspapers and magazines reported that the Monkees outsold the Beatles and the Rolling Stones combined in 1967, but Nesmith claims in his autobiography Infinite Tuesday that it was a lie that he told a reporter.
Aspiring filmmaker Bob Rafelson developed the initial idea for The Monkees in 1962, but was unsuccessful in selling the series. He had tried selling it to the television division of Universal Pictures. In May 1964, while working at Screen Gems, Rafelson teamed up with Bert Schneider, whose father, Abraham Schneider, headed the Colpix Records and Screen Gems Television units of Columbia Pictures. Rafelson and Schneider formed Raybert Productions; the Beatles' film A Hard Day's Night inspired Rafelson and Schneider to revive Rafelson's idea for The Monkees. As "The Raybert Producers", they sold the show to Screen Gems Television on April 16, 1965. Rafelson and Schneider's original idea was to cast an existing New York folk rock group, the Lovin' Spoonful, who were not known at the time. However, John Sebastian had signed the band to a record contract, which would have denied Screen Gems the right to market music from the show. On July 14, 1965, The Hollywood Reporter stated that future band member Davy Jones was expected to return to the United States in September 1965 after a trip to England "to prepare for TV pilot for Bert Schneider and Bob Rafelson".
Jones had starred as the Artful Dodger in the Broadway theatre show Oliver!, which debuted on December 17, 1962, his performance was seen on The Ed Sullivan Show the same night as the Beatles' first appearance on that show, February 9, 1964. He was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Musical in 1963. In September 1964 he was signed to a long-term contract to appear in TV programs for Screen Gems, make feature films for Columbia Pictures and to record music for the Colpix label. Rafelson and Schneider had him in mind for their project after their plans for the Lovin' Spoonful fell through. On September 8–10, 1965, Daily Variety and The Hollywood Reporter ran an ad to cast the remainder of the band/cast members for the TV show: Madness!! Auditions. Folk & Roll Musicians-Singers for acting roles in new TV series. Running Parts for 4 insane boys, age 17-21. Want spirited Ben Frank's types. Have courage to work. Must come down for interview. Out of 437 applicants, the other three chosen for the cast of the TV show were Michael Nesmith, Peter Tork and Micky Dolenz.
Nesmith had been working as a musician since early 1963 and had been recording and releasing music under various names, including Michael Blessing and "Mike & John & Bill" and had studied drama in college. Of the final four, Nesmith was the only one who saw the ad in Daily Variety and The Hollywood Reporter. Tork, the last to be chosen, had been working the Greenwich Village scene as a musician, had shared the stage with Pete Seeger. Dolenz was an actor who had starred in the TV series Circus Boy as a child, using the stage name Mickey Braddock, he had played guitar and sung in a band called the Missing Links before the Monkees, which had recorded and released a minor single, "Don't Do It". By that time he was using his real name. During the casting process Don Kirshner, Screen Gems' head of music, was contacted to secure music for the pilot that would become The Monkees. Not getting much interest from his usual stable of Brill B
Richard Franklin Lennox Thomas Pryor was an American stand-up comedian, actor. He reached a broad audience with his trenchant observations and storytelling style, is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential stand-up comedians of all time. Pryor's body of work includes the concert movies and recordings: Richard Pryor: Live & Smokin', That Nigger's Crazy... Is It Something I Said?, Bicentennial Nigger, Richard Pryor: Live in Concert, Richard Pryor: Live on the Sunset Strip, Richard Pryor: Here and Now. As an actor, he starred in comedies such as Silver Streak, but in dramas, such as Paul Schrader's Blue Collar, or action films, such as Superman III, he collaborated on many projects with actor Gene Wilder. Another frequent collaborator was actor/comedian/writer Paul Mooney. Pryor won an Emmy Award and five Grammy Awards. In 1974, he won two American Academy of Humor awards and the Writers Guild of America Award; the first-ever Kennedy Center Mark Twain Prize for American Humor was presented to him in 1998.
