Lieutenant General Sir Henry Pottinger, 1st Baronet, GCB, PC, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and colonial administrator who became the first Governor of Hong Kong. Henry Pottinger was born in County Down, Ireland, in 1789, he was the fifth son of Eldred Curwen Pottinger, Esq. of Mount Pottinger, County Down, his wife Anne, the daughter of Robert Gordon, Esq. of Florida House in the same county. They had eight sons. Eldred Pottinger was his nephew. Henry studied at the Belfast Academy, today known as Belfast Royal Academy. In 1804, he went to India to serve in the army and explored the lands between the Indus and Persia, travelling in disguise as a Muslim merchant and studying local languages, under the orders of Sir John Malcolm. In 1806, he joined the British East India Company and in 1809, he was a Lieutenant who fought in one of the Anglo-Mahratta wars. In 1810, he and Charles Christie undertook an expedition from Nushki to Isfahan disguised as Muslims. Christie went north to Herat and west while Pottinger went west across two deserts to Kerman and Isfahan where they rejoined.
The expedition was funded by the East India Company to map and research the regions of Balochistan and Persia because of concerns about India being invaded by French forces. It would be 100 years before another European took this route, Pottinger rose to the rank of Colonel. Pottinger became Resident Administrator of Sindh in 1820, he held the same post in Hyderabad. In 1820, he married Susanna Maria Cooke who in 1831 gave birth to their son, Frederick Pottinger who became notorious for his run-ins with bushrangers as Inspector of Police in New South Wales, Australia, their second son, was born on 10 June 1834 and died on 18 October 1909. He was created a baronet when he returned to England in 1839. Pottinger accepted Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston's offer of the post of envoy and plenipotentiary in China and superintendent of British trade, thus replacing Charles Elliot. In 1841, when Pottinger was sent to China, Palmerston instructed him to "examine with care the natural capacities of Hong Kong, you will not agree to give up that Island unless you should find that you can exchange it for another in the neighbourhood of Canton, better adapted for the purposes in view.
On 4 November 1841, Palmerston's successor Lord Aberdeen wrote to Pottinger that he had doubts over Hong Kong's acquisition since it would incur administrative expenses, complicate relations with China and other nations. After Pottinger joined the British expeditionary force in northern China, he negotiated the terms of the Treaty of Nanking, which ended the First Opium War and ceded Hong Kong Island to the United Kingdom. Pottinger became the first Governor of Hong Kong; when he forwarded the treaty to Aberdeen, Pottinger remarked, "the retention of Hong Kong is the only point in which I have intentionally exceeded my modified instructions, but every single hour I have passed in this superb country has convinced me of the necessity and desirability of our possessing such a settlement as an emporium for our trade and a place from which Her Majesty's subjects in China may be alike protected and controlled."On 26 April 1843, the Governor's residence was robbed. On 26 June 1843, he was appointed to become the Chief Commander of the British troops stationed in Hong Kong.
During his short tenure, Pottinger established executive and legislative chambers, with one discussing political affairs and one designing legal codes. However, the chambers did not convene and this gave Pottinger wide-ranging powers to decide on policy. Towards the end of his tenure, Pottinger lost the support of the local British merchants and was isolated, he left on 7 May 1844. During his governorship, Hong Kong became the major port for trading opium in China. Pottinger became a member of the Privy Council in 1844, became Governor of Cape Colony in 1847 and of Madras in the same year. In 1851, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general, he died in retirement in Malta in 1856. He was buried in the Protestant cemetery in Floriana, nowadays known as "Msida Bastion Historic Garden". A marble plaque is still visible. Pottinger Street, Hong Kong Island Pottinger Peak, Hong Kong Island Pottinger Gap, between Pottinger Peak and Mount Collinson Pottinger Battery, Devil's Peak, Hong Kong Pottingers Entry off High Street in Belfast, Northern Ireland Pottinger House, Belfast Royal Academy, his former school, named a house in his honour Mount Pottinger, Belfast Belfast Pottinger, UK Parliament constituency Pottinger County, is one of the 141 Cadastral divisions of New South Wales, Australia Eldred Pottinger.
