Archie Comic Publications, Inc. is an American comic book publisher headquartered in Pelham, New York. The company's many titles feature fictional teenagers Archie Andrews, Jughead Jones, Betty Cooper, Veronica Lodge, Reggie Mantle, Sabrina Spellman, Josie and the Pussycats; the company began in 1939 as MLJ Comics, which published superhero comics. The initial Archie characters were created in 1941 by publisher John L. Goldwater and artist Bob Montana, in collaboration with writer Vic Bloom, they first appeared in Pep Comics #22. With the creation of Archie, publisher John Goldwater hoped to appeal to fans of the Andy Hardy movies starring Mickey Rooney. Archie Comics was the title of the company's longest-running publication, the first issue appearing with a cover date of Winter 1942. Starting with issue #114, the title was shortened to Archie; the flagship series was relaunched from issue #1 in July 2015 with a new look and design suited for a new generation of readers. Archie Comics characters and concepts have appeared in numerous films, television programs and video games.
Images from top to bottom: Pep Comics #36, Pep Comics #67, Ginger #1 Maurice Coyne, Louis Silberkleit, John L. Goldwater formed MLJ Magazines and started publishing in November 1939; the company name was derived from the initials of the partners' first names. Coyne served as MLJ's bookkeeper and CFO. Coyne and Silberkleit had been partners in Columbia Publications, a pulp company that published its last pulp in 1960. Silberkleit had a college degree from St. John's University, was a licensed and registered pharmacist, had a law degree from New York Law School, his efforts were focused on the business, separating and financial ends of the company. John Goldwater served as editor-in-chief. Goldwater was one of the founders of the Comics Magazine Association of America, he served as its president for 25 years. Goldwater was a national commissioner of the Anti-Defamation League. MLJ's first comic book, published in November 1939, was Blue Ribbon Comics with the first half full color and the last half in red and white tints.
In January 1940, Pep Comics debuted with the Shield, the first USA patriotic comic book hero, created by writer and managing editor Harry Shorten and designed by artist Irv Novick. Top Notch Comics was launched in December 1941; until March 1944, the cover feature of Pep was the Shield. The Shield was a forerunner for Joe Simon's and Jack Kirby's Captain America, being published 14 months earlier; the Andy Hardy movies were an inspiration for Goldwater to have a comic book about a relatable normal person. Teenaged Archibald "Chick" Andrews debuted with Betty Cooper and Jughead Jones in Pep Comics #22, in a story by writer Vic Bloom and artist Bob Montana. Archie soon became MLJ Magazine's headliner, which led to the company changing its name to Archie Comic Publications. Siberkleit and Coyne discontinued Columbia Publications. In the late 1950s, Archie Publishing launched its "Archie Adventure Series" line with a new version of the Shield and two new characters; the February 1962 issue of Harvey Kurtzman's Help! magazine featured his parody of the Archie characters in its Goodman Beaver story, "Goodman Goes Playboy", illustrated by frequent collaborator Will Elder.
Help! Publisher Jim Warren received a letter on December 6, 1961, accusing Help! of copyright infringement and demanding removal of the offending issue from newsstands. Warren was unable to recall the magazine, but he agreed to settle out of court rather than risk an expensive lawsuit. Warren paid Archie Comics $1000, ran a note of apology in a subsequent issue of Help! The story was reprinted in the book collection Executive Comic Book in 1962, with the artwork modified by Elder to obscure the appearance of the Archie characters. Archie Comics found their appearance still too close to its copyrighted properties, threatened another lawsuit. Kurtzman and Elder settled out of court by handing over the copyright to the story. Archie Comics refused to allow the story to be republished. A request from Denis Kitchen in 1983 to include the story in his Goodman Beaver reprint collection was turned down. After The Comics Journal co-owner Gary Groth discovered that Archie Comics had allowed the copyright on "Goodman Goes Playboy" to expire, he had the story reprinted in The Comics Journal #262, made it available as a PDF on the magazine's website.
