The FitzGerald / FitzMaurice dynasty is a Cambro-Norman and Anglo-Norman, Hiberno-Norman and royal dynasty. They have been peers of Ireland since at least the 13th century, are described in the Annals of the Four Masters as being "more Irish than the Irish themselves" or Galls, due to assimilation with the native Gaelic aristocratic and popular culture; the dynasty has been referred to as the Geraldines. They achieved power through the conquest of large swathes of Irish territory by the grandsons of Gerald FitzWalter of Windsor. Gerald was a Norman castellan in Wales, is the male progenitor of the FitzMaurice and FitzGerald dynasty. Gerald's Welsh wife Nest ferch Rhys is the female progenitor of the Fitzmaurices, she was the daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, last King of Deheubarth and through her the FitzGeralds and Fitzmaurices descend from the Welsh rulers of Deheubarth claim kinship with the Tudors who descended from the same Welsh royal line. The Fitzmaurices and FitzGeralds are cousins to the Tudors through Nest and her Welsh family.
In his poetry, Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, referred to Elizabeth FitzGerald as "Fair Geraldine". The main branches of the family are: The FitzGeralds of Kildare; the current head is 9th Duke of Leinster. The Fitzmaurices and FitzGeralds of Desmond; the progenitor of the Irish Fitzmaurices was a Cambro-Norman Marcher Lord, Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan. The Lord of Lanstephan and his sons the Fitzmaurices played an important part in the 1169 Norman invasion of Ireland; the FitzGerald dynasty has played a major role in Irish history. Gearóid Mór, 8th Earl of Kildare and his son Gearóid Óg, 9th Earl of Kildare, were Lord Deputy of Ireland in the late-fifteenth and early-sixteenth centuries respectively. Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare, known as "Silken Thomas," led an unsuccessful insurrection in Ireland, while Lord Edward FitzGerald, the fifth son of the first duke of Leinster, was a leading figure in the 1798 Rebellion; the present-day seat of the Irish Parliament Dáil Éireann is housed in Leinster House, first built in 1745–48 by James FitzGerald, 1st Duke of Leinster as the ducal palace for the Dukes of Leinster.
An example of the dynasty becoming "more Irish than the Irish themselves" is Gerald FitzGerald, 3rd Earl of Desmond, known by the Irish Gaelic Gearóid Iarla. Although made Lord Chief Justice of Ireland in 1367, Gerald wrote poetry in the Irish language, most famously the poem Mairg adeir olc ris na mnáibh. Indeed, although an accomplished poet in Norman French, Gerald was instrumental in the move by the Fitzmaurices and Fitzgeralds of Desmond toward greater use of the Irish language; the surname FitzGerald comes from the Norman tradition of adding Fitz, meaning "son of" before the father's name. "Fitz Gerald" thus means in Old Norman and in Old French "son of Gerald". Gerald itself is a Germanic compound of ger, "spear", waltan, " rule". Variant spellings include the modern Fitzgerald; the name can appear as two separate words Fitz Gerald. Gerald FitzMaurice, 1st Lord of Offaly Maurice Fitzmaurice FitzGerald, 2nd Lord of Offaly, Justiciar of Ireland Maurice FitzGerald, 3rd Lord of Offaly, Justiciar of Ireland John FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Kildare 4th Lord of Offaly, was rewarded for serving Edward Longshanks, King of England in Scotland Thomas FitzGerald, 2nd Earl of Kildare, younger son of the 1st Earl John FitzGerald, eldest son of the 2nd Earl, died in childhood Richard FitzGerald, 3rd Earl of Kildare, second son of the 2nd Earl, died unmarried Maurice FitzGerald, 4th Earl of Kildare and youngest son of the 2nd Earl Gerald FitzGerald, 5th Earl of Kildare, a son of the 4th Earl The 5th Earl had sons, but they predeceased him John FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Kildare, a younger son of the 4th Earl Thomas FitzGerald, 7th Earl of Kildare, son of the 6th Earl Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, "The Great Earl", eldest son of the 7th earl Gerald FitzGerald, 9th Earl of Kildare, "Young Gerald", eldest son of the 8th earl Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare, "Silken Thomas", eldest son of the 9th earl, led an insurrection in Ireland and his honours were forfeit, he died unmarried Gerald FitzGerald, 11th Earl of Kildare, the "Wizard Earl", second son of the 9th earl, was given a new creation in 1554 restored to his brother's honours in 1569 Henry FitzGerald, 12th Earl of Kildare, second son of the 11th earl, died without male issue William FitzGerald, 13th Earl of Kildare and youngest son of the 11th earl, died unmarried Gerald FitzGerald, 14th Earl of Kildare, elder son of Edward, himself third and youngest son of the 9th earl Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Kildare, only son of the 14th earl, died in childhood George FitzGerald, 16th Earl of Kildare, a son of Thomas, himself younger brother of the 14th earl Wentworth FitzGerald, 17th Earl of Kildare, elder son of the 16th earl John FitzGerald, 18
