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Rhodesia

Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe. Rhodesia was the de facto successor state to the British colony of Southern Rhodesia, self-governing since achieving responsible government in 1923. A landlocked nation, Rhodesia was bordered by South Africa to the south, Bechuanaland to the southwest, Zambia to the northwest, Mozambique to the east. In the late 19th century, the territory north of the Transvaal was chartered to the British South Africa Company, led by Cecil Rhodes. Rhodes and his Pioneer Column marched north in 1890, acquiring a huge block of territory that the company would rule until the early 1920s. In 1923, the company's charter was revoked, Southern Rhodesia attained self-government and established a legislature. Between 1953 and 1963, Southern Rhodesia was joined with Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland in the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland; the decolonisation of Africa in the early 1960s alarmed a significant proportion of Rhodesia's white population.

In an effort to delay the transition to black majority rule, Rhodesia's predominantly white government issued its own Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965. The UDI administration sought recognition as an autonomous realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, but reconstituted itself as a republic in 1970; the Rhodesian Bush War, which pitted the government against two African nationalist organisations, ZANU and ZAPU, intensified in the 1970s, prompting Rhodesian premier Ian Smith to concede to multiracial democracy in 1978. However, a provisional government subsequently headed by Smith and his moderate colleague Abel Muzorewa failed in appeasing international critics or halting the bloodshed. By December 1979, Muzorewa had replaced Smith as Prime Minister and secured an agreement with the militant nationalists, allowing Rhodesia to revert to colonial status pending elections under a universal franchise, it achieved internationally recognised independence in April 1980 as the Republic of Zimbabwe.

Rhodesia's largest cities were its capital and Bulawayo. The white population, which grew to nearly 300,000, dominated the country's politics and economy, though they never made up more than 8% of the total population. Rhodesia developed an economy dependent on agriculture and mining, its largest exports were chromium and steel. International sanctions put; the unicameral Legislative Assembly was predominantly white, with minority of seats reserved for blacks. Following the declaration of a republic in 1970, this was replaced by a bicameral Parliament with a House of Assembly and a Senate; the Westminster system was retained, with the President acting as ceremonial head of state, the Prime Minister, heading the Cabinet, as head of government. The official name of the country, according to the constitution adopted concurrently with the UDI in 1965, was Rhodesia; this was not the case under British law, which considered the territory's legal name to be Southern Rhodesia, the name given to the country in 1898 during the British South Africa Company's administration of the Rhodesias, retained by the self-governing colony of Southern Rhodesia after the end of company rule in 1923.

This naming dispute dated back to October 1964, when Northern Rhodesia became independent from the UK and concurrently changed its name to Zambia. The Southern Rhodesian colonial government in Salisbury felt that in the absence of a "Northern" Rhodesia, the continued use of "Southern" was superfluous, it passed legislation to become Rhodesia, but the British government refused to approve this on the grounds that the country's name was defined by British legislation, so could not be altered by the colonial government. Salisbury went on using the shortened name in an official manner while the British government continued referring to the country as Southern Rhodesia; this situation continued throughout the UDI period. The shortened name was used by many people including the British government in the House of Commons; until after World War II, the landlocked British possession of Southern Rhodesia was not developed as an indigenous African territory, but rather as a unique state that reflected its multiracial character.

This situation made it different from other lands that existed under colonial rule, as many Europeans had arrived to make permanent homes, populating the towns as traders or settling to farm the most productive soils. In 1922, faced with the decision to join the Union of South Africa as a fifth province or accept nearly full internal autonomy, the electorate cast its vote against South African integration. In view of the outcome of the referendum, the territory was annexed by the United Kingdom on 12 September 1923. Shortly after annexation, on 1 October 1923, the first constitution for the new Colony of Southern Rhodesia came into force. Under this constitution, Southern Rhodesia was given the right to elect its own thirty-member legislature and cabinet—although the British Crown retained a formal veto over measures affecting natives and dominated foreign policy. Over the course of the next three decades, Southern Rhodesia experienced a degree of economic expansion and industrialisation unrivaled in sub-Saharan Africa.