He was listed at number one on Comedy Central's list of all-time greatest stand-up comedians. In 2017, Rolling Stone ranked him first on its list of the 50 best stand-up comics of all time. Born on December 1, 1940 in Peoria, Richard Franklin Lennox Thomas Pryor grew up in the brothel run by his grandmother, Marie Carter, where his alcoholic mother, Gertrude L. was a prostitute. His father, LeRoy "Buck Carter" Pryor, was hustler. After Gertrude abandoned him when he was ten, Pryor was raised by Marie, a tall, violent woman who would beat him for any of his eccentricities. Pryor was one of four children raised in his grandmother's brothel, he was sexually abused at age seven, expelled from school at the age of fourteen. While in Peoria, he became a Prince Hall Freemason at a local lodge. Pryor served in the U. S. Army from 1958 to 1960, but spent the entire stint in an army prison. According to a 1999 profile about Pryor in The New Yorker, Pryor was incarcerated for an incident that occurred while he was stationed in West Germany.
Angered that a white soldier was overly amused at the racially charged scenes of Douglas Sirk's film Imitation of Life and several other black soldiers beat and stabbed him, although not fatally. In 1963, Pryor moved to New York City and began performing in clubs alongside performers such as Bob Dylan and Woody Allen. On one of his first nights, he opened for pianist Nina Simone at New York's Village Gate. Simone recalls Pryor's bout of performance anxiety: Inspired by Bill Cosby, Pryor began as a middlebrow comic, with material far less controversial than what was to come. Soon, he began appearing on television variety shows, such as The Ed Sullivan Show, The Merv Griffin Show, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, his popularity led to success as a comic in Las Vegas. The first five tracks on the 2005 compilation CD Evolution/Revolution: The Early Years, recorded in 1966 and 1967, capture Pryor in this period. In September 1967, Pryor had what he described in his autobiography Pryor Convictions as an "epiphany".
He walked onto the stage at the Aladdin Hotel in Las Vegas, looked at the sold-out crowd, exclaimed over the microphone, "What the fuck am I doing here!?", walked off the stage. Afterward, Pryor began working profanity into his act, including the word "nigger", his first comedy recording, the eponymous 1968 debut release on the Dove/Reprise label, captures this particular period, tracking the evolution of Pryor's routine. Around this time, his parents died—his mother in 1967 and his father in 1968. In 1969, Pryor moved to Berkeley, where he immersed himself in the counterculture and rubbed elbows with the likes of Huey P. Newton and Ishmael Reed. In the 1970s, Pryor wrote for such television shows as Sanford and Son, The Flip Wilson Show, a 1973 Lily Tomlin special, for which he shared an Emmy Award. During this period, Pryor tried to break into mainstream television, he appeared in several popular films, including Lady Sings the Blues, The Mack, Uptown Saturday Night, Silver Streak, Car Wash, Bingo Long Traveling All-Stars & Motor Kings, Which Way Is Up?, Greased Lightning, Blue Collar, The Muppet Movie.
Pryor signed with the comedy-oriented independent record label Laff Records in 1970, in 1971 recorded his second album, Craps. Two years the unknown comedian appeared in the documentary Wattstax, wherein he riffed on the tragic-comic absurdities of race relations in Watts and the nation. Not long afterward, Pryor sought a deal with a larger label, he signed with Stax Records in 1973; when his third, breakthrough album, That Nigger's Crazy, was released, which claimed ownership of Pryor's recording rights succeeded in getting an injunction to prevent the album from being sold. Negotiations led to Pryor's release from his Laff contract. In return for this concession, Laff was enabled to release unissued material, recorded between 1968 and 1973, at will; that Nigger's Crazy was a critical success. During the legal battle, Stax closed its doors. At this time, Pryor returned to Reprise/Warner Bros. Records, which re-released That Nigger's Crazy after... Is It Something I Said?, his first album with his new label.
Like That Nigger's Cr
Dannii Minogue is an Australian singer-songwriter, model, fashion designer, television presenter and talent competition judge. Minogue rose to prominence in the early 1980s for her roles in the Australian television talent show Young Talent Time and the soap opera Home and Away, before beginning her career as a pop singer in the early 1990s. Minogue achieved early success with hits such as "Love and Kisses", "This is It", "Jump to the Beat" and "Baby Love", though by the release of her second album, her popularity as a singer had declined, leading her to make a name for herself with award-winning performances in musicals with Grease and in Notre Dame De Paris, as well as other acting credits in The Vagina Monologues and as Lady Macbeth; the late 1990s saw a brief return to music after Minogue reinvented herself as a dance artist with "All I Wanna Do", her first number one UK Club hit. In 2001, Minogue released her biggest worldwide hit, "Who Do You Love Now?", while her subsequent album, Neon Nights, became the most successful of her career.