In the mid-1960s, during the period fans and historians call the Silver Age of Comic Books, Archie switched its superheroes to a new imprint, "Mighty Comics Group," with the MLJ heroes done in the campy humor of the Batman TV show. This imprint ended in 1967. In the early 1970s, Archie Enterprises Inc. went public. Just over 10 years Louis Silberkleit's son Michael and John Goldwater's son Richard returned Archie Comic Publications to private ownership. Michael Silberkleit served as chairman and co-publisher, while Richard Goldwater served as president and co-publisher. Coyne retired in the 1970s as CFO. In the 1970s and 1980s, Spire Christian Comics, a line of comic books by Fleming H. Revell, obtained license to feature the Archie characters in several of its titles, including Archie's Sonshine, Archie's Roller Coaster, Archie's Family Album, Archie's Parables; these comics used Archie and his friends to tell stories with strong Christian themes and morals, sometimes incorporating Bible scripture.
In at least one instance, the regular characters meet a Christ-like figure on the beach, listen as he preaches Christian values. Archie launched a short-lived fantasy and
East Coast Comicon
The East Coast Comicon is an annual comic book fan convention that takes place in New Jersey. It began in 2011 as the Asbury Park Comicon, took place in Asbury Park, New Jersey. Due to its expansion and the need for a larger venue, it was renamed the East Coast Comicon in 2015, moved to the Meadowlands Exposition Center in Secaucus, New Jersey; the Asbury Park Comicon was founded by Cliff Galbraith of Crucial Entertainment, LLC. The show was conceived when Galbraith attended and observed crowds of people looking through cardboard boxes filled with albums. Galbraith relates, "I said,'Who else looks through white boxes?' And a light bulb went off." Comparing his convention to the enormous crowds of the much larger New York Comic-Con, which takes place in nearby Manhattan, Galbraith comments, "What we offer is a much more civilized, intimate setting. You can spend time with the artist. You’re not hustled along." Galbraith wanted to create a convention that emphasized comics over the film and television promotions around which many of the conventions they had attended had become centered.
The first show took place on May 2, 2012, at the Asbury Lanes live music and bowling venue in Asbury Park, New Jersey. The event featured guests Evan Dorkin, Sarah Dyer, Stephanie Buscema, Jamal Igle, Steve Mannion; the second Asbury Park Comicon took place on September 2012, at the Asbury Lanes in Asbury Park. The event featured artists Evan Dorkin, Sarah Dyer, Dean Haspiel, Reilly Brown; the third Asbury Park Comicon took place on March 30, 2013, at Asbury Park Convention Hall in Asbury Park. The event featured Al Jaffee, Michael E. Uslan, Herb Trimpe, Jamal Igle, Allen Bellman, Don McGregor, Jay Lynch, Rudy Nebres, John Holmstrom, Evan Dorkin, Bob Camp; the third Asbury Park Comicon was attended by 3,800 comic book fans. The fourth Asbury Park Comicon took place over the weekend of April 12 and 13, 2014, at the Berkeley Oceanfront Hotel in Asbury Park, New Jersey. Guests included Jim Steranko, Chris Claremont, Ann Nocenti, J. H. Williams III, Cliff Chiang, Denis Kitchen, Mark Schultz, Box Brown, Andrew Aydin, Don McGregor, Jay Lynch, Jamal Igle.
