The 1876 Shinpūren rebellion was one of a number of ex-samurai uprisings which took place in the early Meiji period against the new Meiji government of Japan. The rebellion began in Kumamoto on 24 October 1876. Following the 1868 Meiji Restoration, many members of the former samurai class were disgruntled with the direction the nation had taken; the abolition of their former privileged social status under the feudal order had eliminated their income, the establishment of universal military conscription had replaced much of their former role in the society. The rapid modernization of the country was resulting in massive changes to Japanese culture and society, appeared to many samurai to be a betrayal of the joi portion of the Sonnō jōi justification used to overthrow the former Tokugawa shogunate; the Shinpūren was an extremist and xenophobic political society of ex-samurai from Kumamoto Prefecture led by Otaguro Tomoo, which grew out of the teachings of Hayashi Ōen. The members were not satisfied with halting the westernization process—they wanted to turn the clock back and eradicate every trace of it, including the wearing of western clothes, use of the Western calendar, the use of Western weapons.
Members carried salt with them at all times for use in ritual purification of polluting foreign influences, such as electricity and Buddhist priests. They were incensed by government decrees permitting foreigners to purchase land in Japan, to allow missionaries to spread the Christian religion, to forbid the carrying of swords. A rumor that Emperor Meiji was planning a trip overseas was the final straw. Otaguro was a Shinto priest, after several attempts at divination, was given what he considered to be divine authorization to lead an uprising; as the Meiji government had called upon the Imperial Japanese Army garrison at Kumamoto to suppress the Saga Rebellion, Kumamoto itself was only defended. On October 24, after sending messages to like-minded groups in other domains, Otaguro led his 200 men in revolt, he divided his force into squads. One squad launched a surprise night attack on the barracks of the Kumamoto garrison, giving no quarter and showing no mercy to the wounded or unarmed, spurred on by their hatred of the conscript army, many of whose members were from peasant backgrounds.
Some 300 men of the garrison were wounded. A second squad smashed the telegraph office, although this in effect cut the rebels off from their would-be allies. A third squad attacked the offices and residences of Prefectural officials, killing the governor, commander of the Kumamoto garrison and his Chief of Staff. However, once the remaining garrison officers overcame their surprise at the attack; the rebels were decimated, the badly wounded Otaguro asked for one of his followers to cut off his head. After his death, many of his followers followed by committing seppuku; the battle was over by the following morning, but a state of emergency remained in effect in Kumamoto until November 3. The graves of some 123 members of the Shinpūren are located in the grounds of Sakurayama Shrine in Kumamoto. Many of those who fell were in early twenties. At the time, the Shinpūren Rebellion had a ripple effect, spawning the Akizuki Rebellion and the Hagi Rebellion. Although this rebellion failed the fact that a small, but determined band of men could create such a state of panic and could defeat such a large force proved to be an inspiration to political secret societies until the end of the Empire of Japan in 1945.
Yukio Mishima's Runaway Horses, the second book of the Sea of Fertility series, covers the Shinpūren Rebellion in detail. Keene, Donald. Emperor Of Japan: Meiji And His World, 1852–1912. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12341-8. Rogers, John M. "Divine Destruction: The Shinpūren Rebellion of 1876". In Helen Hardacre. New directions in the study of Meiji Japan. Brill's Japanese Studies Library. 6. Leiden: Brill. Pp. 408–439. ISBN 90-04-10735-5. Akizuki Rebellion Hagi Rebellion Saga Rebellion Satsuma Rebellion
The Tenchūgumi incident was a military uprising of sonnō jōi activists in Yamato Province, now Nara Prefecture, on 29 September 1863, during the Bakumatsu period. Emperor Kōmei had issued a dispatch to shōgun Tokugawa Iemochi to expel the foreigners from Japan in early 1863; the shōgun answered with a visit to Kyoto in April. On September 25 the emperor announced he would travel to Yamato province, to the grave of Emperor Jimmu, the mythical founder of Japan, to announce his dedication to the Jōi cause. Following this, a group called Tenchūgumi consisting of 30 samurai and rōnin from Tosa and other fiefs marched into Yamato Province and took over the Magistrate office in Gojō, they were led by Yoshimura Toratarō. The next day, shogunate loyalists from Satsuma and Aizu reacted by expelling several imperial officials of the sonnō jōi faction from the Imperial Court in Kyoto, in the Bunkyū coup; the shogunate sent troops to quell the Tenchūgumi, they were defeated in September 1864. Nara Prefecture - Tenchugumi
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population in Asia, it is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize. Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown anywhere on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems.
Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings; this simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil; the name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza. First used in English in the middle of the 13th century, the word "rice" derives from the Old French ris, which comes from the Italian riso, in turn from the Latin oriza, which derives from the Greek ὄρυζα.
The Greek word is the source of all European words. The origin of the Greek word is unclear, it is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word, or rather Old Tamil arici. However, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead. Mayrhofer suggests that the immediate source of the Greek word is to be sought in Old Iranian words of the types *vrīz- or *vrinj-, but these are traced back to Indo-Aryan. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar assumed that the Sanskrit vrīhí- is derived from the Tamil arici, while Ferdinand Kittel derived it from the Dravidian root variki; the rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long; the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. The varieties of rice are classified as long-, medium-, short-grained.
The grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy, many rice dishes, such as arròs negre, in Spain; some varieties of long-grain rice that are high in amylopectin, known as Thai Sticky rice, are steamed. A stickier medium-grain rice is used for sushi. Medium-grain rice is used extensively in Japan, including to accompany savoury dishes, where it is served plain in a separate dish. Short-grain rice is used for rice pudding. Instant rice differs from parboiled rice in that it is cooked and dried, though there is a significant degradation in taste and texture. Rice flour and starch are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness. Rice is rinsed before cooking to remove excess starch. Rice produced in the US is fortified with vitamins and minerals, rinsing will result in a loss of nutrients. Rice may be rinsed until the rinse water is clear to improve the texture and taste. Rice may be soaked to decrease cooking time, conserve fuel, minimize exposure to high temperature, reduce stickiness.
For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. Rice may be soaked for 30 minutes up to several hours. Brown rice may be soaked in warm water for 20 hours to stimulate germination; this process, called germinated brown rice, activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid to improve the nutritional value of brown rice. This method is a result of research carried out for the United Nations International Year of Rice. Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming, absorbs water during cooking. With the absorption method, rice may be cooked in a volume of water equal to the volume of dry rice- plus any evaporation losses. With the rapid-boil method, rice may be cooked in a large quantity of water, drained before serving. Rapid-boil preparation is not desirable with enriched rice, as much of the enrichment additives are l
The Shimonoseki Campaign refers to a series of military engagements in 1863 and 1864, fought to control Shimonoseki Straits of Japan by joint naval forces from Great Britain, the Netherlands and the United States, against the Japanese feudal domain of Chōshū, which took place off and on the coast of Shimonoseki, Japan. Despite efforts of appeasement by the Tokugawa shogunate to establish an atmosphere of peaceful solidarity, many feudal daimyōs remained bitterly resentful of the shogunate's open-door policy to foreign trade. Belligerent opposition to European and American influence erupted into open conflict when the Emperor Kōmei, breaking with centuries of imperial tradition, began to take an active role in matters of state and issued on March 11 and April 11, 1863 his "Order to expel barbarians"; the Chōshū clan, under the daimyō Mōri Takachika, began to take action to expel all foreigners after the deadline of the 10th day of the 5th month, by the traditional Japanese calendar. Defying the shogunate, Takachika ordered his forces to fire without warning on all foreign ships traversing Shimonoseki Strait.
