Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
TU Wien is one of the major universities in Vienna. The university has received extensive international and domestic recognition in teaching as well as in research, it is a esteemed partner of innovation oriented enterprises, it has about 26,200 students, eight faculties and about 4,000 staff members. The university's teaching and research is focused on engineering, computer science, natural sciences; the university's educational offerings have achieved wide domestic recognition. The institution was founded in 1815 by Emperor Francis II as the kaiserlich-königliches Polytechnisches Institut, it was renamed the Technische Hochschule in 1872. When it began granting doctoral and higher degrees in 1975, it was renamed the Vienna University of Technology. TU Wien is one of the most prestigious universities of technology in the world by presenting a top level of research and education. TU Wien is among the most successful technical universities in Europe and is Austria’s largest scientific-technical research and educational institution.
As a university of technology, TU Wien covers a wide spectrum of scientific concepts from abstract pure research and the fundamental principles of science to applied technological research and partnership with industry. For 200 years, TU Wien has been a place of research and learning in the service of progress. TU Wien is ranked 199th by the QS World University Ranking as of 2019, positioned among the best 251-300 higher education institutions globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. Over the years the university has retained a good positioning of their Engineering and Computer Science departments; the has been ranked among the top 80 computer science departments in the world by the QS World University Ranking and The Times Higher Education World University Rankings respectively. In 2014, U. S. News ranked Computer Science at TU Wien as number 14 in Europe, equaling number 3 within German speaking universities. TU Wien has eight faculties led by deans: Architecture and Planning, Civil Engineering, Computer Sciences, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology and Geoinformation, Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Physics.
The University is led by four Vice Rectors. The Senate has 26 members; the University Council, consisting of seven members, acts as a supervisory board. Development work in all areas of technology is encouraged by the interaction between basic research and the different fields of engineering sciences at TU Wien; the framework of cooperative projects with other universities, research institutes and business sector partners is established by the research section of TU Wien. TU Wien has sharpened its research profile by defining competence fields and setting up interdisciplinary collaboration centres, clearer outlines will be developed. Research focus points of TU Wien are introduced as computational science and engineering, quantum physics and quantum technologies and matter, information and communication technology and energy and environment; the EU Research Support provides services at TU Wien and informs both researchers and administrative staff in preparing and carrying out EU research projects.
Siegfried Becher, professor of economics Ottó Titusz Bláthy, Hungarian mechanical engineer Günter Blöschl, Austrian hydrologist Christian Andreas Doppler, Austrian mathematician and physicist Hugo Ehrlich, Croatian architect Paul Eisler, inventor of the printed circuit Tillman Gerngross, Professor of Engineering at Dartmouth College, leading entrepreneur and bioengineer, founder of GlycoFi and Adimab Princess Marie-Therese of Hohenberg, Austrian architect and princess Adolph Giesl-Gieslingen, Austrian locomotive designer and engineer Karl Gölsdorf, Austrian engineer and locomotive designer Edmund Hlawka, Austrian mathematician Ingeborg Hochmair, electrical engineer, developed the first microelectronic, multi-channel cochlear implant Viktor Kaplan, inventor of the Kaplan turbine Leon Kellner, grammarian and Zionist Hermann Knoflacher, Austrian engineer Benno Mengele, Austrian electrical engineer Milutin Milanković, Serbian geophysicist and civil engineer Yordan Milanov, one of the leading Bulgarian architects from the end of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century Richard von Mises, scientist Hubert Petschnigg, architect Ferdinand Piëch, Austrian business magnate and executive, the chairman of the supervisory board of Volkswagen Group Franz Pitzinger, Constructor General of the Austrian Navy Herman Potočnik, Slovene space pioneer Alfred Preis, designer of the USS Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor Zvonimir Richtmann, Croatian physicist, philosopher and publicist Peter Schattschneider, Austrian physicist Rudolph Michael Schindler, early Modern architect Paul Schneider-Esleben, visiting professor of architecture Edo Šen, Croatian architect Camillo Sitte, Austrian architect Peter Skalicky, rector of the Vienna University of Technology from 1991-2011 Irfan Skiljan, author of the image viewer software Irfanview Hellmuth Stachel, Austrian mathematician Rud
A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry. Chemists study the composition of its properties. Chemists describe the properties they study in terms of quantities, with detail on the level of molecules and their component atoms. Chemists measure substance proportions, reaction rates, other chemical properties; the word'chemist' is used to address Pharmacists in Commonwealth English. Chemists use this knowledge to learn the composition and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful occurring substances and create new artificial substances and useful processes. Chemists may specialize in any number of subdisciplines of chemistry. Materials scientists and metallurgists share skills with chemists; the work of chemists is related to the work of chemical engineers, who are concerned with the proper design and evaluation of the most cost-effective large-scale chemical plants and work with industrial chemists on the development of new processes and methods for the commercial-scale manufacture of chemicals and related products.