List of heads of Hong Kong by education Endacott, G. B.. A Biographical Sketch-book of Early Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-742-1. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Pottinger, Henry". Dictionary of National Biography. 46. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 224–226. Media related to Henry Pottinger at Wikimedia Commons
Rear Admiral Sir John Franklin was a British Royal Navy officer and explorer of the Arctic. Franklin served as Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen's Land from 1837 to 1843, he disappeared while on his last expedition, attempting to chart and navigate the Northwest Passage in the North American Arctic. The icebound ships were abandoned and the entire crew died of starvation, tuberculosis, lead poisoning, scurvy. Franklin was born in Spilsby, Lincolnshire, on 16 April 1786, the ninth of twelve children born to Hannah Weekes and Willingham Franklin, his father was a merchant descended from a line of country gentlemen while his mother was the daughter of a farmer. One of his brothers entered the legal profession and became a judge in Madras. Educated at King Edward VI Grammar School in Louth, he soon became interested in a career at sea, his father, who intended for Franklin to enter the church or become a businessman, was opposed but was reluctantly convinced to allow him to go on a trial voyage on a merchant ship when he was aged 12.
His experience of seafaring only confirmed his interest in a career at sea, so in March 1800, Franklin's father secured him a Royal Navy appointment on HMS Polyphemus. Commanded by a Captain Lawford, the Polyphemus carried 64 guns and, at the time of Franklin's appointment, was still at sea, he did not join the vessel until the autumn of 1800. Serving as a first class volunteer, Franklin soon saw action in the Battle of Copenhagen in which the Polyphemus participated as part of Horatio Nelson's squadron. An expedition to the coast of Australia aboard HMS Investigator, commanded by Captain Matthew Flinders, with Franklin now a midshipman, he was present at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 aboard HMS Bellerophon, at the Battle of New Orleans. He accompanied Captain Nathaniel Dance on the Earl Camden, frightening off Admiral Charles de Durand-Linois at the Battle of Pulo Aura in the South China Sea on 14 February 1804. In 1819, Franklin was chosen to lead an expedition overland from Hudson Bay to chart the north coast of Canada eastwards from the mouth of the Coppermine River.
On his 1819 expedition, Franklin fell into the Hayes River at Robinson Falls and was rescued by a member of his expedition about 90 metres downstream. Between 1819 and 1822, he lost 11 of the 20 men in his party. Most died of starvation, but there were at least one murder and suggestions of cannibalism; the survivors were forced to eat lichen and attempted to eat their own leather boots. This gained Franklin the nickname of "the man who ate his boots". In 1823, after returning to England, Franklin married the poet Eleanor Anne Porden, their daughter, Eleanor Isabella, was born the following year. His wife died of tuberculosis in 1825. In 1825, he left for his second third Arctic expedition; the goal this time was the mouth of the Mackenzie River from which he would follow the coast westward and meet Frederick William Beechey who would try to sail northeast from the Bering Strait. With him was John Richardson who would follow the coast east from the Mackenzie to the mouth of the Coppermine River.
At the same time, William Edward Parry would try to sail west from the Atlantic. Supplies were better organized this time, in part because they were managed by Peter Warren Dease of the Hudson's Bay Company. After reaching the Great Slave Lake using the standard HBC route, Franklin took a reconnaissance trip 1,000 miles down the Mackenzie and on 16 August 1825, became the second European to reach its mouth, he erected a flagpole with buried letters for Parry. He returned to winter at Fort Franklin on the Great Bear Lake; the following summer he found the ocean frozen. He worked his way west for several hundred miles and gave up on 16 August 1826 at Return Reef when he was about 150 miles east of Beechey's Point Barrow. Reaching safety at Fort Franklin on 21 September, he left Fort Franklin on 20 February 1827 and spent the rest of the winter and spring at Fort Chipewyan, he reached Liverpool on the first of September 1827. Richardson's eastward journey was more successful. On 5 November 1828, he married Jane Griffin, a friend of his first wife and a seasoned traveller who proved indomitable in the course of their life together.
