Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson is a British business magnate, investor and philanthropist. He founded the Virgin Group in the 1970s. Branson expressed his desire to become an entrepreneur at a young age, his first business venture, at the age of 16, was a magazine called Student. In 1970, he set up a mail-order record business, he opened a chain of record stores, Virgin Records—later known as Virgin Megastores—in 1972. Branson's Virgin brand grew during the 1980s, as he started Virgin Atlantic airline and expanded the Virgin Records music label. In 2004, he founded spaceflight corporation Virgin Galactic, based at Mojave Air and Space Port, noted for the SpaceShipTwo suborbital spaceplane designed for space tourism. In March 2000, Branson was knighted at Buckingham Palace for "services to entrepreneurship". For his work in retail and transport, his taste for adventure, for his humanitarian work, he has become a prominent global figure. In 2007, he was placed in the Time 100 Most Influential People in The World list.
In April 2018, Forbes listed Branson's estimated net worth at US$5.1 billion. Branson was born in Blackheath, London, to Eve Branson, a former ballet dancer and air hostess, Edward James Branson, a barrister, he has two younger sisters. His grandfather, the Right Honourable Sir George Arthur Harwin Branson, was a judge of the High Court of Justice and a Privy Councillor. Branson was educated at Scaitcliffe School, a prep school in Surrey, before attending Cliff View House School in Sussex, his third great-grandfather, John Edward Branson, left England for India in 1793. From 1793, four generations of his family was at Cuddalore. On the show Finding Your Roots, Branson was shown to have 3.9% South Asian DNA through intermarriage.. He claimed that one of this great-grandmothers was an Indian named Ariya, he attended an independent school in Buckinghamshire until the age of sixteen. Branson had poor academic performance. Branson's parents were supportive of his endeavours from an early age, his mother was an entrepreneur.
In London, he started off squatting between 1967 and 1968. After failed attempts to grow and sell both Christmas trees and budgerigars, Branson launched a magazine named Student in 1966; the first issue of Student appeared in January 1968, a year Branson's net worth was estimated at £50,000. Though not as successful as he hoped, the magazine became a vital component of the mail-order record business Branson started from the same church he used for Student. Branson used the magazine to advertise popular albums, he interviewed several prominent personalities of the late 1960s for the magazine including Mick Jagger and R. D. Laing, his business sold records for less than the "High Street" outlets the chain W. H. Smith. Branson once said, "There is no point in starting your own business unless you do it out of a sense of frustration." At the time, many products were sold under restrictive marketing agreements that limited discounting, despite efforts in the 1950s and 1960s to limit retail price maintenance.
Branson started a record shop in Oxford Street in London. In 1971, he was questioned in connection with the selling of records, declared export stock; the matter was never brought before a court because Branson agreed to repay any unpaid purchase tax of 33% and a £70,000 fine. His parents re-mortgaged the family home to help pay the settlement. Earning enough money from his record store, Branson in 1972 launched the record label Virgin Records with Nik Powell; the name "Virgin" was suggested by one of Branson's early employees because they were all new at business. Branson bought a country estate north of Oxford in which he installed a residential recording studio, The Manor Studio, he leased studio time to fledgling artists, including multi-instrumentalist Mike Oldfield, whose debut album Tubular Bells was the first release for Virgin Records and became a chart-topping best-seller. Virgin signed such controversial bands as the Sex Pistols, which other companies were reluctant to sign. Virgin Records would go on to sign other artists including the Rolling Stones, Peter Gabriel, XTC, Japan, UB40, Steve Winwood and Paula Abdul, to become the world's largest independent record label.