By 2015, Galbraith realized that the Asbury Park location created too many limitations to the convention's expansion. The Meadowlands Exposition Center in Harmon Meadow Plaza in Secaucus, New Jersey would allow the organizers to increase the number of featured exhibitors to 300, provide a more convenient location to northern New Jersey and New York City, free parking. Guests included Neal Adams, Arthur Adams, Jim Steranko, Simon Bisley, Larry Hama, John Holmstrom, Bob Camp, Ann Nocenti, Whilce Portacio, Steve Rude, Don McGregor, Rich Buckler. Among the panel discussions was one devoted to artist Wally Wood, it was the last comics convention to feature Herb Trimpe before his death on Monday, April 13, 2015. Official website
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Donald Francis McGregor is an American comic book writer best known for his work for Marvel Comics, the author of one of the first graphic novels. Don McGregor was born in Providence, Rhode Island where he worked myriad jobs as a young adult, including as a security guard, at a bank, at a movie theater, "for my grandfather's company, among other things, the patches the astronauts wore on their flights to the moon." He additionally served as a supply sergeant in a military police unit of the Rhode Island Army National Guard. His first work in print was in the letters-to-the-editor columns of various Marvel Comics titles and for The Providence Journal, where his work included reviews of books by authors including Evan Hunter, "who influenced me as a writer." McGregor entered the comics industry with stories in Warren Publishing's black-and-white horror-comics anthology magazines. His first purchased script "When Wakes The Dreamer" did not see print until Eerie #45, long after his first published script, the 12-page cover story "The Fade-Away Walk" in Creepy #40, credited as Donald F. McGregor, with art by Tom Sutton.
Through 1975, he wrote more than a dozen stories for those magazines and its sister title Vampirella, drawn by artists including Richard Corben and Reed Crandall. Of "When Wakes the Dreamer", he explained decades "hat held it up was that Billy Graham was going to draw it and he'd done a spectacular opening page for it, but for one reason or another, it just didn't happen.... I don't think we found the finished art for Billy's version of another early story of mine,'The Vampiress Stalks the Castle This Night.'" That story appeared in Vampirella #21, with art by Felix Mas. After a stint with Marvel, McGregor returned to write another 18 stories for those Warren titles as well as The Rook between 1979 and 1983, with artists including Paul Gulacy, Alfredo Alcala, Val Mayerik. McGregor became a proofreader for Marvel Comics in late 1972, earning $125 a week, before establishing himself as a Marvel editor and writer, his first stories for the company were co-writing, with Gardner Fox, the six-page supernatural story "The Man with Two Faces" in Journey into Mystery vol.
2, #4. He recalled in 2010, I came to Marvel Comics; as the line burgeoned, one of my jobs was to read all the reprint titles. One of the titles was Jungle Action, a collection of jungle genre comics from the 1950s detailing white men and women saving Africans or being threatened by them. I voiced a lament that I thought it was a shame that in 1973 Marvel was printing these stories, couldn't we have a black African hero.... Now, it was one of those unwritten rules that if you worked in editorial you would be given things to write, to supplement that $125 a week, it was at such a meeting that I learned I would be given'Killraven' and Jungle Action, with the Black Panther... to write. With those two features, which became among comics' most acclaimed, McGregor soon established himself as one of a 1970s wave of Marvel writers, including Steve Englehart, Steve Gerber and Doug Moench, who took minor characters and helped create a writerly Renaissance. Former Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas said in 2007, here was a lot of invention and experimentation going on during that period...
Steve and Don turned out be who advanced the field.... I don't think Don's work sold well, but I always thought he was doing some interesting things, I thought,'Well, the kind of stuff we put him on was the kind of stuff that we didn't expect to become great sellers anyway... So let him experiment with it and see what happens', and he did a lot of interesting things with it. McGregor wrote "Warrior of the Worlds" in Amazing Adventures vol. 2, #21-39. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that, "The scripts by Don McGregor emphasized the character's innate dignity." Unusually for mainstream comics, the Panther stories were set in Africa, in the Panther's fictional homeland Wakanda rather than in Marvel's usual American settings. As with the futuristic stories of “Killraven”, McGregor's settings were enough outside the Marvel mainstream that he was able to explore mature themes and adult relationships in a way rare for comics at the time. In 2010, Comics Bulletin ranked McGregor's run on Jungle Action third on its list of the "Top 10 1970s Marvels".