William the Conqueror
William I known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later; the rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son. William was the son of Duke of Normandy, by Robert's mistress Herleva, his illegitimate status and his youth caused some difficulties for him after he succeeded his father, as did the anarchy that plagued the first years of his rule. During his childhood and adolescence, members of the Norman aristocracy battled each other, both for control of the child duke and for their own ends. In 1047 William was able to quash a rebellion and begin to establish his authority over the duchy, a process, not complete until about 1060.
His marriage in the 1050s to Matilda of Flanders provided him with a powerful ally in the neighbouring county of Flanders. By the time of his marriage, William was able to arrange the appointment of his supporters as bishops and abbots in the Norman church, his consolidation of power allowed him to expand his horizons, by 1062 William secured control of the neighbouring county of Maine. In the 1050s and early 1060s William became a contender for the throne of England held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed. There were other potential claimants, including the powerful English earl Harold Godwinson, named the next king by Edward on the latter's deathbed in January 1066. William argued that Edward had promised the throne to him and that Harold had sworn to support William's claim. William built a large fleet and invaded England in September 1066, decisively defeating and killing Harold at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. After further military efforts William was crowned king on Christmas Day 1066, in London.
He made arrangements for the governance of England in early 1067 before returning to Normandy. Several unsuccessful rebellions followed, by 1075 William's hold on England was secure, allowing him to spend the majority of the rest of his reign on the continent. William's final years were marked by difficulties in his continental domains, troubles with his eldest son, threatened invasions of England by the Danes. In 1086 William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book, a survey listing all the landholdings in England along with their pre-Conquest and current holders. William died in September 1087 while leading a campaign in northern France, was buried in Caen, his reign in England was marked by the construction of castles, the settling of a new Norman nobility on the land, change in the composition of the English clergy. He did not try to integrate his various domains into one empire but instead continued to administer each part separately. William's lands were divided after his death: Normandy went to his eldest son, Robert Curthose, his second surviving son, William Rufus, received England.
Norsemen first began raiding in. Permanent Scandinavian settlement occurred before 911, when Rollo, one of the Viking leaders, King Charles the Simple of France reached an agreement surrendering the county of Rouen to Rollo; the lands around Rouen became the core of the duchy of Normandy. Normandy may have been used as a base when Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century, which would have worsened relations between England and Normandy. In an effort to improve matters, King Æthelred the Unready took Emma of Normandy, sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002. Danish raids on England continued, Æthelred sought help from Richard, taking refuge in Normandy in 1013 when King Swein I of Denmark drove Æthelred and his family from England. Swein's death in 1014 allowed Æthelred to return home, but Swein's son Cnut contested Æthelred's return. Æthelred died unexpectedly in 1016, Cnut became king of England. Æthelred and Emma's two sons and Alfred, went into exile in Normandy while their mother, became Cnut's second wife.
