click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Richard Bentley

Richard Bentley was an English classical scholar and theologian. He was Master of Cambridge. Bentley was the first Englishman to be ranked with the great heroes of classical learning and was known for his literary and textual criticism. Called the "founder of historical philology", Bentley is credited with the creation of the English school of Hellenism, introduced the first competitive written examinations in a Western university. Bentley was born at Oulton near Rothwell, West Yorkshire, in northern England. A blue plaque near his birthplace commemorates the fact, his father was Thomas Bentley of Oulton. His grandfather, Captain James Bentley, had suffered for the Royalist cause following the English Civil War, leaving the family in reduced circumstances. Bentley's mother, the daughter of a stonemason, had some education, was able to give her son his first lessons in Latin. After attending grammar school in Wakefield, Bentley was an undergraduate at St John's College, Cambridge, in 1676, he afterwards obtained a scholarship and took the degree of B.

A. in 1680. He never became a Fellow, but was appointed to be the headmaster of Spalding Grammar School before he was 21. Edward Stillingfleet, dean of St Paul's, hired Bentley as tutor to his son, which enabled the younger man to meet eminent scholars, have access to the best private library in England, become familiar with Dean Stillingfleet. During his six years as tutor, Bentley made a comprehensive study of Greek and Latin writers, storing up knowledge which he used later. In 1689, Stillingfleet became bishop of Worcester, Bentley's pupil went to Wadham College, accompanied by his tutor. Bentley soon met Dr John Mill, Humphrey Hody, Edward Bernard. Here he studied the manuscripts of the Corpus Christi and other college libraries, he collected material for literary studies. Among these are a corpus of the fragments of the Greek poets and an edition of the Greek lexicographers; the Oxford press was about to bring out an edition from the unique manuscript of the Greek Chronicle in the Bodleian Library.

It was a universal history of John of Antioch, called John Malalas or "John the Rhetor". The editor, Dr John Mill, principal of St Edmund Hall, asked Bentley to review it and make any remarks on the text. Bentley wrote the Epistola ad Johannem Millium, about 100 pages included at the end of the Oxford Malalas; this short treatise placed Bentley ahead of all living English scholars. The ease with which he restored corrupted passages, the certainty of his emendation and command over the relevant material, are in a style different from the careful and laborious learning of Hody, Mill or Edmund Chilmead. To the small circle of classical students, it was obvious. In 1690, Bentley had taken deacon's orders. In 1692 he was nominated first Boyle lecturer, a nomination repeated in 1694, he was offered the appointment a third time in 1695 but declined it, as he was involved in too many other activities. In the first series of lectures, he endeavours to present Newtonian physics in a popular form, to frame them into proof of the existence of an intelligent Creator.

He had some correspondence with Newton living in Trinity College, Cambridge, on the subject. The second series, preached in 1694, is believed to be lost. After being ordained, Bentley was promoted to a prebendal stall in Worcester Cathedral. In 1693 the curator of the royal library became vacant, his friends tried to obtain the position for Bentley, but did not have enough influence; the new librarian, a Mr Thynne, resigned in favour of Bentley, on condition that he receive an annuity of £130 for life out of the £200 salary. In 1695 Bentley received the living of Hartlebury; that same year, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, in 1696 earned the degree of D. D.. The scholar Johann Georg Graevius of Utrecht made a dedication to him, prefixed to a dissertation on Albert Rubens, De Vita Fl. Mallii Theodori. Bentley had official apartments in St. James's Palace, his first care was the royal library in Ashburnham House, he worked to restore the collection from a dilapidated condition. He persuaded the Earl of Marlborough to ask for additional rooms in the palace for the books.

This was granted. Bentley enforced the law, ensuring that publishers delivered nearly 1000 volumes, purchased but not delivered; the University of Cambridge commissioned him to obtain Greek and Latin fonts for their classical books. He assisted John Evelyn in his Numismata. Bentley did not settle down to the steady execution of any of the major projects he had started. In 1694, he designed an edition of Philostratus, but abandoned it to Gottfried Olearius, "to the joy," says F. A. Wolf, "of Olearius and of no one else." He supplied Graevius with collations of Cicero, Joshua Barnes with a warning as to the spuriousness of the Epistles of Euripides. Barnes printed the epistles anyway and declared that no one could doubt their authenticity but a man, perfrictae frontis aut judicii imminuti. For Graevius's Callimachus, Bentley added a collection of the fragments with notes, he wrote the Dissertation on the Epistles of Phalaris, his major academic work accidentally. In 1697, William Wotton, about to bring out a second edition of his Ancient and Modern Learning, asked B

