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Rhode Island General Assembly

The State of Rhode Island General Assembly is the state legislature of the U. S. state of Rhode Island. A bicameral body, it is composed of the lower Rhode Island House of Representatives with 75 representatives, the upper Rhode Island Senate with 38 senators. Members are elected in the general election preceding the beginning of the term or in special elections called to fill vacancies. There are no term limits for either chamber; the last General Assembly election took place November 6, 2018. The next General Assembly election will take place on November 3rd, 2020; the General Assembly meets at the Rhode Island State House on the border of Downtown and Smith Hill in Providence. Smith Hill is sometimes used as a metonym for the Rhode Island General Assembly. On 12 June 1775, the Rhode Island General Assembly met at East Greenwich to pass a resolution creating the first formal, governmentally authorized navy in the Western Hemisphere: "It is voted and resolved, that the committee of safety be, they are hereby, directed to charter two suitable vessels, for the use of the colony, fit out the same in the best manner, to protect the trade of this colony...

"That the largest of the said vessels be manned with eighty men, exclusive of officers. "That the small vessel be manned with a number not exceeding thirty men. "That the whole be included in the number of fifteen hundred men, ordered to be raised in this colony... "That they receive the same bounty and pay as the land forces..."The Rhode Island General Assembly was one of the thirteen colonial legislatures that rejected British rule in the American War of Independence. The General Assembly was the first legislative body during the war to consider independence from Great Britain. On May 4, 1776, five months before the Continental Congress formally adopted the United States Declaration of Independence, Rhode Island became the first colony of what would soon be the future United States to leave the British Empire. William Ellery and the first chancellor of Brown University Stephen Hopkins were signatories to the Declaration of Independence for Rhode Island. A decisive march ending with the defeat of British forces commanded by Charles Cornwallis began in Newport, Rhode Island under the command of French forces sent by King Louis XVI and led by the Comte de Rochambeau.

The American forces in the march were jointly led by General George Washington. The march proceeded through Providence, Rhode Island and ended with the defeat of British forces following the Siege of Yorktown at Yorktown and the naval Battle of the Chesapeake. Nathanael Greene was a member along with Christopher Greene. Over a decade after the war, the General Assembly led by the Country Party pushed aside calls to join the newly formed federal government, citing its demands that a Bill of Rights should be included in the new federal U. S. Constitution and its opposition to slavery. With a Bill of Rights under consideration and with an ultimatum from the new federal government of the United States that it would begin to impose export taxes on Rhode Island goods if it did not join the Union, the General Assembly relented. On May 29, 1790, Rhode Island became the last of the Thirteen Colonies to sign the U. S. Constitution, becoming the thirteenth U. S. state. From 1663 until 1842, Rhode Island's governing state constitution was its original colonial charter granted by King Charles II of England, a political anomaly considering that while most states during the War of Independence and afterwards wrote scores of new constitutions with their newly found independence in mind, Rhode Island instead continued with a document stamped by an English king.

Nearly seventy years after U. S. independence, Rhode Island continued to operate with the 1663 Charter, leaving it after 1818 the only state whose official legal document was passed by a foreign monarch. While the 1663 Charter was democratic considering its time period, rising national demands for voting suffrage in response to the Industrial Revolution put strains on the colonial document. By the early 1830s, only 40% of the state's white males could vote, one of the lowest white male voting franchise percentages in the entire United States. For its part, the General Assembly proved to be an obstacle for change, not eager to see its traditional wealthy voting base shrink. Constitutional reform came to a head in 1841 when supporters of universal suffrage led by Thomas Wilson Dorr, dissatisfied with the conservative General Assembly and the state's conservative governor, Samuel Ward King, held the extralegal People's Convention, calling on Rhode Islanders to debate a new liberal constitution.