On 29 April 1829, he was knighted by George IV and the same year awarded the first Gold Medal of the Société de Géographie of France. On 25 January 1836, he was made Knight Commander of the Royal Guelphic Order and a Knight of the Greek Order of the Redeemer. Franklin was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen's Land in 1837, but was removed from office in 1843, he is remembered by a significant landmark in the centre of Hobart—a statue of him dominates the park known as Franklin Square, the site of the original Government House. On the plinth below the statue appears Tennyson's epitaph: His wife worked to set up a university, established in 1890, a museum, credited to the Royal Society of Tasmania in 1843 under the leadership of her husband. Lady Franklin may have worked to have the Lieutenant-Governor's private botanical gardens, established in 1818, managed as a public resource. Lady Franklin established a glyptotheque and surrounding lands to support it near Hobart; the village of Frankli
Thomas Bernard Collinson
Major General Thomas Bernard Collinson was an English naval surveyor of the Royal Engineers who carried out the earliest British surveys of Hong Kong and planned roads and other early military and civil engineering works in New Zealand. Prior to retirement, he was architect to the Scottish Prison Commission. Collinson was born in Gateshead and Wear, England part of County Durham, ninth child of Rev. John Collinson, Rector of Gateshead, he joined the Royal Navy in 1838, spending his first five years in ordnance survey work in Wales and Northern England. His service over the years before his retirement with the rank of major-general, in 1873, took him to Hong Kong, Auckland, Wanganui, Hobart Town, Aldershot, Malta and Dover, he was the younger brother of Sir Richard Collinson. Given the task of mapping Hong Kong, from 1843 to 1845, Collinson established 27 trigonometric stations around Hong Kong Island in order to produce the first set of scientifically surveyed maps of Hong Kong, the Ordnance Map of Hong Kong published by the Board of Ordnance in 1845.
Collinson used the French contour mapping method. Only one stone station marker now remains, revealed by a University of Hong Kong team on 3 October 2015, at Lei Yue Mun Park. Collinson made the first records of many place names, including prominent locations in today's Hong Kong: Shek O, Chai Wan, Shau Kei Wan, Quarry Bay, Tai Tam, Tin Wan, Wan Chai, Pok Fu Lam. Cape Collinson, Mount Collinson, Collinson Street, Cape Collinson Road and Path, on Hong Kong Island, were all named in his honour, he produced early detailed sketches of Hong Kong. On 11 June 1846, Collinson embarked on the Emily Jane for Sydney, New South Wales, after a brief stay there, he sailed for Auckland, New Zealand, on the trading brigantine Terror, arriving on 19 September 1846 to difficult times of conflict between the Pakeha settlers and the native Māori population. By November, he had sailed for Wellington and spent over three years working on military buildings and defences there and in Wanganui before his return to England via Hobart Town in 1850.
Collinson was a keen illustrator and many examples, some featuring Māori, are kept at the Alexander Turnbull Library of the National Library of New Zealand. Collinson died on 1 May 1902 at Ealing, he was a wealthy man, leaving an estate of £20,534 10s 8d
Franklin's lost expedition
Franklin's lost expedition was a British voyage of Arctic exploration led by Captain Sir John Franklin that departed England in 1845 aboard two ships, HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. A Royal Navy officer and experienced explorer, Franklin had served on three previous Arctic expeditions, the latter two as commanding officer, his fourth and last, undertaken when he was 59, was meant to traverse the last unnavigated section of the Northwest Passage. After a few early fatalities, the two ships became icebound in Victoria Strait near King William Island in the Canadian Arctic, in what is today the territory of Nunavut; the entire expedition, comprising 129 men including Franklin, was lost. Pressed by Franklin's wife, Lady Franklin, others, the Admiralty launched a search for the missing expedition in 1848. Prompted in part by Franklin's fame and the Admiralty's offer of a finder's reward, many subsequent expeditions joined the hunt, which at one point in 1850 involved eleven British and two American ships.
Several of these ships converged off the east coast of Beechey Island, where the first relics of the expedition were found, including the graves of three crewmen. In 1854, explorer John Rae, while surveying near the Canadian Arctic coast southeast of King William Island, acquired relics of and stories about the Franklin party from local Inuit. A search led by Francis McClintock in 1859 discovered a note left on King William Island with details about the expedition's fate. Searches continued through much of the 19th century. In 2014, a Canadian search team led by Parks Canada located the wreck of Erebus west of O'Reilly Island, in the eastern portion of Queen Maud Gulf, in the waters of the Arctic archipelago. Two years the Arctic Research Foundation found the wreck of Terror south of King William Island. Research and dive expeditions at the wreck sites are ongoing. In 1981, a team of scientists led by Owen Beattie, a professor of anthropology at the University of Alberta, began a series of scientific studies of the graves and other physical evidence left by Franklin's men on Beechey Island and King William Island.