Artist Rich Buckler, his first "Black Panther" collaborator, called McGregor and fellow Marvel writer Doug Moench "two of my favorite writers. They had the same drive and enthusiasm, just huge amounts of talent and energy." African-American writer-editor Dwayne McDuffie said of the 1970s "Black Panther" series: This overlooked and underrated classic is arguably the most written multi-part superhero epic ever.... It's every issue, every scene, a functional, necessary part of the whole. Okay, now go back and read any individual issue. You'll find seamlessly integrated pictures.
Jungle Action is the name of two American comic book series published by Marvel Comics and its 1950s precursor, Atlas Comics. The Marvel version contained the first series starring the Black Panther, the first black superhero in mainstream comics, created by the writer/artist team of Stan Lee and Jack Kirby in Fantastic Four #52; the first series – published during a time of few superheroes, when comics featured an enormous assortment of genres – was a multi-character omnibus that ran six issues. Each starred Lord of the Jungle; the giant sentient snake Serpo was an antagonist common to most, lending some tangential geographic continuity. Leopard Girl – a scientist's assistant named Gwen, never given a last name – wore a skintight full-body leotard; the four series' stories were called by one critic "painful to a modern eye, racist and old-fashioned", was drawn by Joe Maneely, John Forte, Al Hartley, Paul Hodge, respectively. Two brethren titles were published by Atlas; the seven-issue Jungle Tales introduced Marvel's first African hero – Waku, Prince of the Bantu, who predated the Black Panther by nearly a dozen years.
It was renamed and continued as Jann of the Jungle from #8–17. The second title, the Jungle Queen, renamed Lorna, the Jungle Girl with issue #6, ran 26 issues; the company's second series of this name premiered with an issue cover-dated October 1972 and containing reprints of the same-name Atlas Comics title, with stories of white jungle adventurers. There was little market for these types of stories at the time, the new Jungle Action was one of a wave of low-cost series that Marvel pushed out in the 1970s in a bid to capture shelf space from competing comics publishers. Don McGregor, proofreading all of Marvel's publications, noted to the editorial staff that the series' preponderance of white protagonists in African settings was culturally outdated to the point of being incongruous. Marvel responded by assigning McGregor to write original material for Jungle Action, with the only creative restriction being that the stories must be set in Africa, thus an actual African protagonist, the superhero the Black Panther, took over the starring feature with issue #5, a reprint of the Panther-centric story in the superhero-team comic The Avengers #62.
A new series began running the following issue, written by McGregor, with art by pencilers Rich Buckler, Gil Kane, Billy Graham, which gave inkers Klaus Janson and Bob McLeod some of their first professional exposure. Comics historian Les Daniels observed that, "The scripts by Don McGregor emphasized the character's innate dignity." The critically well-received series ran in Jungle Action #6–24. One now-common innovation McGregor pioneered was that of the multi-issue story arc; the first, "Panther's Rage", ran through the first 13 issues as 13- to 15-page stories. Starting with Jungle Action #14, they were expanded to 18- to 19-page stories; the length of the story arc coupled with the series' bimonthly schedule made it difficult for readers to keep characters and subplots fresh in their memories, but Jungle Action nonetheless maintained passable if modest sales and was popular with the desirable college-student demographic. Two decades writer Christopher Priest's 1998 series The Black Panther utilized Erik Killmonger and other characters introduced in this arc.
Critic Jason Sacks has called the arc "Marvel's first graphic novel", here were real character arcs in Spider-Man and the Fantastic Four over time. But...'Panther's Rage' is the first comic, created from start to finish as a complete novel. Running in two years' issues of Jungle Action,'Panther's Rage' is a 200-page novel that journeys to the heart of the African nation of Wakanda, a nation ravaged by a revolution against its king, T'Challa, the Black Panther; the second and final arc, "Panther vs. the Klan", ran as 17-page stories in Jungle Action #19–24, except for issue #23, a reprint of Daredevil #69, in which the Black Panther guest-starred. The subject matter of the Ku Klux Klan was considered controversial in the Marvel offices at the time, creating difficulties for the creative team. Writer Dwayne McDuffie said of the Jungle Action "Black Panther" series: This overlooked and underrated classic is arguably the most written multi-part superhero epic ever.... It's every issue, every scene, a functional, necessary part of the whole.