At the same time, the General Assembly began its own constitution convention dubbed the Freeman's Convention, making some democratic concessions to Dorr supporters, while keeping other aspects of the 1663 Charter intact. Elections in late 1841 and early 1842 led to both sides claiming to be the legitimate state government, each with their own respective constitutions in hand. In the days following the confusing and contentious 1842 gubernatorial and state legislature elections, Governor King declared martial law. Liberal Dorr supporters took up arms to begin the Dorr Rebellion; the short-lived rebellion proved unsuccessful in overthrowing Governor King and the General Assembly. The Freeman's Constitution was debated upon by the legislature and passed by the electorate. Although not as liberal as the People's document, the 1843 Freeman's Constitution did increase male suffrage in Rhode Island, including endi


Permesta was a rebel movement in Indonesia, its name based on Piagam Perjuangan Semesta. It was declared by civil and military leaders in East Indonesia on 2 March 1957; the center of the movement was in Manado in Sulawesi, the movement was led by Colonel Ventje Sumual. Alexander Evert Kawilarang resigned his position as Indonesian military attache in the USA to become a general in the Permesta army. On 17 February 1958 the Permesta rebels joined forces with the PRRI rebels based in Sumatra who had declared a revolutionary government two days earlier. Following successful Central Government attacks on the PRRI based in Sumatra, the conflict swung to the east where the Permesta rebels were based. Central Government forces succeeded in capturing the Permesta capital of Manado at the end of June 1958. However, the Permesta rebels continued their resistance, fighting a guerrilla campaign against central government troops until the last remnants surrendered and were given an amnesty in 1961; the PRRI rebellion in the west and Permesta rebellion in the east arose for a combination of reasons.

Foremost was that certain ethnic groups in Sulawesi and central Sumatra felt that government policies from Jakarta were stagnating their local economies, which in turn limited any opportunities for regional development. There was some animosity towards the Javanese ethnic group, who were the most numerous and influential in the newly created unitary state of Indonesia. In effect this conflict was less about any thoughts of secession from the Indonesian state, more about a fair division of economic and political power in Indonesia. During 1957 the United States became concerned that Indonesia was becoming vulnerable to Communism due to the rising influence of the Indonesian Communist Party. In January 1958 the CIA began developing covert support networks to the Permesta rebels. CIA support of the Permesta rebels came in the form of 15 B-26 bombers and some P-51 Mustang fighters which formed the insurgent airforce AUREV based on Manado airfield, large amounts of weapons and equipment, significant funds, plus an international cast of CIA agents and mercenaries from Taiwan, the Philippines and the USA.

Emboldened by CIA aid, the rebels began a series of airstrikes against cities in Sulawesi and Maluku held by central government. The cities bombed by CIA-piloted insurgent planes included Balikpapan and Ambon. On 15 May 1958, insurgent planes bombed the marketplace of Ambon, killing large numbers of civilians attending Ascension Sunday services. Responding to rebel and insurgent attacks, President Sukarno ordered the Indonesian military to crush the PRRI-Permesta rebellion. A series of air raids by the Indonesian Air Force on Manado destroyed most of the rebel B-26 planes. Meanwhile, a rebel B-26 bomber was shot down on 18 May 1958 by Indonesian pilot Ignatius Dewanto over Ambon; the B-26 pilot, the American CIA agent Allen Pope, was captured alive, exposing the CIA's deep involvement in the rebellion. The CIA began to withdraw its support of the rebellion. Pope was tried and sentenced to death in Jakarta, before being released at a date. After annihilating the insurgent air force AUREV, central government troops launched an amphibious and airborne assault on the rebel capital Manado called Operasi Merdeka.

Indonesian troops expelled the rebels from Manado, after which they maintained guerrilla resistance around the Lake Tondano area. However, the central government started a successful campaign offering amnesties to induce surrenders. Rebels who had many familial and amicable relationships with many of the central government soldiers began to surrender; the last Permesta rebels surrendered and swore an oath of loyalty to the central government in 1961. Conboy, Kenneth. Feet to the Fire CIA Covert Operations in Indonesia, 1957–1958. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-193-9. Kahin, Audrey R. Subversion as Foreign Policy The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-97618-7. Ricklefs, M. C.. A History of Modern Indonesia Since C.1200. Palo Alto/Basingstoke: Stanford University Press/Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0804761302. Permesta Information Online Permesta Rebellion

