click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence

The Unilateral Declaration of Independence was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state. The culmination of a protracted dispute between the British and Rhodesian governments regarding the terms under which the latter could become independent, it was the first unilateral break from the United Kingdom by one of its colonies since the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776; the UK, the Commonwealth and the United Nations all deemed Rhodesia's UDI illegal, economic sanctions, the first in the UN's history, were imposed on the breakaway colony. Amid near-complete international isolation, Rhodesia continued as an unrecognised state with the assistance of South Africa and Portugal; the Rhodesian government, which comprised members of the country's white minority of about 5%, was indignant when, amid the UK colonial government's Wind of Change policies of decolonisation, less developed African colonies to the north without comparable experience of self-rule advanced to independence during the early 1960s while Rhodesia was refused sovereignty under the newly ascendant principle of "no independence before majority rule".

Most white Rhodesians felt that they were due independence following four decades of self-government, that the British government was betraying them by withholding it. This combined with the colonial government's acute reluctance to hand over power to black Rhodesians—the manifestation of racial tensions, Cold War anti-communism and the fear that a dystopian Congo-style situation might result—to create the impression that if the UK did not grant independence, Rhodesia might be justified in taking it unilaterally. A stalemate developed between the British and Rhodesian prime ministers, Harold Wilson and Ian Smith between 1964 and 1965. Dispute surrounded the British condition that the terms for independence had to be acceptable "to the people of the country as a whole". After Wilson proposed in late October 1965 that the UK might safeguard future black representation in the Rhodesian parliament by withdrawing some of the colonial government's devolved powers presented terms for an investigatory Royal Commission that the Rhodesians found unacceptable and his Cabinet declared independence.

Calling this treasonous, the British colonial governor, Sir Humphrey Gibbs, formally dismissed Smith and his government, but they ignored him and appointed an "Officer Administering the Government" to take his place. While no country recognised the UDI, the Rhodesian High Court deemed the post-UDI government legal and de jure in 1968; the Smith administration professed continued loyalty to Queen Elizabeth II, but abandoned this in 1970 when it declared a republic in an unsuccessful attempt to win foreign recognition. The Rhodesian Bush War, a guerrilla conflict between the government and two rival communist-backed black Rhodesian groups, began in earnest two years and after several attempts to end the war Smith concluded the Internal Settlement with non-militant nationalists in 1978. Under these terms the country was reconstituted under black rule as Zimbabwe Rhodesia in June 1979, but this new order was rejected by the guerrillas and the international community; the Bush War continued until Zimbabwe Rhodesia revoked its UDI as part of the Lancaster House Agreement in December 1979.

Following a brief period of direct British rule, the country was granted internationally recognised independence under the name Zimbabwe in 1980. The southern African territory of Rhodesia Southern Rhodesia, was a unique case in the British Empire and Commonwealth: although a colony in name, it was internally self-governing and constitutionally not unlike a dominion; this situation dated back to 1923, when it was granted responsible government within the Empire as a self-governing colony, following three decades of administration and development by the British South Africa Company. Britain had intended Southern Rhodesia's integration into the Union of South Africa as a new province, but this having been rejected by registered voters in the 1922 government referendum, the territory was moulded into a prospective dominion instead, it was empowered to run its own affairs in all respects, including defence. Whitehall's powers over Southern Rhodesia under the 1923 constitution were, on paper, considerable.

These reserved powers were intended to protect the indigenous black Africans from discriminatory legislation and to safeguard British commercial interests in the colony, but as Claire Palley comments in her constitutional history of the country, it would have been difficult for Whitehall to enforce such actions, attempting to do so would have caused a crisis. In the event, they were never exercised. A co-operative relationship developed between Whitehall and the colonial government and civil service in Salisbury, dispute was rare; the 1923 constitution was drawn up in non-racial terms, the electoral system it devised was open, at least in theory. Voting qualifications regarding personal income and property, similar to those of the Cape Qualified Franchise, were applied to all, but since most blacks did not meet the set standards, both the electoral roll and the colonial parliament were overwhelmingly from the white minority of about 5%; the result was that black interests were sparsely represented if at all, something that most

