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Rhodope Mountains

The Rhodopes are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and the remainder in Greece. Golyam Perelik is its highest peak at 2,191 meters; the mountain range gives its name to the terrestrial ecoregion Rodope montane mixed forests that belongs in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome and the palearctic ecozone. The region is notable for its karst areas with their deep river gorges, large caves and specific sculptured forms, such as the Trigrad Gorge. A significant part of Bulgaria's hydropower resources are located in the western areas of the range. There are a number of hydro-cascades and dams used for electricity production, irrigation and as tourist destinations. In Greece there are the HPPs of Thisavros and Platanovrysi; the Rhodopes have a rich cultural heritage including ancient Thracian sites such as Perperikon and Belintash, medieval castles, churches and picturesque villages with traditional Bulgarian architecture from the 18th and 19th centuries.

The name of the Rhodope Mountains is of Thracian origin. Rhod-ope is interpreted as the first name of a river, meaning "rusty/reddish river", where Rhod- has the same Indo-European root as the Bulgarian "руда", "ръжда", "риж", Latin "rufus", German "rot" and English "red". In Greek mythology, Queen Rhodope of Thrace, the wife of King Haemus of Thrace, offended the gods, was changed into a mountain by Zeus and Hera as a punishment along with her husband; the mountains are associated with the mythic figure of Orpheus. In the Middle Ages, the mountains were known as the Slavey Mountains, under Ottoman rule were known as the Dospatsky Mountains, after the Dospat Municipality and Dospat River. In geomorphological terms, the Rhodopes are part of the Rila-Rhodope massif, the oldest landmass on the Balkan peninsula; the Rhodopes are spread over 14,735 square kilometers, of which 12,233 square kilometers are on Bulgarian territory. They have the greatest extent of any single mountain range in Bulgaria.

The mountains are about 240 kilometers long and about 100 to 120 kilometres wide, with an average altitude of 785 meters. To the north the mountain slopes descend steeply towards the Upper Thracian Plain. To the west, the Rhodopes reach the Avram saddle and the valley of the Mesta River. To the south and east they extend to the coastal plains of Greek Thrace; the Rhodopes are a complex system of deep river valleys. Fifteen reserves have been established in the region; the mountains are famous for the largest coniferous woods in the Balkans, their mild relief and the lush vegetation in the western parts as well as the abundance of birds of prey in the eastern areas. The location of the Rhodopes in the southeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula determines the climate in the region to a great extent, it is influenced both by the colder air coming from the north and by the warmer breeze from the Mediterranean. The average annual temperature in the Eastern Rhodopes is 13 °C, the maximum precipitation is in December, the minimum in August.

In the Western Rhodopes, the temperature varies from 5 to 9 °C and in the summer rainfalls prevail. The mild climate, combined with some other factors, works in favour of the development of recreation and tourist activities; the Pamporovo resort, where the microclimate permits a heavy snow cover to be preserved for a long time, is an excellent example. Temperatures as low as −15 °C are common in winter, due to this the Rhodopes are the southernmost place in the Balkans where tree species such as the Norway Spruce and the Silver Birch can be found; the mountains have abundant water reserves with a dense network of mountain rivers. Nearly 80% of the mountain's territory falls within the drainage of the river Maritsa; the natural lakes are few, the most renown of these being the Smolyan lakes situated at several kilometers from the town of the same name. Some of the largest dams in the country are located in the Rhodopes including the Dospat Dam, Batak Dam, Golyam Beglik, Kardzhali Dam, Studen Kladenets, Vacha Dam, Shiroka Polyana and many others, while in Greece there are the dams of Thisavros and Platanovrysi.

They are used for hydro-electric power generation and for irrigation. There are many mineral water springs, the most famous being in Velingrad, Devin, Beden and others. In Greece there are mineral water springs in Thermes, 40 km. north of and in Thermia, 60 km. north of Drama, at 620 m. The Western Rhodopes are the larger, most infrastructurally developed and most visited part of the mountains; the highest and best known peaks are located in the region including the highest one, Golyam Perelik. Among the other popular peaks are Shirokolashki Snezhnik, Golyam Persenk, Batashki Snezhnik, Turla; some of the deepest river gorges in the Rhodopes are located in the western parts, as well as the rock phenomenon Wonderful Bridges. Significant bodies of water include the Chaira lakes and the Dospat, Shiroka Polyana, Golyam Beglik and Tsigov Chark dams; the town of Batak is located in this part of the mountains, as well as the popular tourist centres Smolyan, Devin, the winter resort Pamporovo, the Eastern Orthodox Bachkovo Monastery, the ruins of the Asen dynasty's