They concluded that the men buried on Beechey Island most died of pneumonia and tuberculosis, that lead poisoning may have worsened their health, owing to badly soldered cans held in the ships' food stores. It was suggested that the source of this lead may not have been tinned food, but the distilled water systems fitted to the ships. However, studies in 2013 and 2016 suggested that lead poisoning was not a factor, that the crew's ill health may, in fact, have been due to malnutrition – zinc deficiency – due to a lack of meat in their diet. Cut marks on human bones found on King William Island were seen as signs of cannibalism; the combined evidence of all the studies suggested. Hypothermia, lead poisoning or zinc deficiency, diseases including scurvy, along with general exposure to a hostile environment whilst lacking adequate clothing and nutrition, killed everyone on the expedition in the years following its last sighting by Europeans in 1845; the Victorian media portrayed Franklin as a hero despite the expedition's failure and the reports of cannibalism.
Songs were written about him, statues of him in his home town of Spilsby, in London, in Tasmania credit him with discovery of the Northwest Passage, although in reality it was not traversed until Roald Amundsen's 1903–1906 expedition. Franklin's lost expedition has been the subject of many artistic works, including songs, short stories, novels, as well as television documentaries; the search by Europeans for a western shortcut by sea from Europe to Asia began with the voyages of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and continued through the mid-19th century with a long series of exploratory expeditions originating in England. These voyages, when to any degree successful, added to the sum of European geographic knowledge about the Western Hemisphere North America, as that knowledge grew larger, attention turned toward the Arctic. Voyagers of the 16th and 17th centuries who made geographic discoveries about North America included Martin Frobisher, John Davis, Henry Hudson, William Baffin. In 1670, the incorporation of the Hudson's Bay Company led to further exploration of the Canadian coasts and interior and of the Arctic seas.
In the 18th century, explorers included James Knight, Christopher Middleton, Samuel Hearne, James Cook, Alexander MacKenzie, George Vancouver. By 1800, their discoveries showed conclusively that no Northwest Passage navigable by ships lay in the temperate latitudes between the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans. In 1804, Sir John Barrow became Second Secretary of the Admiralty, a post he held until 1845, began a push by the Royal Navy to complete the Northwest Passage over the top of Canada and to navigate toward the North Pole. Over the next four decades, explorers including John Ross, David Buchan, William Edward Parry, Frederick William Beechey, James Clark Ross, George Back, Peter Warren Dease, Thomas Simpson made productive trips to the Canadian Arctic. Among these explorers was John Franklin, second-in-command of an expedition towards the North Pole in the ships Dorothea and Trent in 1818 and the leader of overland expeditions to and along the Arctic coast of Canada in 1819–22 and 1825–27.
By 1845, the combined discoveries of all of these expeditions had reduced the relevant unknown parts of the Canadian Arctic to a quadrilateral area of about 181,300 km2. It was into this unknown area that Franklin was to sail, heading west through Lancaster Sound and west and south as ice and other obstacles might allow, to complete the Northwest Passage; the distance to be navigated was
Edward Augustus Inglefield
Admiral Sir Edward Augustus Inglefield was a Royal Navy officer who led one of the searches for the missing Arctic explorer John Franklin during the 1850s. In doing so, his expedition charted unexplored areas along the northern Canadian coastline, including Baffin Bay, Smith Sound and Lancaster Sound, he was the inventor of the marine hydraulic steering gear and the anchor design that bears his name. HMS Inglefield bears his name, as do the Inglefield Land region and the Inglefield Gulf of Greenland. Augustus Inglefield was born on 27 March 1820, he was the son of Rear Admiral Samuel Inglefield. Inglefield set out from Britain on his search in July 1852, commanding Lady Franklin's private steamer Isabel, seven years after Franklin had left on his ill-fated search for the fabled Northwest Passage. Once Inglefield had reached the Arctic, a search and survey of Greenland's west coast was made. Smith Sound was penetrated further than any known records. No sign, however, of Franklin's expedition was found.
Before the onset of winter forced Inglefield to turn homewards, the expedition searched and charted much of Baffin Island's eastern coast. Despite finding no traces of the Franklin expedition, Inglefield was fêted on his return for the surveying his expedition had achieved; the Royal Geographical Society awarded him its 1853 Patron's Medal "for his enterprising survey of the coasts of Baffin Bay, Smith Sound and Lancaster Sound." Inglefield made two further voyages to the Arctic in HMS Phoenix, to supply the search for the Franklin expedition overseen by Sir Edward Belcher. He returned from the first of these in 1853, bringing with him the first officer to have traversed the Northwest Passage, Samuel Gurney Cresswell of HMS Investigator; the Investigator had been sent to join the search for the Franklin expedition, but starting from the western side of northern Canada. Arriving back in the Arctic the following year, 1854, Inglefield found Belcher's ships abandoned, save one to which the crews had retreated.