Masonic Temple (El Dorado, Arkansas)

The Masonic Temple of El Dorado, Arkansas is located at 106-108 North Washington Street, on the west side of the courthouse square. The four-story masonry building was built in 1923-24 to a design by Little Rock architect Charles S. Watts, it is one of a small number of buildings in Arkansas with Art Deco styling influenced by the Egyptian Revival. This particular styling was influence by the 1922 discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001, included in the El Dorado Commercial Historic District in 2003. National Register of Historic Places listings in Union County, Arkansas

Battle of Guastalla

The Battle of Guastalla or Battle of Luzzara was a battle fought on 19 September 1734 between Franco-Sardinian and Austrian troops as part of the War of the Polish Succession. Following the death in February 1733 of King Augustus II of Poland, European powers exerted diplomatic and military influence in the selection of his successor. Competing elections in August and October 1733 elected Stanisław Leszczyński and Frederick August, Elector of Saxony to be the next king. Stanisław was supported by France, while Frederick August was supported by Russia and the Habsburg Emperor Charles VI. On October 10, France declared war on Austria and Saxony to draw military strength away from Poland, shortly thereafter invaded both the Rhineland and the Habsburg territories in what is now northern Italy; the Italian campaign was conducted in conjunction with King Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia, to whom France had promised the Duchy of Milan in the Treaty of Turin, signed in September 1733. The Franco-Sardinian allies marched on Milan in October 1733, occupied Lombardy without significant losses.

In the spring of 1734 the Austrians responded in force, but suffered a bloody defeat in the Battle of San Pietro, won by the French under de Coigny and de Broglie. Following the victory, reluctance on the part of Charles Emmanuel to pursue the retreating Austrians led to little action throughout the summer of 1734. In September Field Marshal Dominik von Königsegg-Rothenfels, who replaced Florimund Mercy, renewed the Austrian offensive, winning a small victory near Quistello when his troops raided de Broglio's headquarters on September 14, taking 1,500 prisoners and capturing Charles Emmanuel's silver service and campaign warchest; as the Austrians pursued the allies, they surrounded additional pockets of soldiers, taking another 3,000 prisoners. The allies fell back toward Guastalla, where they fortified a position between the Crostolo and Po rivers. After pausing to reprovision on September 16, Königsegg continued the pursuit, reaching Luzzara on September 18; the allied leadership that evening decided to force a battle at Guastalla as revenge for the action at Quistello.

The area between Guastalla and Luzzara included two small dams, numerous other landworks, including hedges and low stone walls, that were useful as cover for defending troops. To the west of Guastalla was a plain dotted with copses of trees, extending to the Po, where the allies had a boat-bridge to facilitate the movement of troops across the river. Between the bridgehead and the fortified town of Guastalla they erected a series of defensive works between the two dams, anchored by a large redoubt about halfway between the town and the bridge; the allied line extended from the village of Piave, south of Guastalla, around to the east and north of the town, ending with battalions of cavalry on the plains in front of the defensive line between the town and the bridge. Overall command was given to Charles Emmanuel, who led the center, with de Coigny leading the right flank and de Broglie the left. On the morning of September 19 Charles Emmanuel sent three regiments across the Po to guard against possible Austrian flanking maneuvers that could bypass his army and gain access to Milanese territory.

Demonstrations by Austrian troops on the left bank of the Po on September 18 reinforced his concern over this possibility. When Königsegg learned of this latter movement, he decided the time had come to attack the allied position at Guastalla, hoping for a decisive defeat, forcing the allies to retreat either across the Po or the Crostolo; because he had been unable to reconnoiter the enemy position, reports indicated no significant massings of enemy troops, Königsegg concluded that the bulk of the allied troops had been withdrawn across the Po. Hoping to isolate the remaining enemy troops, he directed the bulk of his forces toward the bridgehead on the allied left. Königsegg ordered the first companies to move out early on September 19, without explicitly telling the commanding generals that battle was to be expected; when the leading edges of his army reached the allied positions, reconnaissance indicated that there were as few as 5,000 infantry in the field, that the enemy's cavalry appeared to be in retreat.

Convinced that he was facing the rear guard of the allied army, Königsegg ordered a single line of troops forward at about 10 am to flush out the defenders. While this met with limited success, he was forced to commit more resources to the battle as it picked up in intensity about 11 am. Around noon Charles Emmanuel directed troops from the allied right to come around to assist in the defense of the left flank, where a large portion of the Austrian army was engaged in between the two dams. About 1 pm Königsegg's second, Prince Frederick Louis of Württemberg-Winnental was killed while leading a cavalry charge. While the battle waged incessantly, Austrian grenadiers came up the river by boat and landed just behind the allied cavalry position. In response, Charles Emmanuel ordered the left flank to retreat toward the bridgehead, called on most of the remaining troops from the right for support; some troops from the right flank marched to the aid of the center without orders to do so, which helped the center hold when Königsegg threw his reserves into the battle there around 2 pm.