It won praise for exposing the public to such obscure avant-garde music as Faust and Can. Virgin Records introduced Culture Club to the music world. Branson's net worth was estimated at £5 million by 1979, a year Virgin Records went international. Branson's first successful entry into the airline industry was during a trip to Puerto Rico, his flight was cancelled, so he decided to charter his own plane the rest of the way and offer a ride to the rest of the stranded passengers for a small fee to cover the cost. In 1982, Virgin purchased the gay nightclub Heaven. In 1991, in a consortium with David Frost, Branson made an unsuccessful bid for three ITV franchisees under the CPV-TV name; the early 1980s saw his only attempt as a producer—on the novelty record "Baa, Black Sheep", by Singing Sheep in association with Doug McLean and Grace McDonald. The recording was a series of sheep baa-ing along to a drum-machine-produced track and reached number 42 in the UK charts in 1982. Branson f
Lean CFP Driven is a new approach which takes into account not only the implemented Lean manufacturing, but combines the principles of Lean with the Operating Curve, an approach based on the theoretical approach of Queuing Theory developed in academia in the 1970s. The goal of Lean CFP Driven is to eliminate waste in order to achieve higher quality, increase productivity and at the same time understand the relationship between utilization, lead time and variability in order to maximize performance within the semiconductor industry; the semiconductor industry is one of dynamic industries in the world. It faces a continuous and rapid advancement in technology which puts the companies under constant pressure to come up with superior and cheaper goods than those that were state-of-the-art only a few months ago; the market and development of the market is based on More than Moore. Customer demand in the semiconductor market evolves and changes at a swift pace which leads to the fact that a high level of flexibility is necessary to serve and meet the requirements of the customers.
The semiconductor industry is furthermore capital intensive based on the fact that the production equipment is complex and thus expensive. Challenges that the industry is facing are to continuously improve yield performance, achieve the highest possible return on the expensive equipment and zero defects. Lean CFP Driven moves in a new direction from the traditional Lean because of the additional focus on utilization, cycle time and variability; the different characteristics of the semiconductor industry, e.g. production structure and production related costs compared to other industries, forms the need to approach the Lean philosophy in a new way in order to meet these specific characteristics. There are five key characteristics for the semiconductor industry: Long cycle time. No parallel process possible, high complexity Short product life cycle. Capital intensive production Drastic cost decrease over timeThe complex production flow of a semiconductor fab is due to what is called a reentrance flow.
A reentrant flow is a well-known attribute within a wafer fab and refers to the wafer visiting each tool not only once, but maybe 20 times during the course through the fab. To duplicate the expensive equipment and create a linear flow would make it more challenging to get the highest possible return on the equipment and reach an optimized utilization of each tool though it results in a complex production; the reentrant flow does require a certain level of flexibility, which in terms of Lean, could be seen as muda. The necessary flexibility in order to meet fluctuations in customer demand, requires the companies to apply other tools to measure and forecast performance and this is what Lean CFP Driven provides to the Semiconductor Industry. Lean CFP Driven adds the Operating Curve to evaluate the factors utilization, cycle time and variability which cannot be done through implementation of Traditional Lean. Typical tools within the Traditional Lean which are included in the new approach of Lean CFP Driven are as follows: Poka-Yoke Visual Management Value Stream Mapping Kanban JIT 5S 5 WhysWhat distinguishes Lean CFP Driven from the traditional approach of Lean in terms of tools is that the new approach applies the tool Operating Curve in addition to the tools listed above.
An example of how the Operating Curve could look like is shown in the figure below. The optimal operating point is indicated for different variabilities describing the non-uniformity of the production, α; the great advantage of adding the Operating Curve tool is to maximize performance by optimizing both utilization and speed at the same time for the complex industry of Semiconductors by reducing the variability via the 4-partner method. The Operating Curve is a tool developed in academia in the 1970s, based on the Queuing Theory, which uses the indicators Cycle Time and Utilization to benchmark and forecast a manufacturing line’s performance; the Operating Curve can be applied for different reasons, for example: Understanding the relationship between variability, cycle time and utilization Quantify trade-off between cycle time and utilization Documenting a single factory’s performance over time Calculate and Measure line performance The Operating curve can be described by the following formula: F F = α U U m 1 − U U m + 1 where: The flow factor can be described as: F F = C T R P T Where
Francis Hargrave was an English lawyer and antiquary. He was the most prominent of the five advocates who appeared on behalf of James Somersett in the case which determined, in 1772, the legal status of slaves in England. Although the case was Hargrave's first, his efforts on the occasion secured his reputation. Hargrave was born in the son of Christopher Hargrave of Chancery Lane, he entered as a student at Lincoln's Inn in 1760. He came to prominence because of his performance in 1772, in Somersett's case, shortly afterwards was made King's Counsel. Thereafter, he specialised in legal history and commentary and did not take further part in the abolitionist campaign. In 1797 he was made Recorder of Liverpool, for many years was treasurer of Lincoln's Inn and a leading parliamentary lawyer, he continued the celebrated compendium of State Trials begun by Thomas Salmon and Sollom Emlyn, expanded by Thomas Bayly Howell. He fell ill, in 1813, his legal collection was purchased by the government for £8,000 and deposited in the British Museum.
