Rhubarb is a cultivated plant in the genus Rheum in the family Polygonaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial growing from thick rhizomes. Different plants have been called "rhubarb" in English and used for two distinct purposes; the roots of some species were first used in medicine. The fleshy, edible stalks of other species and hybrids were cooked and used for food; the large, triangular leaves contain high levels of oxalic acid. The small flowers are grouped in large compound leafy greenish-white to rose-red inflorescences; the precise origin of culinary rhubarb is unknown. The species Rheum rhabarbarum and R. rhaponticum were grown in Europe before the 18th century and used for medicinal purposes. By the early 18th century, these two species and a possible hybrid of unknown origin, R. × hybridum, were grown as vegetable crops in England and Scandinavia. They hybridize, culinary rhubarb was developed by selecting open-pollinated seed, so that its precise origin is impossible to determine. In appearance, culinary rhubarb varies continuously between R. rhabarbarum.
However, modern rhubarb cultivars are tetraploids with 2n = 44, in contrast to 2n=22 for the wild species. Although rhubarb is a vegetable, it is put to the same culinary uses as fruits; the leaf stalks can be used raw, when they have a crisp texture, but are most cooked with sugar and used in pies and other desserts. They have a tart taste. Many cultivars have been developed for human consumption, most of which are recognised as Rheum × hybridum by the Royal Horticultural Society. Rhubarb is grown and with greenhouse production it is available throughout much of the year. Rhubarb grown in hothouses is called "hothouse rhubarb", is made available at consumer markets in early spring, before outdoor cultivated rhubarb is available. Hothouse rhubarb is brighter red and sweeter-tasting than outdoor rhubarb. In temperate climates, rhubarb is one of the first food plants harvested in mid- to late spring, the season for field-grown plants lasts until the end of summer. In the United Kingdom, the first rhubarb of the year is harvested by candlelight in forcing sheds where all other light is excluded, a practice that produces a sweeter, more tender stalk.
These sheds are dotted around the "Rhubarb Triangle" between Wakefield and Morley. In the northwestern US states of Oregon and Washington, there are two harvests, from late April to May and from late June into July. Rhubarb is ready to consume as soon as harvested, freshly cut stalks are firm and glossy. Rhubarb damaged by severe cold should not be eaten, as it may be high in oxalic acid, which migrates from the leaves and can cause illness; the colour of rhubarb stalks can vary from the associated crimson red, through speckled light pink, to light green. Rhubarb stalks are poetically described as "crimson stalks"; the colour results from the presence of anthocyanins, varies according to both rhubarb variety and production technique. The colour is not related to its suitability for cooking: The Chinese call rhubarb "the great yellow", have used rhubarb root for medicinal purposes for thousands of years, it appears in The Divine Farmer's Herb-Root Classic, thought to have been compiled about 1,800 years ago.
Though Dioscurides' description of ρηον or ρά indicates that a medicinal root brought to Greece from beyond the Bosphorus may have been rhubarb, commerce in the drug did not become securely established until Islamic times. During Islamic times, it was imported along the Silk Road, reaching Europe in the 14th century through the ports of Aleppo and Smyrna, where it became known as "Turkish rhubarb", it started arriving via the new maritime routes, or overland through Russia. The "Russian rhubarb" was the most valued because of the rhubarb-specific quality control system maintained by the Russian Empire; the cost of transportation across Asia made rhubarb expensive in medieval Europe. It was several times the price of other valuable herbs and spices such as cinnamon and saffron; the merchant explorer Marco Polo therefore searched for the place where the plant was grown and harvested, discovering that it was cultivated in the mountains of Tangut province. The value of rhubarb can be seen in Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo's report of his embassy in 1403–05 to Timur in Samarkand: "The best of all merchandise coming to Samarkand was from China: silks, musk, diamonds and rhubarb..."The high price as well as the increasing demand from apothecaries stimulated efforts to cultivate the different species of rhubarb on European soil.