Most of these men returned with Inglefield to Britain. Soon after his return from the Arctic, Inglefield was sent to join the Crimean War in the Black Sea as captain of HMS Firebrand, where he took part in the siege of Sevastopol. After the Crimean War, he continued to rise through the ranks. In 1869 he was made a rear admiral and three years was appointed Admiral Superintendent of Malta Dockyard. Promotions to vice admiral and admiral followed, between which he was knighted. In 1878 he was appointed North America and West Indies Station. On 30 April 1857, Inglefield married Eliza Fanny Johnston, the daughter of Edward Johnston, Esq. of Allerton Hall, Liverpool. Together, they were the parents of four sons and one daughter: Henry Beaufort Willmot Inglefield, who married Mary Lucia MacHugh, Lady Holker in 1894, she was the widow of Sir John Holker. After her death, he married Alexandra Amy Geraldine Butler, the widow of William George Gould Edward Fitzmaurice Inglefield, a Royal Navy officer, inventor of the Inglefield clip and Secretary to Lloyd's of London.
Albany Otway Inglefield Ernest Hallowell Inglefield Sybill Inglefield Inglefield retired in 1885. Thereafter he devoted much of his time to painting and his watercolours of Arctic landscapes were exhibited at several art galleries in London, he died, aged seventy-four, in 1894, is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery. O'Byrne, William Richard. "Inglefield, Edward Augustus". A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray – via Wikisource. Inglefield, E. A.. A summer search for Sir John Franklin. London: Thomas-Harrison. Coleman, E. C.. The Royal Navy in Polar Exploration from Franklin to Scott. Tempus Publishing. Works by or about Edward Augustus Inglefield at Internet Archive Three portraits of Sir Edward Augustus Inglefield at the National Portrait Gallery in London
The Corporation of Trinity House of Deptford Strond, known as Trinity House, is a private corporation governed under a Royal Charter. Trinity House has three core functions: it is the official General Lighthouse Authority for England, the Channel Islands and Gibraltar, responsible for the provision and maintenance of navigational aids, such as lighthouses, lightvessels and maritime radio/satellite communication systems. Trinity House is an official deep sea pilotage authority, providing expert navigators for ships trading in Northern European waters, it is a maritime charity, dispersing funds for the welfare of retired seamen, the training of young cadets and the promotion of safety at sea. Funding for the work of the lighthouse service comes from "light dues" levied on commercial vessels calling at ports in the British Isles, based on the net registered tonnage of the vessel; the rate is set by the Department of Transport, annually reviewed. Funding for the maritime charity is generated separately.
The corporation was founded in 1514. Its first master was Thomas Spert, sailing master of Henry VIII's flagship Mary Rose and of Henry Grace à Dieu; the Master of the Corporation is the Princess Royal. Previous Masters of Trinity House have included Sir Thomas Spert, master of the warship Henry Grace a Dieu under Henry VIII. Other prominent individuals in Britain connected with commercial shipping or the Admiralty, have been associated with Trinity House, including Winston Churchill, he gained his status as an Elder Brother of Trinity House as a result of his position as First Lord of the Admiralty before and during World War I. On naval-related forays during the Second World War, Churchill was seen in Trinity House cap or uniform. Winston Churchill had a Trinity House vessel named after him, THV Winston Churchill. Trinity House is ruled by a court of thirty-one Elder Brethren, presided over by a Master; these are appointed from 300 Younger Brethren who act as advisors and perform other duties as needed.
The Younger Brethren are appointed from lay people with maritime experience naval officers and ships' masters, but harbourmasters, pilots and anyone with useful experience. The headquarters of the corporation is the present Trinity House, designed by architect Samuel Wyatt and built in 1796, it has a suite of five state rooms with views over Trinity Square, the Tower of London and the River Thames. The Corporation came into being in 1514 by Royal Charter granted by Henry VIII under the name "The Master and Assistants of the Guild, Fraternity, or Brotherhood of the most glorious and undivided Trinity, of St. Clement in the Parish of Deptford-Strond in the County of Kent." The charter came as a result of a petition put forward on 19 March 1513 by a guild of Deptford-based mariners. They were troubled by the poor conduct of unregulated pilots on the Thames and asked the king for licence to regulate pilotage; the first Master was Thomas Spert, sailing master of Henry's flagship Mary Rose and the Henry Grace à Dieu.