Okay, now go back and read any individual issue. You'll find seamlessly integrated pictures. That's, every single month. Don and company did it in only 17-story pages per issue. Due to low sales and deadline problems, Jungle Action was cancelled with issue #24. "Panther vs. the Klan" was abandoned mid-story and Marvel relaunched the Black Panther in a self-titled series, with Jack Kirby – newly returned to Marvel after having decamped to rival DC C
Flash Gordon is the hero of a space opera adventure comic strip created by and drawn by Alex Raymond. First published January 7, 1934, the strip was inspired by, created to compete with the established Buck Rogers adventure strip; the Flash Gordon comic strip has been translated into a wide variety of media, including motion pictures and animated series. The latest version, a Flash Gordon television series, appeared on the Syfy channel in the United States in 2007–2008; the Buck Rogers comic strip had been commercially successful, spawning novelizations and children's toys, King Features Syndicate decided to create their own science fiction comic strip to compete with it. At first King Features tried to purchase the rights to the John Carter of Mars stories by Edgar Rice Burroughs; the syndicate was unable, however, to reach an agreement with Burroughs. King Features turned to Alex Raymond, one of their staff artists, to create the story. One source for Flash Gordon was the Philip Wylie novel.
The themes of an approaching planet threatening the Earth, an athletic hero, his girlfriend, a scientist traveling to the new planet by rocket, were adapted by Raymond for the initial storyline. Raymond's first samples were dismissed for not containing enough action sequences. Raymond sent it back to the syndicate, who accepted it. Raymond was partnered with an experienced editor and writer. Raymond's first Flash Gordon story appeared alongside Jungle Jim; the Flash Gordon strip was well received by newspaper readers, becoming one of the most popular American comic strips of the 1930s. As with Buck Rogers, the success of Flash Gordon resulted in numerous licensed products being sold, including pop-up books, colouring books, toy spaceships and rayguns; the Flash Gordon comic strip ran as a daily from 1934 to 1992, with the Sunday strip continuing until 2003. Reprints are still being syndicated by King Features Syndicate; the comic strip follows the adventures of Flash Gordon, a handsome polo player and Yale University graduate, his companions Dale Arden and Dr. Hans Zarkov.
The story begins with Earth threatened by a collision with the planet Mongo. Dr. Zarkov invents a rocket ship to fly into space in an attempt to stop the disaster. Half mad, he kidnaps Flash and Dale and they travel to the planet. Landing on the planet, halting the collision, they come into conflict with Ming the Merciless, Mongo's evil ruler. For many years, the three companions have adventures on Mongo, traveling to the forest kingdom of Arboria, ruled by Prince Barin, they are joined in several early adventures by Prince Thun of the Lion Men. Ming is overthrown, Mongo is ruled by a council of leaders led by Barin. Flash and friends return to Earth and have some adventures before returning to Mongo and crashing in the kingdom of Tropica reuniting with Barin and others. Flash and his friends travel to other worlds and return to Mongo, where Prince Barin, married to Ming's daughter Princess Aura, has established a peaceful rule. In the 1950s, Flash became an astronaut; the long story of the Skorpii War takes Flash to other star systems, using starships that are faster than light.