Ajit Pratap Singh

Ajit Pratap Singh was an Indian politician of Indian National Congress party from Pratapgarh, cabinet minister of Government of Uttar Pradesh and the member of Lok Sabha twice from Pratapgarh constituency in 1962 and 1980. Born in the ruling family from princely state of Pratapgarh, established in the 17th century, Raja Ajit Pratap Singh was educated at St. Joseph's College, Senior Cambridge, he was a member of Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly from 1946–52 and again 1967-77, during this period he was Cabinet Minister in the Government of Uttar Pradesh 1969-77. Thereafter remained member of the Rajya Sabha, 1958-62, he was elected to the 3rd Lok Sabha, 1962–67 he joined Congress and was elected again to the 7th Lok Sabha in 1980. He was the Minister for Excise 1985, Minister for Excise and Forests 1988, Deputy Chairman of the State Planning Commission, Uttar Pradesh 1986-1988, he was the President of the British India Association 1998/2000, Secretary-cum-Manager for the Colvin Taluqdars' College, Lukhnow, 1998-2000 In 1991, his son Abhay Pratap Singh, was elected from the same constituency from Janata Dal.

He was Manager and Founder Member, P. B. Degree College, Pratapgarh. Inter College.

Capture of Enschede (1597)

The Capture of Enschede took place during the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo–Spanish War on 18 and 19 October 1597. A Dutch and English army led by Maurice of Orange took the city after a short siege and threatening that they would destroy the city; the siege was part of Maurice's campaign of 1597, a successful offensive against the Spaniards during what the Dutch call the Ten Glory Years. After the siege and capture of Bredevoort, a part of Maurice's army, which included Scots and Frisians under Count Solms and Van Duivenvoorde, went from Winterswijk to Gronau. On 18 October, Prince Maurice, along with his cousin William Louis, followed the cavalry and the artillery, in service at Bredevoort, moved the day before, they were followed by the main body consisting of English troops under Colonel Horace Vere and the Frisians, while the companies of Duivenvoorde and the English cavalry formed the rearguard. Halfway to Enschede, at Glanerbrug, Maurice ordered the army into battle formation and headed towards the city.

By this time the artillery had arrived and a formal siege could commence. Shots were fired at the city walls for a day, after which Maurice sent a trumpeter to the gate, demanding surrender. Maurice threatened that his army would give Enschede the same fate that happened at Bredevoort and Groenlo, which were burnt and ravaged in the ensuing chaos of the assault. Maurice threatened that he would'break the heads of them all if he fired a single shot with the artillery.'The governor lieutenant Grootveld and the garrison commander Captain Vasques requested permission to examine the artillery threatening the city. Maurice agreed, the inspection was made and, after some discussion with the clergy in the city, they accepted Maurice's terms as an "absolutely fair condition"; the Spanish garrison, led by two companies totaling 108 men marched out of the city. A company of Dutch garrisoned the place, upon which the company commander Jaques Meurs was made governor. Maurice ordered the fortifications dismantled so that the city would be no longer suitable for future military occupants and marched to the city of Oldenzaal and took the place after a short siege.

A contingent of Dutch and English soldiers, led by Captain Van Duivenvoorde, split from the main army, heading northeast to take Ootmarsum. List of Stadtholders of the Low Countries List of Governors of the Spanish Netherlands Siege of Bredevoort Siege of Groenlo Citations BibliographyFissel, Mark Charles. English warfare, 1511–1642. London, UK: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-21481-0. Motley, John Lothrop. History of the United Netherlands: from the death of William the Silent to the Synod of Dort, with a full view of the English-Dutch struggle against Spain, of the origin and destruction of the Spanish armada. van Nimwegen, Olaf. The Dutch Army and the Military Revolutions, 1588-1688 Volume 31 of Warfare in History Series. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 9781843835752. Markham, C. R; the Fighting Veres: Lives Of Sir Francis Vere And Sir Horace Vere. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1432549053. Israel, Jonathan. Conflicts of Empires: Spain, the Low Countries and the Struggle for World Supremacy, 1585-1713. Continuum.

ISBN 9780826435538. J. Wagenaar et al.: Vaderlandsche Historie, Vervattende Geschiedenislessen der Vereenigde Nederlanden, in Zonderheid die van Holland, van de Vroegste Tyden af - Achtste Deel Amsterdam: Isaak Tirion