In the UK, she has achieved 13 consecutive number one dance singles, becoming the best-performing artist on the UK Dance Chart. Since 2007, Minogue has established herself as a talent show television personality; as a singer Minogue has had a total of nine UK Top 10 singles, twelve Top 30 singles in Australia, thirteen Number 1 UK club Number 1 singles, 7 million records sold worldwide and six Gold certified singles in Australia. She judged on Australia's Got Talent in Australia from 2007 until her departure in 2012, until 2010, she judged The X Factor UK, where she was the winning mentor in both 2007 and 2010 with Leon Jackson and Matt Cardle, respectively. In 2010, Minogue launched her own fashion label Project D London with her best friend Tabitha Somerset Webb. On 9 November 2011, she received an honorary doctorate degree in Media and Arts from Southampton Solent University for her 30-year varied career in the showbiz and media industry. In 2013, Minogue became a judge for the ninth series of Britain & Ireland's Next Top Model, on The X Factor Australia, where she was the winning mentor that same year with Dami Im.
In 2017, Minogue took on the role as judge on the new BBC show. Dannii Minogue was brought up in Surrey Hills and attended Camberwell Primary School and Camberwell High School, she is the younger daughter of accountant Ronald Charles Allan Minogue, Carol Jones, a dancer from the United Kingdom. She is the youngest of three children, born between 1968 and 1971. Minogue began her career as a child on Australian television. From the age of 7, she appeared including Skyways and The Sullivans. In 1982, she joined the weekly music programme Young Talent Time. Minogue recorded her first solo recordings for the programme, including a cover version of Madonna's hit single "Material Girl". In 1988, Minogue departed from Young Talent Time to continue her acting career, appearing as the rebellious tomboyish teenager Emma Jackson on the soap opera Home and Away in 1989. Minogue remained on the programme for only a year, she proved to be popular among Australian audiences when she was nominated for a Silver Logie as the Most Popular Actress on Australian television.
In September 1988, Minogue released Dannii. She became interested in fashion design. Minogue had designed the clothing she had worn on the show, the positive response from the audience resulted in her releasing her own line. Minogue's debut line Dannii sold out across Australia in ten days, was followed by three additional summer lines in 1989. Minogue signed a recording contract with Australian-based Mushroom Records in January 1989, her first album, was released the following year and reached number 24 on the Australian albums chart. Outside Australia, the album was released in 1991, under the title Love and Kisses, became a top 10 hit. Minogue's debut single "Love and Kisses" peaked at number four on the Australian singles chart and was certified gold. In the UK, the song reached the top 10 on the singles chart. In August 1991 she embarked on an extensive promotional tour of South East Asia, including Hong Kong, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines. Minogue released Love and Kisses and... a re-issue of her debut album, in November 1991.
The album, a collection of dance songs, comprised remixes from Love and Kisses. It peaked at number 42 on the UK albums chart, sold nearly 60,000 copies in its own right. Several remixes by producer and DJ Steve "Silk" Hurley were successful in European dance clubs, she credits these remixes for providing her with a "new image and sound to work with" on future releases. That year, Minogue made her feature film debut in Secrets, which co-starred Noah Taylor; the film revolved around five Australian teenagers who become stuck in the basement of a hotel in an attempt to see The Beatles. The film was not well received by audiences or critics, with Minogue's performance being described as "not all that convincing". Minogue released her second album Get into You, which included the songs "Show You the Way to Go", "This Is It" and "This Is the Way", in October 1993; the album contained uptempo dance tracks and mature poser, but despite her past chart success, failed to make the British top fifty. In mid-1994, Minogue returned to television as a presenter, co-hosting Channel 4's morning show The Big Breakfast in the UK.
In 1995, Minogue released the singles "Rescue Me" and "Boogie Woogie", a collaboration with
Stan Freberg was an American author, recording artist, voice artist, radio personality and advertising creative director, whose career began in 1943. He remained active in the industry into his late 80s, more than 70 years after entering it, his best-known works include "St. George and the Dragonet", Stan Freberg Presents the United States of America, his role on the television series Time for Beany, a number of classic television commercials. Freberg was born Stanley Friberg in Pasadena, the son of Evelyn Dorothy, a housewife, Victor Richard Friberg, a Baptist minister. Freberg was a Christian and of Irish descent. Freberg's work reflected both his gentle sensitivity and his refusal to accept alcohol and tobacco manufacturers as sponsors—an impediment to his radio career when he took over for Jack Benny on CBS radio; as Freberg explained to Rusty Pipes: After I replaced Jack Benny in 1957, they were unable to sell me with spot announcements in the show. That would mean. So I said, "Forget it.