The battle continued, with neither side able to gain ground against the other, without further reserves to bring in, until about 4 pm. By that time, both sides were running low on ammunition, Königsegg ordered the Austrians to withdraw back to Luzzara. While the allies held the field of battle, both sides suffered significant casualties; the Austrians

Giorgio Pessi

Tenente Giorgio Pessi was a World War I flying ace born in Austro-Hungary who chose to fly for Italy. He was credited with six aerial victories. Giorgio Pessi was born on 17 November 1891 in Trieste, when it was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he attended the local technical high school before studying engineering in Vienna and architecture in Munich. After World War I began, he fled to Venice in January 1915; when Italy entered World War I, Pessi volunteered to serve as a Sottotenente in the 2nd Cavalry Regiment of the Italian army. Pessi transferred to aviation service. On 10 October 1916, he received his advanced pilot's license, having qualified on Nieuport 10s at Malpensa, he was retained there as an instructor until May 1917. On 3 May 1917, Pessi adopted the nom de guerre of Guilanio Parvis. Pessi completed gunnery school at San Giusto. On 25 May 1917, he was posted to command of 82a Squadriglia despite his inexperience. On 13 June, he transferred to the 78a Squadriglia; the following month, he transferred to 91a Squadriglia.

He would fly a Spad VII fighter emblazoned with his personal marking of a crescent moon. Pessi scored his first aerial victory on 2 August 1917, he staked his eighth claim on 23 November 1917. All of his claims were for victories shared with such aces as Ferruccio Ranza, Giovanni Sabelli, Francesco Baracca, he served with 91a Squadriglia until 16 March 1918. He was transferred to the General Commissariat of the air force, it seems probable he upgraded his pilot's training in the next several months, as he arrived in the United States on 20 August 1918 as a Caproni Ca.5 pilot and saw out war's end there. The Caproni he brought to the United States was characterized as the world's largest flying machine. On 1 February 1919, the evaluation committee of the aviation military intelligence section released its list of victory confirmations for Italian pilots. Giorgio Pessi was credited with six aerial victories. One of the denials was for a 6 November 1917 claim where the Austro-Hungarian victim had fallen within his own lines.

In 1919, Pessi flew the Caproni Ca.5 heavy bomber under the Brooklyn Bridge. By 1922, Pessi had set up a flying school in Anatolia, Turkey. In 1926, he joined Aero Expresso Italiana as its manager of the Brindisi to Istanbul line. On 18 July 1933, Pessi was flying this route, aboard Dornier Wal serial I-AZEE, when he disappeared on an overwater approach to Rhodes. Rhodes Maritsa Airport is a military airport located on the island of Rhodes in Greece; the airport is located 14 km south west of the capital city of Rhodes, near the village of Maritsa, 3 km south of the new Rhodes International Airport. The airport was built in 1938 during the Italian occupation of the Dodecanese as a base for the Regia Aeronautica and was called Aeroporto di Martisa "G. Pessi Parvis" and its Italian airport code was 801. Two Silver awards of the Medal for Military Valor: Autumn 1917 French Croix de guerre Serbian Gold Medal Franks, Norman. Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, the Belgian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918: Volume 4 of Fighting Airmen of WWI Series: Volume 4 of Air Aces of WWI.

Grub Street, 1997. ISBN 978-1-898697-56-5

El Ten Eleven

El Ten Eleven is an American, Los Angeles-based, post-rock duo, known for combining guitar/bass doubleneck or fretless bass, with heavy looping, or vamping, the utility of an effects pedal, over acoustic or electric drumming. They have released seven full-length albums, 2 EPs and a remix album, earning positive reviews; the band has earned some attention due to many of their songs being featured in the soundtracks of Gary Hustwit's design documentaries Helvetica and Urbanized. The name El Ten Eleven is derived from the name of the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar. Bassist and composer Kristian Dunn and drummer Tim Fogarty formed El Ten Eleven in 2002 while living in the Silver Lake community of Los Angeles, they released their eponymous debut album, El Ten Eleven in 2004 on Fake Record Label, through Bar/None Records on September 20, 2005. Many reviews of the album garnished the band with positive acclaim. Comparisons have been drawn to Sigur Rós and The Mercury Program, though reviews have emphasized the duo's utilization of a limited number of musicians to create complex instrumental works.