Isla del CaƱo

Isla del Caño is a small island in the Bahia de Corcovado in Osa Costa Rica. It is on the Pacific Ocean side of Costa Rica, 10 miles west of Punta Llorona on Península de Osa, it rises steeply to a flat top of 123 metres in height. Caño Island National Park has been established as a protected national park as a part of the Osa Conservation Area, with a permanent ranger station on the island, it is a popular tourist destination for ecotourism such as whale watching, attracting visitors for its beaches, coral beds, sea life. Researchers use the coral beds to study the factors surrounding coral death and recolonization. Marine life includes manta rays, false killer whales, sea turtles, whales, a wide variety of fish, manatees as well; the nudibranch Mexichromis tica was described from here and Darwin Island on the Galápagos Islands in 2004. The limited diversity of terrestrial fauna, however, is noticeable, with the island having less than one percent of the insect diversity of the peninsula and an absence of numerous animals native to the nearby mainland.

Evidence of pre-Columbian human activity on the island is substantial, with some of the most interesting artifacts being stone spheres evidently carved by early civilizations. Corcovado National Park Bahía Drake List of lighthouses in Costa Rica Photos of Caño Island

Arithmetic mean

In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean, or the mean or average when the context is clear, is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the count of numbers in the collection. The collection is a set of results of an experiment or an observational study, or a set of results from a survey; the term "arithmetic mean" is preferred in some contexts in mathematics and statistics because it helps distinguish it from other means, such as the geometric mean and the harmonic mean. In addition to mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean is used in many diverse fields such as economics and history, it is used in every academic field to some extent. For example, per capita income is the arithmetic average income of a nation's population. While the arithmetic mean is used to report central tendencies, it is not a robust statistic, meaning that it is influenced by outliers. Notably, for skewed distributions, such as the distribution of income for which a few people's incomes are greater than most people's, the arithmetic mean may not coincide with one's notion of "middle", robust statistics, such as the median, may be a better description of central tendency.

The arithmetic mean, x ¯, is the mean of the n values x x 2... x n. The arithmetic mean is the most used and understood measure of central tendency in a data set. In statistics, the term average refers to any of the measures of central tendency; the arithmetic mean of a set of observed data is defined as being equal to the sum of the numerical values of each and every observation divided by the total number of observations. Symbolically, if we have a data set consisting of the values a 1, a 2, …, a n the arithmetic mean A is defined by the formula: A = 1 n ∑ i = 1 n a i = a 1 + a 2 + ⋯ + a n n. For example, consider the monthly salary of 10 employees of a firm: 2500, 2700, 2400, 2300, 2550, 2650, 2750, 2450, 2600, 2400; the arithmetic mean is 2500 + 2700 + 2400 + 2300 + 2550 + 2650 + 2750 + 2450 + 2600 + 2400 10 = 2530. If the data set is a statistical population the mean of that population is called the population mean. If the data set is a statistical sample, we call the statistic resulting from this calculation a sample mean.

The arithmetic mean has several properties that make it useful as a measure of central tendency. These include: If numbers x 1, …, x n have mean x ¯ + ⋯ + = 0. Since x i − x ¯ is the distance from a given number to the mean, one way to interpret this property is as saying that the numbers to the left of the mean are balanced by the numbers to the right of the mean; the mean is the only single number. If it is required to use a single number as a "typical" value for a set of known numbers x 1, …, x n the arithmetic mean of the numbers does this best, in the sense of minimizing the sum of squared deviations from the typical value: the sum of 2. If the arithmetic mean of a population of numbers is desired the estimate of it, unbiased is the arithmetic mean of a sample drawn from the population; the arithmetic mean may be contrasted with the median. The median is defined such that no more than half the values are larger than, no more than half are smaller than, the median. If elements in the d

Eagle Eye Mysteries

Eagle Eye Mysteries is a two-part series of educational computer games developed by Stormfront Studios and published by EA*Kids. The in-game protagonists are twins Jennifer Eagle who form the Eagle Eye Detective Agency; the character of Jennifer is voiced by Lauren Bloom and Jake is voiced by Evan Enright-Schulz. In 1994, Creative Labs and EA*Kids released a two-game compilation that included both Scooter's Magic Castle and Eagle Eye Mysteries in London; the first game was bundled into the Discovery CD New Edition kit along with 17 other games, while both were featured in Sound Blaster Digital Schoolhouse 4x. An activity book that came with the first game allowed players to complete a puzzle that would win them a chance to play a character in the sequel; the game is a first-person detective game that involves reading and puzzle-solving. The player can choose either twin as their companion as they explore the territory and solve cases that are given to them. After each case the player is rewarded with new pages in their digital "scrapbook".