I want to be sponsored by one person", like Benny was, by American Tobacco or State Farm Insurance, except that I wouldn't let them sell me to American Tobacco. I refused to let them sell me to any cigarette company. Freberg's first wife, died in 2000, he had two children from Donna Jean and Donavan. He married Betty Hunter in 2001. Freberg began his career doing impersonations on Cliffie Stone's radio show in 1943. Freberg was employed as a voice actor in animation shortly after graduating from Alhambra High School, he began at Warner Brothers in 1944 by getting on a bus and asking the driver to let him off "in Hollywood". As he describes in his autobiography, It Only Hurts When I Laugh, he got off the bus and found a sign that said "talent agency", he walked in, the agents there arranged for him to audition for Warner Brothers cartoons where he was promptly hired. Thus began Freberg's professional career in entertainment, which lasted for more than 70 years, all the way up to his death, his first notable cartoon voice work was in a Warner Brothers cartoon called For He's a Jolly Good Fala, recorded but never filmed, followed by Roughly Squeaking as Bertie.
He found himself paired with Mel Blanc while at Warner Bros. where the two men performed such pairs as the mice Hubie and Bertie and Spike the Bulldog and Chester the Terrier. In 1950, he was the voice of Friz Freleng's "Dumb Dog" in "Foxy by Proxy", who meets up with a disguised Bugs Bunny wearing a fox suit, he was the voice of Pete Puma in the 1952 cartoon Rabbit's Kin, in which he did an impression of an early Frank Fontaine characterization. Freberg is credited with voicing the character of Junyer Bear in Bugs Bunny and the Three Bears, but, actor Kent Rogers. After Rogers was killed during World War II, Freberg assumed the role of Junyer Bear in Chuck Jones' Looney Tunes cartoon What's Brewin', Bruin?, featuring Jones' version of The Three Bears. He succeeded Rogers as the voice of Beaky Buzzard. Freberg was heard in many Warner Brothers cartoons, but his only screen credit on one was Three Little Bops, his work as a voice actor for Walt Disney Productions included the role of Mr. Busy the Beaver in Lady and the Tramp and did voice work in Susie the Little Blue Coupe and Lambert the Sheepish Lion.
Freberg provided the voice of Sam, the orange cat paired with Sylvester in the Academy Award-nominated short Mouse and Garden. He voiced the father of Wile E. Coyote, in the 2000 short Little Go Beep. Freberg was cast to sing the part of the Jabberwock in the song "Beware the Jabberwock" for Disney's Alice in Wonderland, with the Rhythmaires and Daws Butler. Written by Don Raye and Gene de Paul, the song was a musical rendering of the poem "Jabberwocky" from Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass; the song was not included in the final film, but a demo recording was included in the 2004 and 2010 DVD releases of the movie. Freberg made his movie debut as an on-screen actor in the comedy Callaway Went Thataway, a satirical spoof on the marketing of Western stars. Freberg costarred with Mala Powers in Geraldine as sobbing singer Billy Weber, enabling him to reprise his satire on vocalist Johnnie Ray. In 1963's It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World, Freberg appeared in a non-speaking role as the Deputy Sheriff and acted as the voice of a dispatcher.
Contrary to popular belief George Lucas called upon Freberg, not Mel Blanc, to audition for the voice of the character C-3PO for the 1977 film Star Wars. After he and many others auditioned for the part, Freberg suggested that Lucas use mime actor Anthony Daniels' voice. Freberg began making satirical recordings for Capitol Records, beginning with the February 10, 1951, release of "John and Marsha", a soap opera parody that consisted of the title characters doing nothing but repeating each other's names; some radio stations refused to play "John & Marsha," believing it to be an actual romantic conversation between two real people. In a 1954 follow-up, he used pedal steel guitarist Speedy West to satirize the 1953 Ferlin Husky country hit, "A Dear
Emerson, Lake & Palmer
Emerson, Lake & Palmer were an English progressive rock supergroup formed in London in 1970. The band consisted of keyboardist Keith Emerson. With nine RIAA-certified gold record albums in the US, an estimated 48 million records sold worldwide, they were one of the most popular and commercially successful progressive rock bands in the 1970s, with a musical sound including adaptations of classical music with jazz and symphonic rock elements, dominated by Emerson's flamboyant use of the Hammond organ, Moog synthesizer, piano; the band came to prominence following their performance at the Isle of Wight Festival in August 1970. In their first year, the group signed with E. G. Records, released Emerson, Lake & Palmer and Tarkus, both of which reached the UK top five; the band's success continued with Pictures at an Exhibition and Brain Salad Surgery. After a three-year break, Lake & Palmer released Works Volume 1 and Works Volume 2. After Love Beach, the group disbanded in 1979; the band reformed in the 1980s as Emerson, Lake & Powell featuring Cozy Powell in place of Palmer.