After Cnut's death in 1035, the English throne fell to Harold Harefoot, his son by his first wife, while Harthacnut, his son by Emma, became king in Denmark. England remained unstable. Alfred returned to England in 1036 to visit his mother and to challenge Harold as king. One story implicates Earl Godwin of Wessex in Alfred's subsequent death. Emma went into exile in Flanders until Harthacnut became king following Harold's death in 1040, his half-brother Edward followed Harthacnut to England. William was born in 1027 or 1028 at Falaise, Duchy of Normandy, most towards the end of 1028, he was the only son of Duke Robert I, son of Duke Richard II. His mother, was the daughter of Fulbert of Falaise, she was a member of the ducal household, but did not marry Robert. Instead, she married Herluin de Conteville, with whom she had two sons – Odo of Bayeux and Robert, Count of Mortain – and a daughter whose name is unknown. One of Herleva's brothers, became a supporter and protector of William during his minority.
Robert had a daughter, Adelaide, by another mistress. Robert became Duke of Normandy on 6 August 1027, succeeding his elder brother Richard III, who had only succeeded to the title the previous year. Robert and his brother had been at odds over the succession, Richard's death
Brut y Tywysogion
Brut y Tywysogion known as Brut y Tywysogyon, is one of the most important primary sources for Welsh history. It is an annalistic chronicle that serves as a continuation of Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia Regum Britanniae. Brut y Tywysogion has survived as several Welsh translations of an original Latin version, which has not itself survived; the most important versions are the one in Robert Vaughan's Peniarth MS. 20 and the less complete one in the Red Book of Hergest. The version entitled Brenhinoedd y Saeson combines material from the Welsh annals with material from an English source; the Peniarth MS. 20 version begins in 682 with a record of the death of Cadwaladr and ends in 1332. The entries for the earlier years are brief records of deaths and events such as eclipses, plagues or earthquakes, but entries give much more detail; the main focus is on the rulers of the kingdoms of Gwynedd and Deheubarth, but ecclesiastical events are mentioned, such as the bringing of the date of celebrating Easter in the Welsh church into line with Rome by "Elbodius", Bishop of Bangor, in 768.
Events in England, Ireland and sometimes France are briefly chronicled. The original monastic annals are thought to have been written at Strata Florida Abbey, but may have been kept at the old abbey at Llanbadarn Fawr in the 11th century. Annals from other abbeys were used in the composition. At least one of the Welsh translations is thought to have been written at Strata Florida. John Edward Lloyd, The Welsh Chronicles Ian R. Jack, Medieval Wales Thomas Jones, ed. Brut y Tywysogyon: Red Book of Hergest Version Thomas Jones, ed. Brut y Tywysogyon: Peniarth MS. 20 Version Chronicle of the Princes Brut y Tywysogion, Llyfr Coch Hergest/Red Book of Hergest Version Brut y Tywysogion, Peniarth MS 20 Version Brut y Tywysogion
Normans in Ireland
From the 12th century onwards, a group of Normans invaded and settled in Gaelic Ireland. These settlers became known as Norman Irish or Hiberno-Normans, they originated among Anglo-Norman families from England and Wales, were loyal to the Kingdom of England and the English state supported their claims to territory, in the various realms comprising Ireland. During the High Middle Ages and Late Middle Ages the Hiberno-Normans constituted a feudal aristocracy and merchant oligarchy, known as the Lordship of Ireland. In Ireland, the Normans were closely associated with the Gregorian Reform of the Catholic Church in Ireland. Over centuries the descendants of the 12th century Norman settlers spread throughout Ireland, around the world, as part of the Irish diaspora; the dominance of the Norman Irish declined during the 17th century, after a new English Protestant elite settled in Ireland during the Tudor period. Some of the Norman Irish – known as The Old English – had become Gaelicised and merged culturally with the Gaels, under the denominator of "Irish Catholic".