He was buried in the chapel of Lincoln's Inn. He published many works of legal history and amassed a substantial collection of legal books and manuscripts, his works were: ‘An Argument in the case of James Sommersett, a Negro, wherein it is attempted to demonstrate the present unlawfulness of Domestic Slavery in England,’ 1772. 1788. In Howell's ‘State Trials,’ vol. xx. ‘An Argument in Defence of Literary Property,’ 1774. ‘Coke upon Lyttleton,’ edited by F. Hargrave and Charles Butler, 1775. ` State Trials from Henry IV to 19 George III,' 11 vols. A Complete Collection of State Trials, vol VII: 1549-1688 ‘A Collection of Tracts relative to the Law of England, from manuscripts by Hale, Blackstone and others,’ 1787. ‘Opinion on the case of the Duke of Athol in respect of the Isle of Man,’ 1788. ‘Brief Deductions relative to the Aid and Supply of Executive Power in cases of Infancy, Delirium, or other incapacity of the King,’ 1788, anonymous. ‘Collectanea Juridica: consisting of Cases, Tracts,’ &c. 2 vols.
1791–2. This includes the manuscript on the Star Chamber left by William Hudson. ‘Sir M. Hale's Jurisdiction of the Lords' House of Parliament, with Preface by F. H.’ 1796. ‘Juridical Arguments and Collections,’ 1797–9, 2 vols. The arguments in the Thellusson will case were reprinted from this work separately in 1799, a new edition by J. F. Hargrave was published in 1842. ‘Address to the Grand Jury at the Liverpool Sessions on the present Crisis of Public Affairs,’ 1804. ‘Jurisconsult Exercitations,’ 1811–13, 3 vols. A catalogue of his manuscripts was compiled by Sir Henry Ellis, published in 1818. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Sutton, Charles William. "Hargrave, Francis". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 24. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 379. Rigg, James McMullen. "Hudson, William". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 28. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 154–155. Works by or about Francis Hargrave in libraries "Archival material relating to Francis Hargrave".
UK National Archives
Bramble Haven is an atoll in the Louisiade Archipelago. Its islands on the northern section are grouped as the Duperre Islands, it belongs to Milne Bay Province in the southeastern part of Papua New Guinea. Bramble Haven is the eastern part of a large chain of atolls and islands that extends from the western side of the barrier reef of Vanatinai for a length of 400 km to the west, extending to the south coast of Papua peninsula. Bramble Haven is located 5 km east of 9 km west of the Jomard Channel. Between Bramble Haven and Vanatinai are the small archipelago of Jomard Islands. Bramble Haven is a 17 km wide and 11 km long, atoll-like formation; the five most important reefs are concentrated around a rectangular lagoon. The reefs are submerged; the reefs in the northern part of Bramble Haven have five small islands, which are called Duperré Islands: Punawan, the small Duperre Island and Panapwa Awanagamwana. Bramble Haven stands since 2006 in the category "Mixed objects" that combines both criteria of the cultural and natural heritage, together with the Conflict Group, the Jomard Islands and Samarai and Lunn Island under the name: Milne Bay Seascape on the Tentative list of Papua New Guinea for the list in the world heritage of UNESCO.