The Dallas Observer called them the fourth best instrumental band in the last twenty years. Spin, which awarded them the title'Band of the Day', September 29, 2005, describes their work as "experimental instrumental music that's both skilled and felt."2005 saw the band embark on their first US tour. This was the beginning of the band playing for years non-stop, around the country. SF Weekly remarked of their live show, "Watching El Ten Eleven play is something like watching two superheroes do their thing.” Regarding their live show, Kristian commented to the Scenestar in 2012, "We refuse to use prerecorded tracks or click tracks live, so getting through one of our shows is quite difficult!" In 2007, the movie Helvetica was released with original music by Kristian Dunn, much of the contributed music performed by the duo. Their second album was released that year, on CD format July 9, available for download that August. A music video was shot that year for the song "Hot Cakes", directed by video producer and writer Adam Hauck.

In late 2007, Xtal Records released the band's second full-length album, Every Direction Is North in Japan, a version which included the bonus track "Jumping Frenchmen Of Maine." In a January 28, 2008 blog post on their website, MySpace page, the band released "Jumping Frenchmen of Maine" as an online download, stating that the song was from their forthcoming album. A PayPal link was included for listeners, giving them the option to pay any amount they wished for the song, much like what Radiohead had done with In Rainbows in 2007. On July 15, 2008 the band released their third album, These Promises Are Being Videotaped, a more dance oriented outing; the record was recorded using electronic and acoustic drums. The band released their fourth studio album, It's Still Like a Secret, on November 9, 2010, their fifth album, was released on October 2, 2012. Transitions Remixed was released on April 2, 2013, it features remixes of songs from Transitions by electronic artists Com Truise, Slow Magic, D33J and Steed Lord, among others, reached #13 on the CMJ college radio chart.

On February 4, 2014 the band released For emily, a three-song EP dedicated to a friend who died the previous year. The word Emily is purposely not capitalized as, the way she would write her name. On July 18, 2014, the duo announced an Indiegogo campaign to fund the pressing of new vinyl records for their original album El Ten Eleven, a new pressing for For emily. For this fundraiser, fans could order any of vinyls for these three albums, the original test pressing records for these albums, or pay to be on the band's official guest list for life; the For emily EP included an additional bonus track not available digitally called Favrile. The fundraiser ended on August 3, 2014. Three years after the release of Transitions, the band announced the release of their sixth studio album, Fast Forward, via social media accounts; the album was released on August 21, 2015. Coinciding with the album's release, the band planned a tour across the United States in support of the album following its release, including locations across the United States such as New York, Atlanta and more.

In 2017 and 2018, the band has been supporting Peter Hook and the Light on some of their concert dates. On June 1, 2018, the band announced their new album Banker's Hill, to be released on August 10, 2018. El Ten Eleven Every Direction Is North These Promises Are Being Videotaped It's Still Like a Secret Transitions Transitions Remixed For emily EP Fast forward Unusable Love EP Banker's Hill Kristian Dunn - Wal fretless bass, 1977 and 1978 Carvin guitar/bass doublenecks, Schecter Robert Smith UltraCure VI six string bass, Shergold six string bass Tim Fogarty - electric drums, acoustic drums, drum pads Dunn and Fogarty used to be members of the San Diego-based band Softlightes, the first American band signed to the Australian label Modular Records. Official website Spin Review

Spider crater

Spider is an impact structure, the eroded remnant of a former impact crater, situated in the Kimberley Region of northern Western Australia, 18 km east of the Mount Barnett Roadhouse on the Gibb River Road. Due to rugged terrain the site is inaccessible; the name is derived from the visually striking spider-like radiating ridges of quartzite prominently visible from the air or on satellite images. The unusual geological structure has been a puzzle since the 1950s, but it was not until shatter cones were discovered it the centre in the late 1970s that it was realized that it was an eroded impact structure; the central area bearing shatter cones is interpreted as the relic of a central uplift with the outer limits of disturbance confined to a subcircular area about 11 x 13 km in diameter. The asymmetry of the structure lead some geologists to conclude that the projectile had a low angle trajectory from the north or northwest, while others suggest that the asymmetry may be at least due to the effect of pre-existing topography.

The age of the Spider impact event is not constrained, but it has been argued it occurred after gentle folding of the Palaeoproterozoic quartzite, but before a regional episode of glacial erosion. Kenkmann, T. Poelchau, M. H; the Central Uplift of Spider Crater, Western Australia Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution V, Proceedings of the conference held 5-8 August 2013, in Sudbury, Canada. LPI Contribution No. 1737, p.3025