The roots of chemistry can be traced to the phenomenon of burning. Fire was a mystical force that transformed one substance into another and thus was of primary interest to mankind, it was fire. After gold was discovered and became a precious metal, many people were interested to find a method that could convert other substances into gold; this led to the protoscience called alchemy. The word chemist is derived from an abbreviation of alchimista. Alchemists discovered many chemical processes. Chemistry as we know it today, was invented by Antoine Lavoisier with his law of conservation of mass in 1783; the discoveries of the chemical elements has a long history culminating in the creation of the periodic table by Dmitri Mendeleev. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry created in 1901 gives an excellent overview of chemical discovery since the start of the 20th century. Jobs for chemists require at least a bachelor's degree, but many positions those in research, require a Master of Science or a Doctor of Philosophy.
Most undergraduate programs emphasize mathematics and physics as well as chemistry because chemistry is known as "the central science", thus chemists ought to have a well-rounded knowledge about science. At the Master's level and higher, students tend to specialize in a particular field. Fields of specialization include biochemistry, nuclear chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, polymer chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry, environmental chemistry, thermochemistry. Postdoctoral experience may be required for certain positions. Workers whose work involves chemistry, but not at a complexity requiring an education with a chemistry degree, are referred to as chemical technicians; such technicians do such work as simpler, routine analyses for quality control or in clinical laboratories, having an associate degree. A chemical technologist has more education or experience than a chemical technician but less than a chemist having a bachelor's degree in a different field of science with an associate degree in chemistry or having the same education as a chemical technician but more experience.
There are degrees specific to become a chemical technologist, which are somewhat distinct from those required when a student is interested in becoming a professional chemist. A Chemical technologist is more involved in the management and operation of the equipment and instrumentation necessary to perform chemical analyzes than a chemical technician, they are part of the team of a chemical laboratory in which the quality of the raw material, intermediate products and finished products is analyzed. They perform functions in the areas of environmental quality control and the operational phase of a chemical plant. In addition to all the training given to chemical technologists in their respective degree, a chemist is trained to understand more details related to chemical phenomena so that the chemist can be capable of more planning on the steps to achieve a distinct goal via a chemistry-related endeavor; the higher the competency level achieved in the field of chemistry, the higher the responsibility given to that chemist and the more complicated the task might be.
Chemistry, as a field, have so many applications that different tasks and objectives can be given to workers or scientists with these different levels of education or experience. The specific title of each job varies from position to position, depending on factors such as the kind of industry, the routine level of the task, the current needs of a particular enterprise, the size of the enterprise or hiring firm, the philosophy and management principles of the hiring firm, the visibility of the competency and individual achievements of the one seeking employment, economic factors such as recession or economic depression, among other factors, so this makes it difficult to categorize the exact roles of these chemistry-related workers as standard for that given level of education; because of these factors affecting exact job titles with distinct responsibilities, some chemists might begin doing technician tasks while other chemists might begin doing more complicated tasks than those of a technician, such as tasks th
Bardejov is a town in North-Eastern Slovakia. It is situated in the Šariš region on a floodplain terrace of the Topľa River, in the hills of the Beskyd Mountains, it exhibits numerous cultural monuments in its intact medieval town center. The town is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites and maintains a population of about 30,000 inhabitants. There are two theories about the origin of the name. According to one theory, the name town comes from the Hungarian word "bárd", which indicated an amount of forested territory which could be chopped down by one man in one day. In the Hungarian name, the "fa" suffix came and it changed the last letter of "bárd" to "bárt", for easier pronunciation.. Another theory derives the name from a Christian personal name Barděj, Barduj with common Slavic possessive suffix -ov; this theory is supported by the first recorded form of the name - Bardujef. The motivation by the personal name is supported by the presence of the suffix preserved in Polish or Slovak sources.
The territory of present-day Bardejov has attracted settlers since the Stone Age. However, the first written reference to the town dates back to the 1240s, when monks from Bardejov complained to King Béla IV about a violation of the town’s borders by Prešov. By that time, the important church of Sv. Aegidius had been built. Fortified in the 14th century, the town became a center of trade with Poland. More than 50 guilds controlled the flourishing economy. Bardejov gained the status of a royal town in 1376 becoming a free royal town; the town’s golden age ended in the 16th century, when several wars and other disasters plagued the country. Beginning in the first quarter of the 18th century, the situation began to improve. Slovaks and Hasidic Jews came into Bardejov in large numbers. By the end of the century, the population of the town had regained the level of the 16th century; the burghers' houses were modified in keeping with current architectural fashion. A Jewish quarter with a synagogue and ritual baths developed in the north-western suburbs.