The atoll was named after a Schooner called Bramble Haven shipping in the area in August 5. 1846 have crashed on the reefs. Captain Charles B. Yule, the crew, scientist Owen Stanley have all perished; the island is described by Alan Villiers at several places in "The Coral Sea" The population of the islands speak Misima-Paneati language. The language belongs to Western Oceanic languages group. Only Punawan island is inhabited, although most of its villagers reside on Utian island through the year; the Utian islanders have many gardens for yams and brought cattle to ranch in the island
Doomination was a touring metal music festival with performances by many doom metal and death metal groups. It was organized by the members of the now defunct American band Morgion, the Irish doom metal band Mourning Beloveth and the Yorkshire progressive doom metal band The Prophecy; the tour was intended to bring together the best of the underground doom metal and doom/death metal acts to create a traveling doom metal showcase, helping to bring new life into the scene and spurring on many bands to be more adventurous when considering when and how to tour. The original tour and the tours which followed were well received by the metal press with articles and reviews being published in Metal Hammer, Loud and Abode for Forlorn Souls, the latter publishing full interviews with each of the three Doomination bands as well as excerpts from Christian Moore-Wainwright's tour diary; the first Doomination tour started on 7 February 2003 at Eamon Dorans in Dublin with another ten dates in the UK, Spain, Portugal and The Netherlands.
The core acts of the tour were Mourning Beloveth and The Prophecy. Among the acts participating in the tour were Ataraxie, Desire, Karseron and Process of Guilt; the Doomination of Europe was followed in August 2003 by The Doomination of America. Organised by members of Morgion, this tour had The Prophecy and Orodruin. Morgion had to pull out of the tour due to a car accident involving the guitarist Gary Griffiths; the tour had a host of supporting acts including Vex, The Gates Of Slumber and Negative Reaction. The last leg of the Doomination Tour was scheduled over three weeks across September and October 2004; this tour had the Australian doom band The Eternal. The tour widened its coverage, visiting Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK; the tour followed the ideals of the previous Doomination tours by inviting the best of the underground to play in support of the tour. An attempt to organise The Doomination of Europe III was made in 2007 with Keen of The Crow. However, because of costs, the tour did not go ahead.
Doomination Tour Diary Doomination of America Tour Diary Doomination of London review
"Undefeated" is a song by American recording artist Jason Derulo, produced by DJ Frank E and released on May 22, 2012 as the first single from the platinum edition of Future History. The track was written with the help of American Idol viewers throughout Season 11 of the show; the creation of the song was promoted through Coca-Cola's "Perfect Harmony" program where, throughout the season, American Idol viewers were invited to contribute parts of the lyrics to a tune offered online, making the song a true collaborative effort by a big number of people. After four submission and voting phases and thousands of lyric submissions, contributions were edited and the eventual final version performed by Derulo and tipped as part of his "healing process" after he suffered an accident that left him in a neck brace for many months; the single pays homage to the Coca-Cola brand, evidenced by a variation of the brand's iconic 5-note-jingle repeated throughout the song and the stylised design of the cover art which appears much like the top of a beverage can.
In an interview with American Idol host Ryan Seacrest on the latter's radio show, Derulo described the writing process as follows: "The fans got to help me write the song. I started writing the song, but I left a bunch of lines blank and the fans have been helping me fill in the lines. There were lots of great lines, it made the process a little difficult. Thankfully, I had a lot of help to whittle it down to a number that I could look at. There were tons and tons of great stuff, but we got it down and I believe we came up with the best product!" Derulo performed the song live for the first time on May 22, 2012, during the second final of the American Idol competition. It was made available for download on the same day. 10,000 free downloads of the song were made available through the official American Idol website. Prior to his live performance, Derulo sent a message via his Twitter account: "First time performing since my neck injury tonight on Idol finale! Thank you to the fans that help me write this song #UNDEFEATED.
It's been two weeks since I took my neck brace off! Still gonna make it happen tonight! NEVER GIVE UP! NEVER LET UP!" Digital download"Undefeated" – 3:36German CD single"Undefeated" – 3:36 "Undefeated" – 6:14