This strategic but treacherous 600-meter waterway separates the islands of Honshū and Kyūshū and provides a passage connecting the Inland Sea with the Sea of Japan. Before tensions escalated in Shimonoseki Strait, foreign diplomats and military experts, notably U. S. Foreign Minister to Japan Robert Pruyn and U. S. Navy Captain David McDougal had been aware of the precarious state of affairs in Japan. McDougal wrote a letter to the Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles, dated June 12, 1863, stating, "General opinion is that the government of Japan is on the eve of revolution, the principal object of, the expulsion of foreigners." The Chōshū clan was equipped with antiquated cannons firing cannonballs, but some modern armament, such as five 8-inch Dahlgren guns, presented to Japan by the United States, three steam warships of American construction: the bark Daniel Webster of six guns, the brig Lanrick, or Kosei, with ten guns, the steamer Lancefield, or Koshin, of four guns. The first attack occurred on June 25, 1863, soon after the Imperial "Order to expel barbarians" came into effect.
The U. S. merchant steamer SS Pembroke, under Captain Simon Cooper, was riding at anchor outside Shimonoseki Strait when intercepted and fired upon by two European-built warships belonging to the rebel forces. The crew of one enemy vessel taunted the frantic American seamen with a loud and unnerving cry: "Revere the Emperor and expel the barbarians!". Under incessant cannon fire, Pembroke managed to get underway and escape through the adjacent Bungo Strait with only slight damage and no casualties. Upon arrival in Shanghai, Cooper filed a report of the attack and dispatched it to the U. S. Consulate in Yokohama, Japan; the next day, the French naval dispatch steamer Kien Chan was riding at anchor outside the strait, when rebel Japanese artillery atop the bluffs surrounding Shimonoseki opened fire on her. Kien Chan sustained damage to its engine and suffered four casualties before escaping to the open ocean. On July 11, despite warnings from the crew of the Kien Chan, the 16-gun Dutch warship Medusa cruised into Shimonoseki Strait.
Her skipper, Captain François de Casembroot, was convinced that Lord Mori would not dare fire on his vessel due to the strength of his ship and longstanding relations between the Netherlands and Japan. But Takachika did just that, pounding Medusa with more than thirty shells and killing or wounding nine seamen. De Casembroot returned fire and ran the rebel gauntlet at full speed, fearful of endangering the life of the Dutch Consul General, on board. Within a short time, the Japanese warlord had managed to fire on the flags of most of the nations with consulates in Japan. In the morning of July 16, 1863, under sanction by Minister Pruyn, in an apparent swift response to the attack on the Pembroke, the U. S. frigate USS Wyoming, under Captain McDougal, sailed into the strait and single-handedly engaged the U. S.-built but poorly manned local fleet for two hours before withdrawing. McDougal sank two enemy vessels and damaged another one, along with inflicting some forty Japanese casualties; the Wyoming suffered extensive damage, four crew dead and seven wounded, one dying of his injuries.
The two Japanese steamers sunk by the Wyoming were raised again by Chōshū in 1864 and attached to the harbor of Hagi. On the heels of McDougal's engagement, on July 20, the French Navy retaliated for the attack on their merchant ship; the French force consisted of marines and two warships, the aviso Tancrède and the Admiral's flagship, Semiramis. With 250 men, under Captain Benjamin Jaurès, they swept into Shimonoseki and destroyed a small town, together with at least one artillery emplacement; the intervention was supported by the French plenipotentiary in Japan, Duchesne de Bellecourt, but the French government, once informed criticized their representatives in Japan for taking such bellicose steps, for the reason that France had much more important military commitments to honour in other parts of the world, could not afford a conflict in Japan. Duchesne de Bellecourt would be relieved from his position in 1864. Jaurès was congratulated by the Shogunal government for taking such decisive steps against anti-foreign forces, was awarded a special banner.