The name of the guild derives from the patron saint of mariners. As John Whormby, a Clerk to the Corporation, wrote in 1746, their general business was: to improve the art and science of mariners. In 1566, Queen Elizabeth I's Seamarks Act enabled Trinity House: at their wills and pleasures, at their costs, make and set up such, so many beacons and signs for the sea… whereby the dangers may be avoided and escaped, ships the better come into their ports without peril. With the increasing number of ships lost along the Newcastle to London coal route, Trinity House established the Lowestoft Lighthouse in 1609, a pair of wooden towers with candle illuminants; until the late 18th century, coal, or wood fires were used as lighthouse illuminants, improved in 1782 with the circular-wick oil-burning Argand lamp, the first ‘catoptric’ mirrored reflector in 1777, Fresnel’s ‘dioptric’ lens system in 1823. The Nore lightship was established as the world's first floating light in 1732. In 1836, Trinity House accepted powers to levy out the last private lighthouse owners and began refurbishing and upgrading its lighthouse estate.
In 1803, the Corporation established the Blackwall Depot as a buoy workshop, six district depots were established at Harwich, Great Yarmouth, East Cowes, Penzance and Swansea. In December 2002, Trinity House announced that the Great Yarmouth and East Cowes depots would close. Today, Trinity House's operational headquarters is in Harwich, supported by depots in Swansea and a flight operations base at St Just in Cornwall, its operations are supported by three vessels. A small secretariat is based at Tower Hill. D
David Buchan was a Scottish naval officer and Arctic explorer. In 1802 or 1803 he married Maria Adye, they had at least three children. In 1806, Buchan was appointed as a lieutenant in the Royal Navy, from about 1808 to 1817 he operated in and around Newfoundland. In 1810 he was captain of HMS Adonis. In autumn 1810 he conducted an expedition to the River of Exploits. From there he and his men marched inland for 130 miles to establish contact with the dwindling native Beothuk population, one of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas in the region; the expedition resulted in the death and decapitation of two marines at their hands. In 1813 Adonis and the frigate Rosamond escorted the Newfoundland fishing fleet back to Britain; the voyage was stormy and the vessels separated near the English Channel. Adonis regained the convoy but as they approached the Scilly Islands they encountered a French fleet. Adonis was too small meaningfully to defend the convoy and in fact only escaped by jettisoning all her guns.
The 1818 Spitzbergen expedition was nearly the first the many Arctic expeditions that followed the Napoleonic Wars. It set out at the same time as that of John Ross into Baffin Bay. Both were prompted by the interest of John Barrow in Arctic exploration and the fact that in 1817 whalers reported that the normal ice between Greenland and Spitzbergen had disappeared; the ships were HMS Dorothea and HMS Trent under John Franklin, famous for his disappearance in the Arctic. They reached Spitzbergen in June, they found. They entered Magdalena Bay on the west coast. Escaping the bay they worked their way north through leads in the ice dragging the ships with ropes. By early July they could go no further, they were a little north of 80°, about the same latitude as northernmost Spitzbergen. No European had sailed this far north except William Scoresby, it took only nine days to return to open water, but immediately they were hit by a storm which threatened to drive them onto the ice. The storm died down but Dorothea was too damaged to continue in the Arctic.
Franklin wanted to continue with Buchan overruled him. They reached home on 30 September. Buchan returned to Newfoundland in 1819. Although he intended to return the Beothuk woman Demasduwit to her people, she died of tuberculosis before he was able to make any additional contact with the Beothuk. Buchan ordered additional efforts to return Demasduwit's niece, the Beothuk woman Shanawdithit, to her family but she refused to go with any European expedition; as far as she knew, all her people had died. After having been with the English, she knew that any Beothuk people would sacrifice her in a religious redemption of those, killed before. David Buchan was promoted to captain in the Royal Navy on 12 June 1823, but was removed from the active list the same year, he was appointed High Sheriff of Newfoundland from 1825 to 1835. In December 1838, he was declared lost at sea with the East Indiaman Upton Castle en route from Calcutta to England