Conversely, some Hiberno-Normans assimilated as the Anglo-Irish. Some of the most prominent Norman families were the FitzMaurices, FitzGeralds and Butlers. One of the most popular Irish surnames, derives from the Normans based in Wales who arrived in Ireland as part of this group. Historians disagree about what to call the Normans in Ireland at different times in its existence, in how to define this community's sense of collective identity. Irish historian Edward MacLysaght makes the distinction in his book, Surnames of Ireland, between Hiberno-Norman and Anglo-Norman surnames; this sums up the Loyal Lieges. The Geraldines of Desmond or the Burkes of Connacht, for instance, could not be described as Old English as, not their political and cultural world; the Butlers of Ormond, on the other hand, could not be described as Hiberno-Norman in their political outlook and alliances after they married into the Royal Family. Some historians now refer to them as Cambro-Normans, Seán Duffy of Trinity College, invariably uses that term rather than the misleading Anglo-Norman, but after many centuries in Ireland and just a century in Wales or England it appears odd that their entire history since 1169 is known by the description Old English, which only came into use in the late sixteenth century.
Some contend it is ahistorical to trace a single Old English community back to 1169 as the real Old English community was a product of the late sixteenth century in the Pale. Up to that time, the identity of such people had been much more fluid. Brendan Bradshaw, in his study of the poetry of late sixteenth century Tír Chónaill, points out that the Normans were not referred to there as Seanghaill but rather as Fionnghaill and Dubhghaill, he argued in a lecture to the Mícheál Ó Cléirigh Institute in University College, Dublin that the poets referred in that way to hibernicised people of Norman stock in order to grant them a longer vintage in Ireland than the. This follows on from his earlier arguments that the term Éireannaigh as we know it emerged during this period in the poetry books of the Uí Bhroin of Wicklow as a sign of unity between Gaeil and Gaill. Breandán Ó Buachalla agreed with him, Tom Dunne and Tom Bartlett were less sure, it was noted in 2011 that Irish nationalist politicians elected between 1918 and 2011 could be distinguished by surname.
Fine Gael parliamentarians were more to bear surnames of Norman origin than those from Fianna Fáil, who had a higher concentration of Gaelic surnames. The term Old English began to be applied by scholars for Norman descended residents of The Pale and Irish towns after the mid-16th century, who became opposed to the Protestant "New English" who arrived in Ireland after the Tudor conquest of Ireland in the 16th and 17th centuries. Many of the Old English were dispossessed in the political and religious conflicts of the 16th and 17th centuries due to their continued adherence to the Roman Catholic religion; as a result, those loyal to Catholicism attempted to replace the distinction between "Norman" and "Gaelic Irish" under the new denominator of Irish Catholic by 1700, as they were both barred from positions of wealth and power by the so-called New English settlers, who became known as the Protestant Ascendancy. The earliest known reference to the term "Old English" is in the 1580s The community of Norman descent prior to used numerous epithets to describe themselves, but it was only as a result of the political cess crisis of the 1580s that a group identifying itself as the Old English community emerged.
Traditionally, London-based Anglo-Norman governments expected the Normans in the Lordship of Ireland to promote the interests of the Kingdom of England, through the use of the English language, trade, social customs, farming methods. The Norman community in Ireland was, never monolithic. In some areas in the Pale around Dublin, urbanised communities in south county Wexford, Kilke
De Barry family
The de Barry family is a noble family of Cambro-Norman origins which held extensive land holdings in Wales and Ireland. The founder of the family was a Norman Knight, who assisted in the Norman Conquest of England during the 11th century; as reward for his military services, Odo was granted estates in Pembrokeshire and around Barry, including Barry Island just off the coast. Odo’s grandson, Gerald of Wales, a 12th-century scholar, gives the origin of his family's name, de Barry, in his Itinerarium Cambriae: "Not far from Caerdyf is a small island situated near the shore of the Severn, called Barri, from St. Baroc …. From hence a noble family, of the maritime parts of South Wales, who owned this island and the adjoining estates, received the name of de Barri." Many family members assisted in the Norman invasion of Ireland. For the family's services, King John of England awarded Philip's son, William de Barry, extensive baronies in the Kingdom of South Munster the defunct Uí Liatháin kingdom with its late seat at Castlelyons.