Meanwhile, the Americans, French and Dutch feverishly opened diplomatic channels in an effort to negotiate the reopening of the passage to the Inland Sea. Months dragged by with no end in sight to the growing dilemma. By May 1864, various bellicose Japanese factions had destroyed thousan
The Satsuma Rebellion or Seinan War was a revolt of disaffected samurai against the new imperial government, nine years into the Meiji Era. Its name comes from the Satsuma Domain, influential in the Restoration and became home to unemployed samurai after military reforms rendered their status obsolete; the rebellion lasted from January 29, 1877, until September of that year, when it was decisively crushed and its leader, Saigō Takamori, committed seppuku after being mortally wounded. Saigō's rebellion was the last and most serious of a series of armed uprisings against the new government of the Empire of Japan, the predecessor state to modern Japan. Although Satsuma had been one of the key players in the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War, although many men from Satsuma had risen to influential positions in the new Meiji government, there was growing dissatisfaction with the direction the country was taking; the modernization of the country meant the abolition of the privileged social status of the samurai class, had undermined their financial position.
The rapid and massive changes to Japanese culture, language and society appeared to many samurai to be a betrayal of the jōi portion of the sonnō jōi justification used to overthrow the former Tokugawa shogunate. Saigō Takamori, one of the senior Satsuma leaders in the Meiji government who had supported the reforms in the beginning, was concerned about growing political corruption (the slogan of his rebel movement was shinsei-kōtoku. Saigō was a strong proponent of war with Korea in the Seikanron debate of 1873. At one point, he offered to visit Korea in person and to provoke a casus belli by behaving in such an insulting manner that the Koreans would be forced to kill him. Saigō expected both that a war would be successful for Japan and that the initial stages of it would offer a means by which the samurai whose cause he championed could find meaningful and beneficial death; when the plan was rejected, Saigō resigned from all of his government positions in protest and returned to his hometown of Kagoshima, as did many other Satsuma ex-samurai in the military and police forces.
To help support and employ these men, in 1874 Saigō established a private academy in Kagoshima. Soon 132 branches were established all over the prefecture; the “training” provided was not purely academic: although the Chinese classics were taught, all students were required to take part in weapons training and instruction in tactics. Saigō started an artillery school; the schools resembled paramilitary political organizations more than anything else, they enjoyed the support of the governor of Satsuma, who appointed disaffected samurai to political offices, where they came to dominate the Kagoshima government. Support for Saigō was so strong that Satsuma had seceded from the central government by the end of 1876. Word of Saigō’s academies was greeted with considerable concern in Tokyo; the government had just dealt with several small but violent samurai revolts in Kyūshū, the prospect of the numerous and fierce Satsuma samurai, being led in rebellion by the famous and popular Saigō was alarming.
In December 1876, the Meiji government sent a police officer named Nakahara Hisao and 57 other men to investigate reports of subversive activities and unrest. The men were captured, under torture, confessed that they were spies, sent to assassinate Saigō. Although Nakahara repudiated the confession, it was believed in Satsuma and was used as justification by the disaffected samurai that a rebellion was necessary in order to "protect Saigō". Fearing a rebellion, the Meiji government sent a warship to Kagoshima to remove the weapons stockpiled at the Kagoshima arsenal on January 30, 1877; this provoked open conflict, although with the elimination of samurai rice stipends in 1877, tensions were extremely high. Outraged by the government's tactics, 50 students from Saigō’s academy attacked the Somuta Arsenal and carried off weapons. Over the next three days, more than 1000 students staged raids on the naval yards and other arsenals. Presented with this sudden success, the dismayed Saigō was reluctantly persuaded to come out of his semi-retirement to lead the rebellion against the central government.
In February 1877, the Meiji government dispatched Hayashi Tomoyuki, an official with the Home Ministry with Admiral Kawamura Sumiyoshi in the warship Takao to ascertain the situation. Satsuma governor, Oyama Tsunayoshi, explained that the uprising was in response to the government's assassination attempt on Saigō, asked that Admiral Kawamura come ashore to help calm the situation. After Oyama departed, a flotilla of small ships filled with armed men attempted to board Takao by force, but were repelled; the following day, Hayashi declared to Oyama that he could not permit Kawamura to go ashore when the situation was so unsettled, that the attack on Takao constituted an act of lèse-majesté. On his return to Kobe on February 12, Hayashi met with General Yamagata Aritomo and Itō Hirobumi, it was decided that the Imperial Japanese Army would need to be sent to Kagoshima to prevent the revolt from spreading to other areas of the country sympathetic to Saigō. On the same day, Saigō met with his lieutenants Kirino Toshiaki and Shinohara Kunimoto and announced his intention of marching to Tokyo to ask questions of the government.