Certain species came to be grown in England to produce the roots. The local availability of the plants grown for medicinal purposes, together with the increasing abundance and decreasing price of sugar in the 18th century, galvanised its culinary adoption. Grieve claims a date of 1820 in England. Rhubarb was grown in Scotland from at least 1786, having been introduced to the Botanical Garden in Edinburgh by the traveller Bruce of Kinnaird. Though it is asserted that rhubarb first came to the United States in the 1820s, John Bartram was growing medicinal and culinary rhubarbs in Philadelphia from the 1730s, planting seeds sent him by Peter Collinson. From the first, the familiar garden rhubarb was not the only Rheum in American gardens: Thomas Jefferson planted R. undulatum at Monticello in 1809 an
Shell is a census-designated place in Big Horn County, United States. The population was 83 at the 2010 Census; the community is named for the abundance of fossil shells located in the area. Nearby exposed formations such as the Cloverly Formation and the Morrison Formation have yielded numerous fossils of dinosaurs and other animals. Located to the west of the town is the Red Gulch Dinosaur Tracksite, a rare collection of dinosaur tracks from the Jurassic. Shell is home to the Iowa State University geology field station. According to the United States Census Bureau, in 2010 the CDP has a total area of 1.1 square miles, of which all of it is land. Shell is located at the mouth of Shell Canyon. Nearby Shell Creek rises in the Big Horn Mountains and joins the Big Horn River just north of Greybull
Dance Remixes is the first remix album by Mylène Farmer, released on 23 November 1992. This album was made to make the fans wait until the following album, postponed because of the Giorgino's shooting. However, rather than a simple compilation, the album contains two CDs in its French version, including the remixes of fifteen songs on the singer; these remixes, all made by Laurent Boutonnat and Thierry Rogen, have been published as vinyl's B-sides of Mylène Farmer's singles, except "We'll Never Die" and "Libertine", made for the occasion, as the "Extended Dance Remix" of the new song "Que mon cœur lâche". This song, whose video was directed by Luc Besson, was the only single released to promote the album, the last vinyl of the singer. "We'll Never Die" is the only song available on this album, never released as a single. An international version of the album was released, it contains only ten remixes, including the remix of "My Soul Is Slashed", the English version of "Que mon cœur lâche". Apart from the number of titles, the two covers are distinguished by the color of the cover.
The booklet's pictures, made by Marianne Rosenstiehl, show Mylène Farmer training in a gym. There were two singles from this album: "Que mon cœur lâche", its English-language version "My Soul Is Slashed"; the album peaked at #3 on the French Compilations Chart on 9 December 1992. It was re-issued in 2005 in a digipack version and was therefore charted on the Albums Charts, reaching #108 on 9 April 2005 and stayed in the top 200 for four weeks. Disc one "We'll Never Die" – 7:30 "Sans contrefaçon" – 5:55 "Tristana" – 7:10 "Sans logique" – 7:11 "Allan" (extended mix – 7:57 "Ainsi soit je..." – 7:10 "Plus grandir" – 6:25 "À quoi je sers..." – 7:50Disc two "Que mon cœur lâche" – 8:10 "Pourvu qu'elles soient douces" – 6:30 "Libertine" – 7:00 "Je t'aime mélancolie" – 7:45 "Regrets" – 7:13 "Beyond My Control" (godforsaken mix – 8:03 "Désenchantée" – 8:10 "My Soul Is Slashed" – 7:31 "Sans contrefaçon" – 5:55 "Je t'aime mélancolie" – 7:45 "Allan" – 7:57 "Ainsi soit je..." – 7:10 "We'll Never Die" – 7:30 "Sans logique" – 7:11 "Pourvu qu'elles soient douces" – 6:30 "Beyond My Control" – 8:03 "Désenchantée" – 8:10 A-side "We'll Never Die" – 7:30 "Sans contrefaçon" – 5:55 "Tristana" – 7:10 "Sans logique" – 7:11 "Allan" – 7:57 "À quoi je sers..." – 7:50B-side "Que mon cœur lâche" – 8:10 "Pourvu qu'elles soient douces" – 6:30 "Libertine" – 7:00 "Je t'aime mélancolie" – 7:45 "Beyond My Control" – 8:03 "Désenchantée" – 8:10 Text: Mylène Farmer Except: "Libertine": Laurent Boutonnat Music: Laurent Boutonnat Except: "Libertine": Jean-Claude Dequéant Editions: Bertrand Le Page / Polygram Music Except: "À quoi je sers...": Requiem Publishing / Bertrand Le Page.