Kingdom Under Fire: Heroes

Kingdom Under Fire: Heroes is an action strategy game, the prequel to Kingdom Under Fire: The Crusaders, released in 2005 for the Xbox. Both games deal with commanding large armies in magical battles; when the commanding unit enters a battle, the player can control the hero. Each group or army consists of 20 to 30 soldiers, but the player is limited to only five armies and a support unit per game. A support unit, or a special unit, is an army whose main attack does not rely on the race that you control but instead on technology for the humans and magical creatures for the Orcs and Dark Elves. Support units are directed and used as powers instead of regular army units and besides the Swamp Mammoth, all support units fly. Besides a new storyline and game type, there are four new units that look like support units, but act as regular ones; the Fire Wraiths, Ice Maidens, Thunder Rhino, Earth Golem use their respective elements to destroy enemy forces quickly. In Heroes the player has access to seven new heroes, all of whom were in Crusaders: Ellen, Urukubarr, Cirith and Walter.

Each character has their own campaign. When playing as Ellen, Leinhart, or Urukubarr, the game takes place five years before Crusaders; as Morene, Rupert, or Walter, the game takes place during Crusaders. Computer and Video Games gave the game a score of 90/100 calling Heroes an awe inspiring game; the game was well received by professional reviewers. Edge reviewed Heroes in issue 155, awarding 7 out of 10; the main criticisms were that some troop types are still unable to flourish during situations when they should, some AI glitches and inconsistencies, it feels more like a set of tweaks and fixes than a honed sequel. However, it was still recognised as a stirring, challenging experience which rewards a player for using levelheaded, adaptive tactics; the chaotic, brutal melee combat and support for online play was highlighted Official site

Dharmachari Guruma

Dharmachāri Gurumā was a Nepalese anagarika, an influential figure in the revival of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal. She was expelled from Kathmandu by the government for her religious activities. Dharmachari fought social mores and government repression to become a nun, she traveled out of the country to study Buddhism and receive ordination. Dharmachari established the first nunnery in Nepal. Laxmi Nani was born at a historical neighborhood in central Kathmandu, she was the fourth among seven siblings. Her father was mother Ratna Maya Tuladhar. During Laxmi Nani's early years, it was difficult to receive an education, for girls more so. However, encouraged by a neighbourhood shopkeeper and her mother, she taught herself to read and write. In 1909, Laxmi Nani was married to Sete Kaji Bania of Itum Bahal who belonged to a family of hereditary herbalists. A son was born to her in 1916. In 1919, her husband died. In 1927, her daughter died too; the loss of her entire family in a few years made her become more involved in religious activities.

As Laxmi Nani was literate and skilled in mixing herbal medicines, she was a respected member of the household. She fulfilled her responsibilities in the extended family as she studied Buddhist books, she taught what she learned to a group of women students who met at Kindo Baha, a 17th-century monastic courtyard at the foot of Swayambhu. The dilapidated monastery had been restored in 1926 by the efforts of Buddhist scholar Dharmaditya Dharmacharya and benefactor Dharma Man Tuladhar; the gatherings at Kindo Baha attracted the attention of a suspicious government, the women were hauled before the prime minister. He told them that studying religious books and speaking in front of a crowd was not for women, that they should go home and look after their families. However, they continued to study in secret. Laxmi Nani composed hymns in the Newar language, her composition was first printed in 1929 in the magazine Buddha Dharma wa Nepal Bhasa published from Kolkata. The songs exposed social evils of the day.