Robert Berry replaced Lake while Palmer returned, forming 3. In 1991, the original trio reformed and released two more albums, Black Moon and In the Hot Seat, toured at various times between 1992 and 1998, their final performance took place in 2010 at the High Voltage Festival in London to commemorate the band's 40th anniversary. Both Emerson and Lake died in 2016. Keith Emerson and Greg Lake met in December 1969 when Emerson's band, The Nice, Lake's band, King Crimson, were billed together for a series of concerts at the Fillmore West in San Francisco. Emerson was looking to form a new band, Lake wished to leave King Crimson. During a soundcheck before one of the shows, Emerson described the first time he and Lake played together: "Greg was moving a bass line and I played the piano in back and Zap! It was there." The pair had met twice before in England: in 1969, when the Nice and King Crimson performed at the Jazz and Blues Pop Festival in Plumpton. When Emerson and Lake decided to form a new group, they approached drummer Mitch Mitchell, at a loose end following the break-up of The Jimi Hendrix Experience.
Mitchell suggested a jam session take place with himself, Lake and Hendrix. The two hired a studio by Soho Square and began to audition new drummers. After several unsuccessful try-outs, Emerson was close to searching in America before he asked his manager Tony Stratton-Smith for names of good drummers, who suggested Carl Palmer of Atomic Rooster and The Crazy World of Arthur Brown. Palmer accepted the invitation and jammed to a blues shuffle and enjoyed the chemistry, but expressed his wish to stay in Atomic Rooster as they were still in their infancy and had attained success in Europe, he soon received a call from Lake's management asking to reconsider. Triton was a group name that Emerson said "was buzzing around" for a little while, "Triumvirate" and "Seahorse" were in contention but they settled upon Emerson, Lake & Palmer to remove the focus on Emerson as the most famous of the three, to ensure that they were not called the "new Nice". After a series of rehearsals at Island Studios in Notting Hill, the band formed a live set featuring "The Barbarian", an arrangement of the piano suite Allegro barbaro by Béla Bartók, "Rondo", an arrangement of the jazz standard "Blue Rondo à la Turk" by Dave Brubeck that Emerson had recorded with the Nice, an arrangement of "Nut Rocker" as an encore, a rock adaptation of Pictures at an Exhibition by Modest Mussorgsky that Emerson wished to do after seeing it performed with an orchestra at the Royal Festival Hall in London when he was in the Nice.
He bought a copy of the score, Lake and Palmer agreed to adapt it. Their first live gig as Emerson, Lake & Palmer followed at Plymouth Guildhall on 23 August 1970, supported by local band Earth, they travelled to the venue in a transit van owned by fellow progressive rock band Yes, were paid around £400 for the gig. A small venue situated outside London was deliberately chosen in case the concert was a failure, but the concert was well received, their second gig took place on 29 August with a set at the Isle of Wight Festival, attended by an estimated 600,000 people and drew considerable attention from the public and music press. At the end of Pictures at an Exhibition, the band fired two cannons that Emerson had tested in a field near Heathrow Airport; the success of the group's debut, as well as Greg Lake's prior association with them while a member of King Crimson, led to ELP's signing management and recording contracts with E. G. Records, who distributed their records through Island Records in the UK and Atlantic Records' Cotillion Records subsidiary in North America.