Odo de Barry was the grantee of the immense manor of Manorbier in Pembrokeshire, which included the manors of Jameston and Manorbier Newton, as well as the manors of Begelly and Penally. He built the first motte-and-bailey at Manorbier, his son, William FitzOdo de Barry, is the common ancestor of the Barry family in Ireland. He rebuilt Manorbier Castle in stone and the family retained the lordship of Manorbier until the 15th century, he had sons: Robert, Philip and Gerald by Angharad daughter of Gerald de Windsor and Nest ferch Rhys. After Gerald's death, Nest's sons married her to Stephen, her husband's constable of Cardigan Castle, by whom she had another two sons. Robert de Barry accompanied his half-uncle Robert Fitz-Stephen in the Norman invasion of Ireland, he took part in the Siege of Wexford and was killed at the battle of Lismore in 1185. Philip de Barry came to Ireland in 1185 to assist his half-uncle Robert Fitz-Stephen, his first cousin Raymond FitzGerald, in their efforts to recover lands in the modern county Cork - the cantreds of Killede and Muscarydonegan.
The latter cantred, variously called Muscry-donnegan or "O'Donegan's country" or "Múscraighe Tri Maighe", was a rural deanery in the Diocese of Cloyne. It is now identified as the barony of Kilmore; the name "Olethan" is an anglicisation of the Gaelic Uí Liatháin which refers to the early medieval kingdom of the Uí Liatháin. This petty kingdom encompassed most of the present Barony of Barrymore and the neighbouring barony of Kinnatalloon; the name Killyde survives in "Killeady Hills", the name of the hill country south of the city of Cork. These cantreds or baronies had been expropriated by another first cousin, Ralph Fitz-Stephen, the grandson of Nesta by Stephen, Constable of Cardigan. Robert Fitz-Stephen ceded these territories to Philip de Barry, his half-nephew. In 1181, King Henry II of England ennobled Robert de Barry as Baron Barry of Ibawne. On 24 February 1206, King John I of England confirmed William de Barry, Philip's son, in the possession of these territories and, by letters patent, conferred on him the Lordships of Castlelyons and Barry's Court in East Cork.
In 1267, King Henry III of England appointed Lord David de Barry as Chief Justice of Ireland. In 1385, King Richard II of England raised John Barry to the viscountcy as Viscount Buttevant. In 1627, King Charles I of England elevated David Barry as Earl of Barrymore. Barryscourt Castle near Carrigtwohill was the seat of the Barry family from the 12th century until 1617 when they removed to Barrymore Castle in Castlelyons. In 1771, the 7th Earl saw; the family fortunes were subsequently dissipatated by the 7th and 8th Earls. The name of the town of Buttevant is believed to derive from the family's battle cry - Boutez-en-Avant translating as "Kick your way through"; the most prominent Gaelic neighbours of the de Barrys were the MacCarthy Reagh dynasty, rulers of the principality or petty kingdom of Carbery. For the most part, with not a great many exceptions, the two families kept on good terms, regularly intermarried; the de Barrys are descended from several of the MacCarthy Reagh princes through their daughters.
The Barrys intermarried with the powerful MacCarthys of Muskerry. Some Barrys became so Gaelicized that a paternal Gaelic lineage was imagined for them, they were made to descend from Fothach Canann, 5th son of the famous Lugaid Mac Con of the Dáirine or Corcu Loígde. The Uí Liatháin or "Sons of Liathán", whose long decayed and defunct kingdom the de Barrys by coincidence came to occupy, are notable for having raided other parts of Britain in antiquity from their fortresses in Wales and Cornwall. Notable that the de Barry family descend maternally, through Angharad and Nesta, from the ancient Welsh Prince Cunedda, whose sons were the Britons who ended the Uí Liatháin's dominance in Wales. FitzGerald dynasty Earl of Barrymore Baron Barrymore Barry, E. Barrymore: Records of the Barrys of County Cork. Cork: Guy and Co. Ltd. 1902. Barry Family Name Origins
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s