In 1930, the return to Nepal of Pragyananda Mahasthavir, the first yellow-robed monk in the country since the 14th century, propelled the Theravada Buddhist movement further. Laxmi Nani and five of her companions decided to be ordained as nuns. In 1934, she led her friends to Kushinagar, India and to a nunnery in Arakan, Burma where they received ordination. Laxmi Nani was given the dharma name Dharmachari, they continued their work at Kindo Baha. Kindo Baha was turned into a center of Theravada Buddhism by the monks and nuns who were trained abroad, they conducted regular prayer meets, the number of devotees coming to listen to their sermons kept increasing. As the crowds became larger, an intolerant government turned hostile. Spies hovered around Kindo Baha, devotees had to face repeated police harassment. In 1944, the government took the extreme step of expelling all the monks in Kathmandu. A year the nuns were banished. While the monks had to leave Nepal, the women were sent to Trishuli, a day's journey to the north of Kathmandu on the way to Tibet.

Here too, the nuns taught the Dharma. Their activities were reported to the prime minister, they were kept at the police station at Durbar Square. They were freed the next day. In 1946, a Sri Lankan goodwill mission visited Nepal and pleaded with the government on behalf of the banished monks, they were thus allowed to continue their activities unhindered. Considering the crowded conditions at Kindo Baha, Dharmachari began work to establish a separate nunnery, she raised funds to build a prayer hall and living quarters. In 1952, the nunnery with its centerpiece, a great statue of the reclining Buddha, was inaugurated, it is now known as Nirvana Murti Vihara

Audrey Blignault

Audrey Bettie Blignault was a South African writer. The daughter of an Irish mother and an Afrikaner father, the town's mayor, she was born Audrey Bettie Swart in Bredasdorp, she studied Afrikaans literature at Stellenbosch University, receiving an MA in Dutch. In 1940, she began teaching at Wellington and later at Stellenbosch. In 1945, she became the editor of a women's magazine. In the same year, she started the first Afrikaans book program on radio. For 25 years, she wrote a column for the Afrikaans women's magazine Sarie. Essays from those columns were published in 17 books. A collection of her letters Audrey Blignault: ’n Blywende vreugde was published in May 2008. Blignault was editor for Naweekpos and directed the women's culture program for the South African Broadcasting Corporation, she received the Eugène Marais Prize in 1961, the W. A. Hofmeyr Prize in 1965 and the Italian Adelaide Ristori Prize. In 1982, she received the State President's award for outstanding service, she was the first woman to be named to the board of the South African Academy for Science and Culture.

Blignault died in a Cape Town clinic at the age of 92. She was married twice: first to Andries Blignault, she was injured in the same accident but was the only survivor from the vehicle. She married Attie de Villiers in 1970, her daughter Marié Heese became a writer. In klein maat Kaapstad, 1955. OCLC 557309500 Die vrolike lied Met ligter tred

Grégoire (musician)

Grégoire is a French singer-songwriter and composer. He has released three albums to date and has a number of successful singles in France and Switzerland. In December 2007, Gregoire signed a contract with the young label My Major Company, which gives subscribers the possibility to become music producers. Grégoire's first album was produced by 347 producers, of which forty feature in the music video of his first single, "Toi + Moi"; the song was subsequently aired by the NRJ and RTL radio stations and became a hit in Belgium, Switzerland and on the French digital chart. In 2008, Grégoire was nominated at the NRJ Music Awards in the category'French revelation of the year'. A second single, "Rue des Étoiles" went to radio in November 2008 and was released in December a third single, "Ta Main", whose music video was shot in March 2009 with the actress Inès Sastre. In September 2009, a fourth single started to be aired, "Nuages"; the music video was broadcast on television. Grégoire had four brothers.

As indicated in the music video, the song "Ta Main" was dedicated to Ludovic and Nicolas, his two deceased brothers. Grégoire holds a BA in Applied Languages German. Grégoire is a member of the Les Enfoirés charity ensemble since 2010. Collaboration singles Official site at MyMajorCompany.com

Toys-to-life

Toys-to-life is a video game feature using physical figurines or action figures to interact within the game. These toys use a near field communication, radio frequency identification, or image recognition data protocol to determine the individual figurine's proximity, save a player's progress data to a storage medium located within that piece, it is one of the most lucrative branches of the video game industry, with the Skylanders franchise alone selling more than $3 billion worth over the course of four years. Although modern versions use NFC technology, the earliest example of such a game is Redbeard's Pirate Quest: Interactive Toy created by Zowie in 1999; this PC game came with a plastic pirate ship that connects to the printer port, players can interact with the game by placing the separate pirate figurines on various places in the ship, moving or rotating them. Other precursors to these kinds of games include the Captain Power and the Soldiers of the Future, Dennō Bōkenki Webdiver and Daigunder toylines, where kids could plug Gladion and Daigunder into their TV screens to use as controls, the other toys could interact with the game through infrared sensors.