Its natural abundance of mineral wealth—including large deposits of chromium and manganese—contributed to the high rate of conventional economic growth. However, most colonies in Africa those rich in natural resources, experienced difficu

1990 Bradford North by-election

A by-election was held for the United Kingdom House of Commons for one Member of Parliament in the constituency of Bradford North, in West Yorkshire, England, on 9 November 1990 owing to the death of the sitting MP Pat Wall. Bradford is a city based on heavy textile industries; the Bradford North seat had been held for one Parliament by the Conservatives from 1983 to 1987, when the Labour candidate Pat Wall saw his vote split by a strong SDP challenge and by the sitting Labour MP Ben Ford standing as an Independent. The byelection took place when Margaret Thatcher was unpopular and in her last month as Prime Minister. Declining support for the Conservative government was reflected by the fact that the Conservative candidate in this by-election only attracted just over one in six of the total votes cast just over three years after it had held the seat; the successful Labour candidate Terry Rooney became the first Mormon to be elected to the House of Commons. British Parliamentary By Elections: Campaign literature from the by-election List of United Kingdom by-elections List of Parliamentary constituencies in West Yorkshire

Andrew J. Doran

Andrew J. Doran was an American politician and specialty carpenter. After leaving home, he moved to California where, following the start of the American Civil War, he joined the California Column. After leaving the military he worked as a bridge builder for the Central Pacific Railroad. Doran became superintendent for the Silver King Mine. Politically, Doran was elected to the Arizona Territorial Legislature six times and was selected to be President of the Council twice, his years were spent as superintendent for the Arizona Pioneers' Home. Doran was born in New Philadelphia, Ohio, on July 11, 1840, to George and Jane Doran and raised by his grandparents, he moved to Boonville, Missouri, in 1843 and Mount Pleasant, Iowa, in 1847. From there, he lived in Des Moines, for a short time before settling in Boone County, Iowa. Doran was educated at Iowa Wesleyan College. Leaving home in 1860, Doran went to Colorado. There he worked as miner; the next year he continued on to Marysville, via Tucson, New Mexico Territory.

Upon his arrival, he worked as carpenter, bridge builder, millwright. With the outbreak of the American Civil War, Doran enlisted in the 5th Regiment California Volunteer Infantry. Serving as part of the California Column, he was granted a brevet commission due to his prior experience crossing the desert on the Butterfield route. Doran was discharged from the military in 1864 and returned to California before moving to Canyon City, Oregon. There he worked as a superintendent for the Humboldt Mill and Ditch Company until 1867. In 1868, Doran secured a bridge building contract with the Central Pacific Railroad; as a result of his work for the railroads, he was present for the First Transcontinental Railroad's "Last Spike" ceremony in 1869. Following his work for the railroads, he constructed a mill in California. Doran moved to Arizona Territory in 1876. There he constructed mills for mines in Pinal County In 1881 he oversaw construction of a reduction mill at the Silver King Mine. Upon completion of the work, Doran was hired as the mine's superintendent.

Under his leadership, the Silver King produced record levels of silver. As a result, Doran's expertise was sought by other mine operators in the territory. In addition to his mining efforts, Doran worked as a real estate agent. Entering politics in 1881, Doran represented Pinal County in the House of Representatives during 11th Arizona Territorial Legislature; the next year he was elected Pinal County sheriff. He was returned to the House during the 1887 session. From 1889 till 1893, Doran served two terms on the territorial board of equalization. During the 1891 and 1893 legislative sessions, Doran represented Pinal County in the Council. Governor John N. Irwin appointed him Lieutenant colonel of the 1st Regiment, Arizona National Guard, a position Doran held for seven years. For the 18th Arizona Territorial Legislature, Doran was elected to the Council's at-large seat and selected to be President of the Council. Moving to Prescott in 1895, Doran partnered with former Mississippi Governor Ridgley C.

Powers to form a real estate business. In 1896, he was the Republican nominee to become Territorial Delegate to the United States Congress but lost the general election to Marcus A. Smith. Doran was a commissioner for Arizona's delegation to the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition. For the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair, he served as President of the Board of Managers for Arizona's presentation. In 1907, Doran represented Yavapai County in Council during 24th Arizona Territorial Legislature, he served as President of the Council during the session. The session resulted in two important proposals by Doran; the first was a compromise bill that addressed concerns about appraising the value of mining operations for tax purposes. The second was a proposal to create the Arizona Pioneers' Home. Doran's proposal to create the house was defeated in the 24th legislature but passed by the next session. Governor Joseph Henry Kibbey appointed Doran to be the home's first superintendent, a position he held until his resignation in July 1912.

Doran was a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks and a 32nd degree mason. Following an automobile accident in Los Angeles, California, he began suffering health problems that included partial paralysis. Doran died from a cerebral hemorrhage on February 15, 1918, he was buried in Prescott's Pioneer Home Cemetery. Goff, John S.. Arizona Territorial Officials Volume VI: Members of the Legislature A–L. Cave Creek, Arizona: Black Mountain Press. OCLC 36714908. Conners, Jo, ed.. Who's who in Arizona. Vol I. Tucson: Arizona Daily Star. OCLC 8862523. Wagoner, Jay J.. Arizona Territory 1863-1912: A Political history. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-0176-9