Rhythm means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions". This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can apply to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or frequency of anything from microseconds to several seconds. Rhythm is related to and distinguished from pulse and beats: Rhythm may be defined as the way in which one or more unaccented beats are grouped in relation to an accented one.... A rhythmic group can be apprehended only when its elements are distinguished from one another, rhythm...always involves an interrelationship between a single, accented beat and either one or two unaccented beats. In the performance arts, rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale. In some performing arts, such as hip hop music, the rhythmic delivery of the lyrics is one of the most important elements of the style. Rhythm may refer to visual presentation, as "timed movement through space" and a common language of pattern unites rhythm with geometry.
In recent years and meter have become an important area of research among music scholars. Recent work in these areas includes books by Maury Yeston, Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff, Jonathan Kramer, Christopher Hasty, Godfried Toussaint, William Rothstein, Joel Lester, Guerino Mazzola. In his television series How Music Works, Howard Goodall presents theories that human rhythm recalls the regularity with which we walk and the heartbeat. Other research suggests that it does not relate to the heartbeat directly, but rather the speed of emotional affect, which influences heartbeat, yet other researchers suggest that since certain features of human music are widespread, it is "reasonable to suspect that beat-based rhythmic processing has ancient evolutionary roots". Justin London writes that musical metre "involves our initial perception as well as subsequent anticipation of a series of beats that we abstract from the rhythm surface of the music as it unfolds in time"; the "perception" and "abstraction" of rhythmic measure is the foundation of human instinctive musical participation, as when we divide a series of identical clock-ticks into "tick-tock-tick-tock".
Joseph Jordania suggested that the sense of rhythm was developed in the early stages of hominid evolution by the forces of natural selection. Plenty of animals walk rhythmically and hear the sounds of the heartbeat in the womb, but only humans have the ability to be engaged in rhythmically coordinated vocalizations and other activities. According to Jordania, development of the sense of rhythm was central for the achievement of the specific neurological state of the battle trance, crucial for the development of the effective defense system of early hominids. Rhythmic war cry, rhythmic drumming by shamans, rhythmic drilling of the soldiers and contemporary professional combat forces listening to the heavy rhythmic rock music all use the ability of rhythm to unite human individuals into a shared collective identity where group members put the interests of the group above their individual interests and safety; some types of parrots can know rhythm. Neurologist Oliver Sacks states that chimpanzees and other animals show no similar appreciation of rhythm yet posits that human affinity for rhythm is fundamental, so that a person's sense of rhythm cannot be lost.
"There is not a single report of an animal being trained to tap, peck, or move in synchrony with an auditory beat" Human rhythmic arts are to some extent rooted in courtship ritual. The establishment of a basic beat requires the perception of a regular sequence of distinct short-duration pulses and, as a subjective perception of loudness is relative to background noise levels, a pulse must decay to silence before the next occurs if it is to be distinct. For this reason, the fast-transient sounds of percussion instruments lend themselves to the definition of rhythm. Musical cultures that rely upon such instruments may develop multi-layered polyrhythm and simultaneous rhythms in more than one time signature, called polymeter; such are the cross-rhythms of Sub-Saharan Africa and the interlocking kotekan rhythms of the gamelan. For information on rhythm in Indian music see Tala. For other Asian approaches to rhythm see Rhythm in Persian music, Rhythm in Arabic music and Usul—Rhythm in Turkish music and Dumbek rhythms.
As a piece of music unfolds, its rhythmic structure is perceived not as a series of discrete independent units strung together in a mechanical, way like beads, but as an organic process in which smaller rhythmic motives, whole possessing a shape and structure of their own function as integral parts of a larger rhythmic organization. Most music, dan
Helmut Heiderich is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union, a member of Bundestag. He sits on the Committee on Budgets as well as the Subcommittee on Issues of the European Union. In 1967 Heiderich graduated from high school in Bad Hersfeld. In 1972 he graduated from college with a degree in economics. In 1987, Heiderich became a professor in business computer science at Fulda University of Applied Sciences. From 1986, Heiderich was a deputy of the CDU, in 1992 he was elected chairman of the CDU Hersfeld/Rotenburg, he was elected a member of the German Bundestag from 1996 to 1998 and again from 2000 until 2005. In 2011, Heiderich rejoined parliament. During the 18th Bundestag, he is a deputy member of the Sport Committee. Heiderich is a Protestant.
Cléber Verde Cordeiro Mendes more known as Cléber Verde is a Brazilian politician. He has spent his political career representing Maranhão, having served as state representative since 2007. Verde is the son of Maria da Graça Cordeiro Mendes. Aside from being a politician Verde has worked as a college professor, lawyer and civil servant. Verde is a member of the Assembleias de Deus, one of the few members of the church in the IURD dominated republican party. After having represented left-wing parties throughout his political career, Verde joined the religious right-wing Brazilian Republican Party in 2007. Verde voted in favor of the impeachment of then-president Dilma Rousseff. Verde voted in favor of the 2017 Brazilian labor reform, would vote against a corruption investigation into Rousseff's successor Michel Temer
Bruce Rudroff was a U. S. soccer defender. Rudroff played three seasons in the North American Soccer League and four in the Major Indoor Soccer League, he earned two caps with the U. S. national team. Rudroff attended St. Louis University where he played on the men's soccer team from 1973 to 1976; the Billikens won the 1973 NCAA Men's Soccer Championship and Rudroff was a third team All American in 1974. He was inducted into the Billikens Athletic Hall of Fame in 1995; the Seattle Sounders of the North American Soccer League drafted Rudroff in the first round of the 1977 College Draft. While he spent most of 1977 with the Sounders reserve team, he did see time in nine first team games after Mel Machin was injured, his time with the Sounders peaked in 1978 with twenty-three games, but he played only four in 1979. Following the season, the Sounders traded him and Tommy Ord to the Tulsa Roughnecks in exchange for Jack Brand, Roger Davies and David Nish. Rudroff did not sign with the Roughnecks, but with the Hartford Hellions of the Major Indoor Soccer League.
When the Hellions moved to Memphis in 1981, Rudroff went with the team, renamed the Memphis Americans. Rudroff earned two caps with the U. S. national team. Both came in losses to the USSR; the first was a 3-1 loss on February 3, 1979. The second was a 4-1 loss on February 11, 1979. 1977 newspaper article NASL/MISL stats
Clem Tholet was a Rhodesian folk singer who became popular in the 1970s for his Rhodesian patriotic songs. He reached the height of his fame during the Rhodesian Bush War. Clem was born in Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia in 1948 and began writing songs while he was an art student in Durban, South Africa. One of his first songs, Vagabond Gun was a category winner at the South Africa Music Festival in 1966. Clem moved back to Rhodesia to work in advertising, he started singing at The Troubadour in Salisbury's Angwa Street. Whilst performing there, he met Sue Eccles and Andy Dillon; the trio formed a group called The Kinfolk moved to South Africa, shortly after moving to Johannesburg, Eccles left the group. Clem and Andy formed a new group with Yvonne Raff; this new trio began singing at the original Southern African "Troubadour", were involved in a number of SAFMA's National Folk Fests. Clem married Jean Smith in 1967. Clem embarked on a solo career. Mel Miller, Peter Leroy and Sylvia Stott joined Clem to form a group in 1970, before Clem moved back to Rhodesia in 1971.
Clem returned and soon built up a strong following. He did a series of Rhodesian Television shows, presented a radio programme called Folk on the Rocks, aired for two series; the name came from the folk club Clem ran at The Beverley Rocks, where it played to regular packed houses. A popular star of the annual Bless'Em All Troop Shows, in great demand in the Rhodesian entertainment scene, Clem recorded his first album Songs of Love & War at Shed Studios. Clem produced the album himself; the album was awarded a Gold Disc. He wrote the soundtrack and songs for the C. I. S. Film What A Time it Was and the theme song for a film honouring the wounded troopies of Rhodesia, Tsanga, he appeared at the 7 Arts Theatre, Harare in the first half, supporting the American comedian Shelley Berman with members of the Shed Studios band – Comprising Martin Norris, Steve Roskilly, Bothwell Nyamhondera, Tony Logan and Steve Hughes. As artistic director of the advertising agency Matthewman Banks and Tholet, he was instrumental in writing a great many and memorable music jingles for his clients.
He produced a second album at Shed Studios, called Two Sides to Every Story, before moving back to South Africa. After living and working in the advertising industry for many years in Cape Town, Clem died on 6 October 2004 after having suffered from the effects of a debilitating illness for a number of years. Clem's last album, Archives was sold as a fundraiser to benefit the Flame Lily Foundation; this fundraising project seeks to provide funds for the living expenses of elderly former residents of Zimbabwe and Rhodesia living in South Africa, who have been denied their pensions by the Zimbabwean government. John Edmond Mark Green "Story of Rhodesia – Tribute to Clem Tholet". 3rd Ear Music. Retrieved 27 July 2013. Includes Clem Tholet's self-penned obituary "Goodbye"
"Lasst uns erfreuen herzlich sehr" is a hymn tune that originated from Germany in 1623, which found widespread popularity after The English Hymnal published a 1906 version in strong triple meter with new lyrics. The triumphant melody and repeated "Alleluia" phrases have supported the tune's widespread usage during the Easter season and other festive occasions with the English texts "Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones" and "All Creatures of Our God and King"; the tune's first known appearance was in the 1623 hymnal Auserlesene, Geistliche Kirchengesäng during the Counter-Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, the oldest published version that still exists is from 1625. The original 1623 hymnal was edited by Friedrich Spee, an influential Jesuit priest and activist against witch-hunts, credited as the hymn's composer and original lyricist; the 1906 hymnal was edited by notable composer Ralph Vaughan Williams, whose arrangement of the hymn has become the standard for English-speaking churches. In the original 1623 edition, each eight-note text phrase was followed by a four-note Alleluia phrase, all of, followed by the final triple-Alleluia refrain, as in the audio sample at right.
In English-language hymnals, the melody is a revised version, where before the final refrain the four-note Alleluia phrases occur in two pairs, shown at right from the 1625 German printing and below in modern rhythm and notation. The verse consists of two repeated musical phrases with matching rhythms, one using the upper pitches of the major scale and one using the lower pitches, for the Alleluia refrain. Schematically, the structure of the original 1623 version can be represented as "vRvR VrVr RRr", the revised 1625 sequence is "vvRR VVrr RRr", the tune thus achieving a "full and satisfying effect with rare musical economy". Below is the first verse from the original German, alongside a half-rhymed, line-by-line English translation that shares the same 88.88 "long meter": The original hymn still appears in the main German-language Catholic hymnal Gotteslob, with modernized text, the tune as well in the protestant Evangelisches Gesangbuch with a translation by Karl Budde of Draper's "All Creatures".
Since the early 1900s, versions of the tune have been used for many denominations and hymn texts. Some of these alternate texts are notable, including alphabetically: "All Creatures of Our God and King", a paraphrase of Canticle of the Sun – by William Henry Draper, published 1919. Adapted for festival choir, brass and organ – by John Rutter, published 1974. "Creator Spirit, By Whose Aid", a paraphrase of Veni Creator Spiritus – by John Dryden, published 1693. "Praise God From Whom All Blessings Flow", a common doxology – by Thomas Ken, written 1674. "Ye Watchers and Ye Holy Ones", or Vigiles et Sancti in Latin – by Athelstan Riley, published 1906. Adapted for the final movement of The Company of Heaven, a cantata – by Benjamin Britten and published in 1937