New churches and bridges were built, as well. During the Reformation, Michal Radašin was called as town pastor. Despite further fires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the town continued to thrive, thanks to major industrialization projects in the region. In 1893, a railway was opened connecting Presov to Bardejov. However, it declined again following the establishment of the first Czechoslovak Republic and became a backward farming region. World War II saw a worsening in the economic situation, though little damage from bombardment. Bardejov was taken by Soviet troops of the 1st Guards Army on 20 January 1945. In 1950, Bardejov was declared a protected city core and extensive restoration of its cultural heritage began; these efforts culminated in Bardejov receiving the European Gold Medal by the International Board of Trustees in Hamburg in 1986 – the first town in Czechoslovakia to receive the award. On November 20, 2000, Bardejov was selected by UNESCO as one of its World Heritage Sites, recognized for its Jewish Suburbia and historic town center.
In November 2010, the city marked the 10th anniversary of its inscription on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Today, Bardejov is known for its authentic old town square, which due to extensive restoration and preservation of its Medieval and Gothic architecture has made Bardejov a popular tourist destination; the town draws on its rich heritage to further develop cultural traditions, such as an annual trade fair and the Roland Games. Like many European small towns, Bardejov maintained a strong Jewish population before World War II and the Holocaust. In March 2006, the Bardejov Jewish Preservation Committee was founded as a non-profit organization by Emil Fish, a survivor of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, born in Bardejov. In July 2005, Mr. Fish returned to Bardejov with his wife and son for the first time since 1949, his response to the disrepair and dilapidation of the synagogues and the Jewish cemetery was a resolve to restore and preserve these properties. The committee is composed of Bardejov survivors, their descendants and friends, others interested in commemorating the vanishing Jewish communities of Eastern Europe.
Today, the committee's stated mission is to: "restore the Jewish properties of Bardejov, Slovakia". Bardejov is dominated by the monumental Church of St. Aegidius, mentioned for the first time in 1247. A three nave basilica with multiple chapels was completed in 1464, it hosts eleven precious Gothic winged altars with panel paintings. The central square, which used to be the town’s medieval marketplace, is surrounded by well-preserved Gothic and Renaissance burghers’ houses as well as the basilica. One of the most interesting buildings is the town hall, built in 1505; the lower part was built in the Gothic style, while the upper part was finished in the Renaissance style. This was the headquarters of the city council and the center of the town's economic and cultural life. In 1903, the town hall was adapted to serve as Šariš County Museum, now known as the Šariš Museum Bardejov, one of the oldest and the biggest museums in Slovakia; the fortification system and town walls date from the 14th and 15th centuries and are listed by the European Fund of C
Emil Zsigmondy was an Austrian physician and mountaineer. Zsigmondy's parents were Hungarians: Adolf Zsigmondy, born in Pozsony, Irma von Szakmáry, born in Martonvásár. Zsigmondy was an excellent alpinist, known for the risky nature of many of his climbs, he began mountaineering as a teenager, climbing the Reisseck in Austria in a round trip of 26 hours with his brother, Otto Zsigmondy. By the late 1870s the two brothers were climbing without guides in the Zillertal Alps. In 1881, they climbed the Ortler from the Hochjoch. Emil Zsigmondy was the friend and companion of Ludwig Purtscheller, the great pioneer of guideless Alpine climbing. Emil and Otto climbed with Purtscheller in 1882 and 1884, including an ascent without guides of the Marinelli Couloir on Monte Rosa and the first guideless traverse of the Matterhorn. Zsigmondy's outstanding achievements include the first ascent by the east arête of the 3,983 metres high Meije in the Massif des Écrins range, made by Zsigmondy, his brother Otto, Purtscheller on 26 July 1885.
A few days he died on the same mountain. He was killed in an attempt to climb the south face of the Meije on 6 August 1885 as a result of his rope slipping off a rock; the face was only conquered in 1912 by the South Tyrolese climbers Angelo Dibona and Luigi Rizzi with the brothers Guido and Max Mayer. Emil Zsigmondy's grave is a few miles away from the accident site in the small cemetery of Saint-Christophe-en-Oisans in the Dauphiné Alps, he had graduated as a doctor of medicine than a year before his death. American historian and mountaineer W. A. B. Coolidge would write: It is impossible, of course, to fix the precise date at which guideless climbing began to be abused, but no one can doubt that one of the first signs of the change in men's views was the tragic death of Emil Zsigmondy on the Meije in 1885... There are limits to human skill and human daring, and, in the opinion of the present writer, these were overstepped on that occasion. Zsigmondy is commemorated by the Zsigmondyspitze in the Zillertal Alps, the Brèche Zsigmondy on the Meije, the Zsigmondyhütte in the Sexten Dolomites.