Emerson believed that Atlantic's chief Ahmet Ertegun agreed to take the band on "because we could sell out 20,000-seaters before we had a record out. That was enough for him to think that a lot of people would go out and buy the record when it did come out." In the months surrounding t
The Monkees (TV series)
The Monkees is an American situation comedy that first aired on NBC in two long series between September 12, 1966 and March 25, 1968. The series follows the adventures of four young men trying to make a name for themselves as a rock'n roll band; the show introduced a number of innovative new-wave film techniques to series television and won two Emmy Awards in 1967, including Outstanding Comedy Series. The program ended in 1968 at the finish of its second season and has received a long afterlife through Saturday morning repeats and syndication, as well as overseas broadcasts; the series centered on the adventures of the Monkees, a struggling rock band from Los Angeles, California consisting of Micky, Davy and Peter. The comic elements of the storyline were provided by the strange and surreal encounters that the band would have while searching for their big break. In the early 1960s, aspiring filmmakers Bob Rafelson and Bert Schneider had formed Raybert Productions and were trying to get a foot in the door in Hollywood.
They were inspired by the Beatles' film A Hard Day's Night and decided to develop a television series about a fictional rock and roll group. Raybert sold the series idea to Screen Gems in April, 1965, Paul Mazursky and Larry Tucker completed a pilot script by August entitled "The Monkeys". Rafelson has said that he had the idea for a TV series about a music group as early as 1960, but had a hard time interesting anyone in it until 1965, by which time rock and roll music was entrenched in pop culture. Trade publications Daily Variety and The Hollywood Reporter ran an ad on September 8, 1965 seeking "Folk & Roll Musicians-Singers for acting roles in new TV series." As many as 400 hopefuls showed up to be considered as one of "4 insane boys." Fourteen actors from the audition pool were brought back for screen tests, Raybert chose their final four after audience research. Micky Dolenz, son of screen actor George Dolenz, had prior screen experience under the name "Mickey Braddock" as the 10-year-old star of the Circus Boy series in the 1950s.
He was auditioning for pilots at the time and was told about the Raybert project by his agent. Englishman Davy Jones was a former jockey who had achieved some initial success on the musical stage, appearing with the cast of Oliver! on The Ed Sullivan Show the night of the Beatles' live American debut. He was appearing in Columbia Pictures productions and recording for the Colpix record label and had been identified in advance as a potential star for the series. Texan Michael Nesmith's mother Bette Nesmith Graham had invented a correction fluid and founded the company that became Liquid Paper, he had served a brief stint in the U. S. Air Force and had recorded for Colpix under the name "Michael Blessing." He was the only one of The Monkees who had come for the audition based on seeing the trade magazine ad. He showed up to the audition with his laundry and impressed Rafelson and Schneider with his laid-back style and droll sense of humor, he wore a woollen hat to keep his hair out of his eyes when he rode his motorcycle, leading to early promotional materials which nicknamed him "Wool Hat."
The hat remained part of Nesmith's wardrobe. Peter Tork was recommended to Schneider by friend Stephen Stills at his audition. Tork was a skilled multi-instrumentalist who had performed at various Greenwich Village folk clubs before moving west, where he worked as a busboy. Rafelson and Schneider wanted the style of the series to reflect avant garde film techniques—such as improvisation, quick cuts, jump cuts, breaking the fourth wall, free-flowing, loose narratives—then being pioneered by European film directors; each episode would contain at least one musical "romp" which might have nothing to do with the storyline. In retrospect, these vignettes now look much like music videos: short, self-contained films of songs in ways that echoed the Beatles' recent ventures into promotional films for their singles, they believed in the program's ability to appeal to young people, intentionally framing the kids as heroes and the adults as heavies. Rafelson and Schneider hired novice director James Frawley to teach the four actors improvisational comedy.
Each of the four was given a different personality to portray: Dolenz the funny one, Nesmith the smart and serious one, Tork the naive one, Jones the cute one. Their characters were loosely based on their real selves, with the exception of Tork, a quiet intellectual; the character types had much in common with the respective personalities of the Beatles, with Dolenz representing the madcap attitude of John Lennon, Nesmith affecting the deadpan seriousness of George Harrison, Tork depicting the odd-man-out quality of Ringo Starr, Jones conveying the pin-up appeal of Paul McCartney. A pilot episode was shot in San Diego and Los Angeles on a shoestring budget—in many scenes the Monkees wore their own clothes. Initial audience tests produced low responses. Rafelson re-edited the pilot and included some of the screen tests, to better introduce the band members to viewers; the re-cut pilot tested so well. The Monkees debuted September 1966, on the NBC television network; the series was sponsored on alternate weeks by Yardley of London.
The series was filmed by Screen Gems, many of the same sets and props from The
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand