Rice University

William Marsh Rice University known as Rice University, is a private research university in Houston, Texas. The university is situated on a 300-acre campus near the Houston Museum District and is adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. Opened in 1912 after the murder of its namesake William Marsh Rice, Rice is now a research university with an undergraduate focus, its emphasis on education is demonstrated by a small student body and 6:1 student-faculty ratio, it has been nationally recognized as a leading university for undergraduate teaching. The university has a high level of research activity, with $140.2 million in sponsored research funding in 2016. Rice is noted for its applied science programs in the fields of artificial heart research, structural chemical analysis, signal processing, space science, nanotechnology, it was ranked first in the world in materials science research by the Times Higher Education in 2010. Rice is a member of the Association of American Universities; the university is organized into eleven residential colleges and eight schools of academic study, including the Wiess School of Natural Sciences, the George R. Brown School of Engineering, the School of Social Sciences, School of Architecture, Shepherd School of Music and the School of Humanities.

Rice's undergraduate program offers more than fifty majors and two dozen minors, allows a high level of flexibility in pursuing multiple degree programs. Additional graduate programs are offered through the Jesse H. Jones Graduate School of Business and the Susanne M. Glasscock School of Continuing Studies. Rice students are bound by the strict Honor Code, enforced by a student-run Honor Council. Rice competes in 14 NCAA Division I varsity sports and is a part of Conference USA competing with its cross-town rival the University of Houston. Intramural and club sports are offered in a wide variety of activities such as jiu jitsu, water polo, crew; the university has produced numerous prominent alumni, including more than two dozen Marshall Scholars and a dozen Rhodes Scholars. Given the university's close links to NASA, it has produced a significant number of astronauts and space scientists. In business, Rice graduates have become founders of Fortune 500 companies. Two alumni have won the Nobel Prize, numerous others are leading researchers in science and engineering.

Rice University's history began with the untimely demise of Massachusetts businessman William Marsh Rice, who made his fortune in real estate, railroad development and cotton trading in the state of Texas. In 1891, Rice decided to charter a free-tuition educational institute in Houston, bearing his name, to be created upon his death, earmarking most of his estate towards funding the project. Rice's will specified the institution was to be "a competitive institution of the highest grade" and that only white students would be permitted to attend. On the morning of September 23, 1900, age 84, was found dead by his valet, Charles F. Jones, presumed to have died in his sleep. Shortly thereafter, a suspiciously large check made out to Rice's New York City lawyer, signed by the late Rice, was noticed by a bank teller due to a misspelling in the recipient's name; the lawyer, Albert T. Patrick announced that Rice had changed his will to leave the bulk of his fortune to Patrick, rather than to the creation of Rice's educational institute.

A subsequent investigation led by the District Attorney of New York resulted in the arrests of Patrick and of Rice's butler and valet Charles F. Jones, persuaded to administer chloroform to Rice while he slept. Rice's friend and personal lawyer in Houston, Captain James A. Baker, aided in the discovery of what turned out to be a fake will with a forged signature. Jones was not prosecuted since he cooperated with the district attorney, testified against Patrick. Patrick was found guilty of conspiring to steal Rice's fortune and convicted of murder in 1901, although he was pardoned in 1912 due to conflicting medical testimony. Baker helped Rice's estate direct the fortune, worth $4.6 million in 1904, towards the founding of what was to be called the Rice Institute to become Rice University. The board took control of the assets on April 29 of that year. In 1907, the Board of Trustees selected the head of the Department of Mathematics and Astronomy at Princeton University, Edgar Odell Lovett, to head the Institute, still in the planning stages.

He came recommended by Woodrow Wilson. In 1908, Lovett accepted the challenge, was formally inaugurated as the Institute's first president on October 12, 1912. Lovett undertook extensive research before formalizing plans for the new Institute, including visits to 78 institutions of higher learning across the world on a long tour between 1908 and 1909. Lovett was impressed by such things as the aesthetic beauty of the uniformity of the architecture at the University of Pennsylvania, a theme, adopted by the Institute, as well as the residential college system at Cambridge University in England, added to the Institute several decades later. Lovett called for the establishment of a university "of the highest grade," "an institution of liberal and technical learning" devoted "quite as much to investigation as to instruction." "keep the standards up and the numbers down," declared Lovett. "The most distinguished teachers must take their part in undergraduate teaching, their spirit should dominate it all."

In 1911, the cornerstone was laid for the Institute's first building, the Administration Building, now known as Lovett Hall in honor of the founding president. On September 23, 1912, the

Sumatra Railway

The Sumatra Railway referred to as the Pekanbaru Death Railway, was a railway project of the Imperial Japanese army in Sumatra during the Second World War. It was designed to connect Pekanbaru to Muaro in an effort to strengthen the military and logistical infrastructure for coal and troop shipments; the 220 km long railway would connect the Strait of Malacca, via the Siak River to Pekanbaru, to Padang via an existing railway from Muaro. The railway was completed on Victory over Japan Day, 15 August 1945, it was only used to transport prisoners of war out of the area but became overgrown by the jungle. Over 120,000 Indonesian Javanese, forced workers called Romusha were put to work by the Japanese army in addition to 6,500 Dutch prisoners of war Indo-Europeans, 1000 British prisoners of war, a combined 300 prisoners of war from the United States and New Zealand. By the time the work was completed in August 1945 a third of the European POWs had died and only around 16,000 of the 120,000 Indonesian Romusha had survived.

George Duffy, one of the 15 Americans there and survivor of the sinking of the MS American Leader recounted life and death for the POW workers on MemoryArchive: malaria, dysentery and malnutrition/"beri-beri" were the principal maladies compounded by overwork and mistreatment. "The average age at death of the 700 POWs who perished on that railway was 37 years and 3 months." The railway was never utilised and remains unused and in an advanced state of decay. The Japanese directed construction of the Burma Railway and Kra Isthmus Railway; the Sumatra Railway Memorial was unveiled on VJ Day in 2001 at the National Memorial Arboretum in Alrewas, England near Lichfield, Staffordshire. The memorial commemorates the 5,000 prisoners of war and 30,000 locals who were forced to work on the 140-mile Sumatra railway project and is located next to the Far East Prisoners of War Memorial Building; the memorial's unveiling was attended by former prisoners of war, the Japanese ambassador to Britain and included a peace stone and the planting of flowering trees to symbolise reconciliation

St Botolph's Church, Hardham

St Botolph's Church is the Church of England parish church of Hardham, West Sussex. It is in Horsham District, it contains the earliest nearly complete series of wall paintings in England. Among forty individual subjects is the earliest known representation of St. George in England. Dating from the 12th century, they were hidden from view until uncovered in 1866 and now "provide a rare and memorable impression of a medieval painted interior"; the simple two-cell stone building, with its original medieval whitewashed exterior, has seen little alteration and has an ancient bell. Hardham village is just off the main A29 road, "excitingly" separated from the village lane by narrow hedges; the A29 follows the course of Stane Street, an important Roman road, Hardham was the first posting station after leaving the Roman city of Noviomagus Reginorum. Hardham was recorded in the Domesday survey of 1086 as Heriedham. Hardham Priory was founded nearby in 1248; the church is late Saxon or early Norman. Despite its omission from the Domesday survey, the present building is considered to be 11th-century.

The design, described as "primitive" and simple, appears to belong to the early Norman style rather than "wavering between Saxon and Norman" like some contemporary churches. Some stones and tiles used by the Romans for their nearby buildings were incorporated into the fabric of the building in the chancel. An anchorite — a woman called Myliana — was housed in a stone cell attached to the church from about 1250. A squint was added at the same time to give her a view into the chancel towards the altar and to allow her to receive Communion. Another known occupant of the cell was Prior Robert, who died there in 1285; the squint was blocked, but in about 1900 it was uncovered. Some lancet windows were added in the nave in the late 13th century, in the 14th century the chancel received two new window openings. Many churches in small villages around the South Downs were changed little after they were built, St Botolph's Church is an example of this. Minimal population growth over the centuries meant.

Therefore, the church retained its simple appearance until the 19th century, when a porch and bell-turret were added. At the same time, the frescoes were revealed again: first in 1862, when a section of whitewash was removed and one painting was found, in 1866, when the rest were uncovered, they are faded but discernible. Philip Mainwaring Johnston undertook some restoration of the frescoes around 1900 and wrote a study of them in the Sussex Archaeological Collections in 1901; the church consists of chancel only. Such two-cell structures are common in the South Downs area of Sussex; the nave measures 31 1⁄2 by 19 feet, the chancel is much shorter and narrower at 17 by 15 1⁄2 feet. The walls, 2 3⁄4 feet thick, are of coarse sandstone rubble masonry and flint with much re-use of Roman stonework and tiles. In particular, one of the blocks in the southeast quoin is in fact a set of about 16 tiles with their original Roman mortar; the other quoins are rough-faced stone blocks with dimensions of about 20×15×7 inches.

A shingle-covered belfry stands on the east gable of the nave, a porch protrudes from the north side. The exterior walls are covered in white plaster—a common feature of churches in the medieval era; the nave and chancel are separated by a chancel arch whose "austere" and "broad simplicity" is indicative of early Norman design. The surface has subtly ring-moulded imposts which hardly interrupt the smooth lines. Certain other features suggest Saxon influence, including the square east end of the chancel and the substantial, blocky quoins; the south wall has a bricked-up doorway, which may have been a Saxon-era entrance. Overall, the building is low and sturdy—a "vigorous, down-to-earth and practical work", characteristic of Norman builders; the king-post roof is to be original. High in the nave walls are two small windows with modest splays. There are original Early English-style lancet windows, which "suit the church well", other windows which were added later; the porch and bell-turret were added in the Victorian period.

A squint was cut into the south side of the chancel in the Middle Ages. It was the site of a now vanished anchorite's cell. Internal fixtures include a 15th-century Perpendicular Gothic octagonal font, benches whose simple straight-headed ends date from the same era, altar rails dating from 1720. One of the two bells dating from the early 12th century, may be the oldest in Sussex. P. 1636, B. E.. In the early 12th century, St Pancras' Priory at Lewes, one of the richest monasteries in England supervised the decoration of the church interior with an extensive set of frescoes. Murals from the same school—known as the Lewes Group — can be seen at Coombes Church near Shoreham-by-Sea, St John the Baptist's Church, Clayton and St Michael and All Angels Church at Plumpton, were once visible at the church in Westmeston as well. Unusually, the frescoes cover the whole church interior, they are celebrated for their age and quality: Ian Nairn calls them "the fame of Hardham", descriptions such as "fine", "[Hard