Emil Zsigmondy was the second of the four sons of Dr. Adolf Zsigmondy of Pressburg, a dentist of Hungarian origin, Irma von Szakmáry, a poet from Martonvásár, his older brother, Otto, a dentist by profession, was known as a mountaineer. His younger brother, Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, was a chemist and in 1925 received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; the youngest of the four brothers, Karl Zsigmondy, was a mathematician. He was a cousin of the architect Frigyes Schulek. 1879 - Ascent of Feldkopf with Otto Zsigmondy, 25 July 1884 - First traverse of the Marmolada, of the Punta Rocca to the Punta Penia with Otto Zsigmondy and Ludwig Purtscheller 1884 - First ascent sans guide of Monte Civetta with Otto Zsigmondy, 5 August 1884 - First route of the southwest face of the Croda di Trafoi with Otto Zsigmondy, G. Geyer and J. Prohaska, 23 August 1884 - First ascent of the south face of the Bietschhorn with Otto Zsigmondy, Ludwig Purtscheller and Karl Schulz, 2 September 1885 - Ascent of Bec de l'Homme with Otto Zsigmondy, Ludwig Purtscheller and Karl Schulz 1885 - First ascent by the east arête of the Meije with Otto Zsigmondy and Ludwig Purtscheller, 26 and 27 July 1885 - Attempted ascent of the south face of the Meije with Otto Zsigmondy and Karl Schulz, 6 August Die Gefahren der Alpen, Praktishe Winke für Bergsteiger.
Leipzig. 1885. Schulz, Karl, ed.. Im Hochgebirge, Wanderungen von Dr. Emil Zsigmondy. Illustrated by E. T. Compton. Leipzig. Works by or about Emil Zsigmondy at Internet Archive Literature by and about Emil Zsigmondy in the German National Library catalogue "Fotos Wanderung Zsigmondy-Hütte". Martin Leitgeb. 16 July 2005. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2013. Photos of the Zsigmondyhütte in the Sexten Dolomites
Mountaineering is the set of activities that involves ascending mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, hiking and traversing via ferratas. Indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are considered mountaineering as well. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains, it has branched into specializations that address different aspects of mountains, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow, or ice or on level ground. All require various degrees of experience, athletic ability, technical knowledge to maintain safety, it is still common to seek the summits of peaks, whether unclimbed or not. Mountaineering is called alpinism, mountain climbers are sometimes called alpinists, although use of the term may vary between countries and eras; the word "alpinism" was born in the 19th century to refer to climbing for the purpose of enjoying climbing itself as a sport or recreation, distinct from climbing while hunting or as a religious pilgrimage, done at that time.
The UIAA, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, is the International Olympic Committee-recognized world governing body for mountaineering and climbing, addressing issues like access, mountain protection, safety and ice climbing. Many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they regarded as sacred due to their perceived proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. On April 26, 1336 famous Italian poet Petrarch climbed to the summit of 1,912 m Mount Ventoux overlooking the Bay of Marseilles, claiming to be inspired by Philip V of Macedon's ascent of Mount Haemo, making him the first known alpinist. One of the first European mountains visited by many tourists was Sněžka; this was due to the minor technical difficulties ascent and the fact that since the sixteenth century, many resort visitors flocked to the nearby Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój and visible Sněžka, visually dominant over all Krkonoše was for them an important attraction. The first confirmed ascent took place in the year 1456.
In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a little team, using ladders and ropes. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, has been said to mark the beginning of mountaineering. In 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains. During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, many mountain summits were surmounted for the first time.. In 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. In 1757 Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure made the first of several unsuccessful attempts on Mont Blanc in France offering a reward, claimed in 1786 by Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard. By the early 19th century many of the alpine peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812, the Breithorn in 1813.
In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc, followed in 1838 by Henriette d'Angeville. The beginning of mountaineering as a sport in the UK is dated to the ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 by English mountaineer Sir Alfred Wills, who made mountaineering fashionable in Britain; this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, Johannes Zumtaugwald. In the early years of the "golden age", scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and alpine mountaineering overall.
One of the most dramatic events was the spectacular first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865 by a party led by English illustrator Edward Whymper, in which four of the party members fell to their deaths. This ascent is regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age. By this point the sport of mountaineering had reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides and fixed guidelines. Mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James and two others in 1820. Though lower than Pikes Peak, the glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842. Pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Denali, the tallest peak in North America, was climbed