Rejecting large numbers of volunteers, he made no attempt to contact any of the other domains for support, no troops were left at Kagoshima to secure his base against an attack. To aid in the air of legality, Saigō wore his army uniform. Marching north, his army was hampered
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys services; the measure of inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index the consumer price index, over time. The opposite of inflation is deflation. Inflation affects economies in various negative ways; the negative effects of inflation include an increase in the opportunity cost of holding money, uncertainty over future inflation which may discourage investment and savings, if inflation were rapid enough, shortages of goods as consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Positive effects include reducing unemployment due to nominal wage rigidity, allowing the central bank more leeway in carrying out monetary policy, encouraging loans and investment instead of money hoarding, avoiding the inefficiencies associated with deflation.
Economists believe that the high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are caused by an excessive growth of the money supply. Views on which factors determine low to moderate rates of inflation are more varied. Low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities. However, the consensus view is that a long sustained period of inflation is caused by money supply growing faster than the rate of economic growth. Today, most economists favor a steady rate of inflation. Low inflation reduces the severity of economic recessions by enabling the labor market to adjust more in a downturn, reduces the risk that a liquidity trap prevents monetary policy from stabilizing the economy; the task of keeping the rate of inflation low and stable is given to monetary authorities. These monetary authorities are the central banks that control monetary policy through the setting of interest rates, through open market operations, through the setting of banking reserve requirements.
Rapid increases in the quantity of money or in the overall money supply have occurred in many different societies throughout history, changing with different forms of money used. For instance, when gold was used as currency, the government could collect gold coins, melt them down, mix them with other metals such as silver, copper, or lead, reissue them at the same nominal value. By diluting the gold with other metals, the government could issue more coins without increasing the amount of gold used to make them; when the cost of each coin is lowered in this way, the government profits from an increase in seigniorage. This practice would increase the money supply but at the same time the relative value of each coin would be lowered; as the relative value of the coins becomes lower, consumers would need to give more coins in exchange for the same goods and services as before. These goods and services would experience a price increase. Song Dynasty China introduced the practice of printing paper money to create fiat currency.
During the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, the government spent a great deal of money fighting costly wars, reacted by printing more money, leading to inflation. Fearing the inflation that plagued the Yuan dynasty, the Ming Dynasty rejected the use of paper money, reverted to using copper coins. Large infusions of gold or silver into an economy led to inflation. From the second half of the 15th century to the first half of the 17th, Western Europe experienced a major inflationary cycle referred to as the "price revolution", with prices on average rising sixfold over 150 years; this was caused by the sudden influx of gold and silver from the New World into Habsburg Spain. The silver spread throughout a cash-starved Europe and caused widespread inflation. Demographic factors contributed to upward pressure on prices, with European population growth after depopulation caused by the Black Death pandemic. By the nineteenth century, economists categorized three separate factors that cause a rise or fall in the price of goods: a change in the value or production costs of the good, a change in the price of money, a fluctuation in the commodity price of the metallic content in the currency, currency depreciation resulting from an increased supply of currency relative to the quantity of redeemable metal backing the currency.
Following the proliferation of private banknote currency printed during the American Civil War, the term "inflation" started to appear as a direct reference to the currency depreciation that occurred as the quantity of redeemable banknotes outstripped the quantity of metal available for their redemption. At that time, the term inflation referred to the devaluation of the currency, not to a rise in the price of goods; this relationship between the over-supply of banknotes and a resulting depreciation in their value was noted by earlier classical economists such as David Hume and David Ricardo, who would go on to examine and debate what effect a currency devaluation has on the price of goods. The adoption of fiat currency by many countries, from the 18th century onwards, made much larger variations in the supply of money possible. Rapid increases in the money supply have taken place a number of times in countries experiencing political crises, produ