Toys-to-life games use a third-person camera view, have in-game power-up figurines. Toys-to-life games have an accompanying portal device, used to "transport" the figurine's character and associated player data into the game; the figurines can be transferred from each game in the franchise resetting with every different installment. Skylanders is one of the most successful early games of this genre. Since its first release, each year has seen a new installment in the series, totaling six as of 2016; each game has a different take on the premise than past games. They star the evil antagonist Kaos. All current figurines are compatible with Skylanders: Imaginators. While the franchise has not seen a new main console release since due to Activision’s desire to take an extended break from the main series, a mobile RPG spin-off, Skylanders: Ring of Heroes was released worldwide in early 2019, developed by Com2Us. Amiibo is a toys-to-life platform based on Nintendo properties and characters, as well some non-Nintendo franchises like third-party Super Smash Bros. fighters, Shovel Knight, Mega Man.

Launching in 2014 with figurines, Nintendo has since deployed Amiibo-compatible playing cards, plush yarn toys, promotional cereal boxes. Unlike most other toys-to-life series, Amiibo does not have games dedicated to the use of the toys, but the characters are used throughout various games on Nintendo Wii U, 3DS, Switch consoles. Amiibo can save players' progress data and information per game, however many games only offer read-only functionality. Lightseekers: Awakening is a multimedia franchise created by PlayFusion, an independent British studio co-founded by Mark Gerhard, the former CEO of RuneScape publisher Jagex, its early development was financed via a Kickstarter crowdfunding campaign, which had raised $227,660 by November 2016. The Lightseekers brand consists of a trading card game; the toys-to-life video game was released for iOS and Android mobile platforms in May 2017. The Lightseekers RPG video game is free-to-play and does not require accessories to function, but players can purchase a line of interactive figures made in partnership with Tomy to enhance their experience.

Figures can be decked with various accessories which modify the corresponding character's in-game appearance and abilities. They incorporate a speaker for various one-liners, a motion sensor allowing them to be used as a controller during flying segments. A second Lightseekers video game was released in January 2019 for the Nintendo Switch, but it is an virtual adaptation of the trading card game rather than a port of the toys-to-life RPG. A group of games by Nintendo where players build objects out of perforated cardboard templates and attach them to their Nintendo Switch console. Objects that are built can be used in various minigames. U. B. Funkeys was the first game of this genre, it was discontinued in 2010 and was worked on by Mattel and Radica. It had multiple updates; every update had a portal referred to as a'Hub', with the same mold but a different pattern. The Hubs were a special USB port to plug into the user's computer; the characters were the Funkeys. F. A. M. P. S. was the second game made in the toys-to-life genre.

It was produced by Mattel. It was less like a traditional game and more like an application giving players customization options for their desktop and a safe social network to talk on; each figure unlocked new mini games and customization options. Due to the game only being available for download online no known copies of the game still exist, making F. A. M. P. S. Lost media. Pokémon Rumble U was Nintendo's first foray into the toys-to-life genre, released in 2013 for the Wii U, it is the first game. In the game, players engage in battle with other Pokémon; when figures are scanned with the NFC reader, they can be utilized in-game. In addition, if anything else with NFC technology is scanned into the game, the player will receive a random effect. Disney Infinity was a toys-to-life series based on Disney franchises. Since the initial game's release in 2013, there had been three installments. Disney Infinity was the first game, focusing on Disney and Pixar c