Eagle Eye Mysteries: The Original is centered on Jake and Jennifer Eagle's fictional hometown of Richview. The cases are locally based and involved finding something that has gone missing or tracking down a guilty culprit of a local crime; the headquarters for the Eagle Eye Detective Agency is the Eagle's Nest, an elaborate treehouse built in the Eagle family's backyard. The chief enemy of Jake and Jennifer is a red-headed high school student and local troublemaker called Mark Moriarty, a reference to the famous nemesis of Sherlock Holmes who bears the same surname. In the sequel and Jennifer Eagle go to London on holiday to visit their cousin Nigel, Uncle Basil, Aunt Miranda. More characters were introduced in this game, including Nigel's friends and various "Londonish" characters; the game was released in 1994. The cases involved numerous aspects of English history and literature. Clips before each case were introduced displaying various aspects of London life and culture, which contributed to the educational value of each case.

Eagle Eye Mysteries in London expanded its scope to include cases beyond London in nearby locations like Stonehenge, Kenilworth Castle, Dartmoor National Park, among others. These locations are accessed by Double-decker bus or Black Cab; the game has 50 mysteries. PC Mag deemed the "Eagle Eye Mysteries" fun to play. Compute praised the " clever melding of mystery and education", which meant the educational elements were integrrated so well as to become "invisible". Post-Tribune praised "Eagle Eye Mysteries in London" for teaching younger players about deductive reasoning. Eagle Eye Mysteries at MobyGames Eagle Eye Mysteries in London at MobyGames

Taperoo, South Australia

Taperoo is a suburb in the Australian state of South Australia located on the LeFevre Peninsula in the west of Adelaide about 18 kilometres north-west of the Adelaide city centre. Taperoo is adjacent to Largs North, it is bounded to the north by Moldavia Walk and Solvay Road, to the south by Strathfield Terrace, in the west and east by Gulf St Vincent and the Port River respectively. Taperoo is a residential suburb, with a minor harbourside presence on the eastern side of the suburb. Taperoo as a placename was in use by 1920 as a railway siding located “opposite the works of the now defunct Silicate Brick Company, between Outer Harbour and Glanville” was renamed as Taperoo; the name is derived from an aboriginal word meaning ‘calm.’ Part of Taperoo is reported as being “formerly known as Silicate.” The name was “formally submitted by the City of Port Adelaide at a council meeting held on 10 May 1945” and was formally adopted in 1951 by the Nomenclature Committee. In January 2007, a portion added to the suburb of Largs North.

In August 2009, its eastern boundary was extended to the centre of the Port RiverOsborneville Post Office opened around 1922, was renamed Taperoo on 1 February 1964 and North Haven in 1989. The suburb is served by Ocean View College P-12 on Gedville Road and the Catholic Our Lady of the Visitation Primary School; the suburb is the location of historic Fort Largs, including the former Fort Largs Police Academy, the training facility for South Australia Police. The heritage-listed Fort Largs site, together with a parcel of coastal frontage land to the north and formerly part of the Police Academy site, was placed on the market by the state government in 2014 to recoup the cost of constructing new Police Academy buildings. Further to the north, the site is bordered by a former sand quarry in the coastal foredune, now known as White Hollow Reserve but popularly known as the "Snakepit", which contains 392-metre of sandy running tracks used by sporting clubs and locals. Roy Marten Park, the primary recreational reserve in the suburb, lies to the north of the Fort Largs Police Academy, between the "Snakepit" and Military Road.

A major upgrade of the park started in 2016. Taperoo is located within the federal division of Hindmarsh, the state electoral district of Port Adelaide and the local government area of the City of Port Adelaide Enfield. List of Adelaide suburbs