In addition to Ming and his allies and his friends fought several other villains, including Azura, the Witch Queen. After Raymond's tenure writers created new enemies for Flash to combat. Austin Briggs created Kang Ming's callous son. Prince Polon, who had the power to shrink or enlarge living creatures, the unscrupulous Queen Rubia, Pyron the Comet Master were among the antagonists introduced during Mac Raboy's run; the Skorpi, a race of alien shape shifters who desired to conquer the galaxy, were recurring villains in both the Mac Raboy and Dan Barry stories. The Skorpi space-fighter ace Baron Dak-Tula became a periodic nemesis of Flash in the late 1970s stories. King Features sold the Flash Gordon strip to newspapers across the world, by the late 1930s, the strip was published in 130 newspapers, translated into eight foreign languages, was read by 50 million people. In the 1930s and 1940s, several newspapers in Britain carried Flash Gordon, including the Scottish Sunday Mail. In France, his adventures were published in the magazine Robinson, under the name "Guy l'Éclair".
Dale Arden was named Camille in the French translation. In Australia, the character and strip were retitled Speed Gordon to avoid a negative connotation of the word "Flash". However, events in the 1930s affected the strip's distribution. Newspapers in Nazi Germany were forbidden to carry the Flash Gordon strip, while in Fascist Italy it was restricted to two newspapers. In 1938, the Spanish magazine Aventurero, the only publication in the country to carry Flash Gordon, ceased publication because of the Spanish Civil War; the outbreak of World War II resulted in Flash Gordon being discontinued in many countries. In Belgium, artist Edgar Pierre Jacobs was therefore asked to bring the current Flash Gordon story to a satisfactory conclusion, which he did. After the war's end, the strip enjoyed a resurgence in international popularity. Flash Gordon reappeared in Italy and West Germany, it was al
A comics artist is a person working within the comics medium on comic strips, comic books, or graphic novels. The term may refer to any number of artists who contribute to produce a work in the comics form, from those who oversee all aspects of the work to those who contribute only a part. Within the comic strip format, it is typical for one creator to produce the whole strip. However, it is not uncommon for the writing of the strip and the drawing of the art to be carried out by two different people, a writer and an artist. In some cases, one artist might draw key figures. Many strips were the work of two people. Shortly after Frank Willard began Moon Mullins in 1923, he hired Ferd Johnson as his assistant. For decades, Johnson received no credit. Willard and Johnson traveled about Florida, Los Angeles and Mexico, drawing the strip while living in hotels and farmhouses. At its peak of popularity during the 1940s and 1950s, the strip ran in 350 newspapers. According to Johnson, he had been doing the strip solo for at least a decade before Willard's death in 1958: "They put my name on it then.
I had been doing it about 10 years before that because Willard had heart attacks and strokes and all that stuff. The minute my name went on that his name went off, 25 papers dropped the strip; that shows you that, although I had been doing it ten years, the name means a lot." With regards to the comic book format, the work can be split in many different ways. The writing and the creation of the art can be split between two people, an example being From Hell, written by Alan Moore and drawn by Eddie Campbell; the writing of a comic book story can sometimes be shared between two people, with one person writing the plot and another the script. The artistic work is subdivided on work produced for the larger comic book publishers, with four people working on the art: a penciller, an inker, a colorist and a letterer. Sometimes this combination of four artists is augmented by a breakdown artist. However, this occurs only when an artist fails to meet a deadline or when a writer, sometimes referred to as a scripter, produces breakdown art.
Breakdown art is where the story has been laid out roughly in pencils to indicate panel layouts and character positions within panels but with no details. Such roughs are sometimes referred to as "layouts." The norm of four artists is sometimes reduced to three if the penciller inks his own work being credited within the book as a penciller/inker. John Byrne and Walt Simonson are artists; that these roles are interchangeable, many artists can fulfill different roles. Stan Sakai is a regarded letterer of comic books who creates his own series, Usagi Yojimbo. Producing his autobiographical works, Eddie Campbell has created both scripts and art, plus teaming with his daughter on the coloring. On Cerebus, for the majority of the run, Dave Sim created everything except the backgrounds, which were drawn by Gerhard. Glossary of comics terminology Daily comic strip Mangaka Sunday comics Sunday strip Comic Creators at Curlie