A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
Solo Mobile is a discontinued mobile virtual network operator in Canada started by Bell Mobility in 2000. Solo was considered a discount wireless brand, offering low price monthly plans with some unlimited options in certain cities, its products and services were only sold in British Columbia, Alberta and Quebec. The brand ceased advertising towards new customers since November 2011, new activations were discontinued on May 17, 2012. Solo Mobile began migrating its prepaid customers to Bell Mobility effective July 31, 2017. Only grandfathered postpaid subscribers are the remaining active customers on Solo Mobile. Solo Prepaid was launched in the summer of 2000 as Bell Mobility's prepaid brand in Ontario and Quebec; the company boasted a 1¢/minute rate. Postpaid services were added as well. In 2003, the company offered a free prepaid phone and up to $45 in credits to Fido customers who traded their Fido phone and prepaid credits and switched to Solo. A unique "Lunchtime & After School" prepaid feature was available, which offered unlimited local calling from 12h to 13h and 15h to 17h.
The brand was temporarily withdrawn from the market after the launch of Bell Mobility prepaid services. The SoloMobile.ca domain name was registered by Bell on December 17, 2004 with the Canadian Internet Registration Authority. It would not feature content until the following year. On June 13, 2005, content was put on the SoloMobile.ca website, but Bell waited until July 25 of that year to announce the brand via a press release. The carrier would launch the following week, on August 1, organized a Solo Mobile / Eckored tour that began in the middle of that month to promote its brand across the four provinces it served. Admission was free, the tour featured four female solo singers including Keisha Chanté. At launch, Solo Mobile offered a simple lineup, consisting of only one phone with two choices of plans; the phone was the Sanyo 2300, with a flip design available in pink, silver or graphite. Customers could activate it on prepaid, pay-per-use rates. In both cases, SMS, mobile broadband, Caller ID and one ringtone per month were all complimentary features offered at no additional charge to Solo customers.
Over time, Solo began to imitate its competitors instead of offering unique, innovative options for wireless services. To its competitor Fido, Solo offered per-second billing after the first minute of every month for postpaid customers starting in 2008. Prepaid clients, receive per-minute billing; the monthly plans for both prepaid and postpaid customers were identical to those of Koodo Mobile. After Bell Canada acquired Virgin Mobile Canada on May 7, 2009, the Solo brand was given much less priority. For example, Solo's former Rideau Centre store in Ottawa was replaced by a Virgin store. All of Bell's advertisements promote the Bell Mobility and Virgin Mobile brands, while Solo is promoted at the bare minimum. On July 2 of that year, Mobile Syrup editor Kate O'Brien told readers to "start counting down the days Solo Mobile is put to bed". Solo only released a total of four feature phones throughout that year. Solo released the Samsung r100 feature phone on February 24, 2010; the LG 230 was launched by Solo on May 6 of that year.
This surprised Mobile Syrup editor Ian Hardy: "I thought Bell would have kicked Solo Mobile to the curb by now… somehow have kept Solo alive." An editor from HowardChui noted: "The discount carrier has been kept out of the spot light since Bell assumed full control over Virgin Mobile Canada." Solo's first HSPA+ device, the LG Flick, was released on November 11, 2010. In total, only five feature phones were released by Solo in 2010. Little effort was made in 2011 to promote the Solo brand, because its retail presence would be discontinued by Bell that year; the carrier added the Samsung Gravity 3 to its lineup on March 16, more than seven months after the same device was released by Virgin Mobile Canada. This meant. Solo's main focus that year was to retain existing customers, not to gain new ones; as such, they launched various offers available only to current customers, such as a one-time bonus of 100 minutes, a recurrent bonus of 50 minutes, or removing limits to local talk and international SMS.
On May 6, Solo permanently lowered the price on their two unlimited prepaid plans, matching Chatr's offering. However, both plans would remain only available in the same cities as Chatr for Solo's limited selection of legacy CDMA devices, reduced to just the LG 230 by the end of the year. During the summer season of that year, Solo discontinued sales of its products at Loblaw Companies and Zellers stores; the MySolo customer portal was updated in the month of August in conjunction with a similar upgrade to its parent Bell Mobility's portal. Solo has made no offers for that year's back-to-school season to gain new customers; the brand's first Android-powered smartphone, the Samsung Galaxy Gio, was launched after that period of time on October 13. Solo was excluded from the iPhone 4S launch the following day, contrary to its parent Bell Mobility and Bell's brand Virgin Mobile Canada. By the end of that month, Bell requested that stores ship back all unsold Solo Mobile feature phones, which were flashed and rebranded to be sold by the Bell and Virgin brands during the Christmas and holiday season of that year.
Solo missed out on the Galaxy Nexus, which Bell and Virgin both released on December 8. Although nine devices were part of the lineup in March 2011, Solo Mobile ended the year with only three devices, all which cost much less when purchased from Bell or Virgin. In March 20
Canadian Business is the longest-publishing business magazine based in Toronto, Ontario and founded in 1927. The print edition terminated at the end of 2016. Beginning in January 2017, the magazine published online only; the magazine was founded in 1927. The first issue appeared in February 1928 as The Commerce of the Nation, the organ of the Canadian Chamber of Commerce; the magazine was renamed Canadian Business in 1933. Canadian Business official association with the Chamber of Commerce ended in 1977, the position of official media partner is held by George Media's The Canadian Business Journal, it is owned by Rogers Communications. The company acquired the magazine in 1944; the former owner was Maclean Hunter. Canadian Business is published every second week, monthly in January and August, its special annual issues include: the Rich 100, the Investor 500, All-Star Execs, the MBA Report, the Best and Worst Boards. Its main direct competition comes from Report on Business Magazine, published by and inserted in The Globe and Mail newspaper, Financial Post Magazine National Post Business, published by and inserted in the National Post newspaper and The Canadian Business Journal business magazine published by George Media.
Profit, targeting small and mid-sized businesses, is a sister title under the same ownership. On March 20, 2019, Rogers announced a deal to sell the magazine to St. Joseph Communications. See List of Canadians by net worth In 2008 the Canadian Business magazine's annual report on the wealthiest Canadians calculated that the Irving family combined wealth rose 34 percent from 2007 to $US 7.11 billion. Only the Thompson family, with a net worth is $US 18.45 billion, are wealthier In their annual report on Canada's wealthiest, Canadian Business magazine described Ultra High Net Worth Canadians as having a profitable year. The wealthiest are now among the 0.00028%, not just the 1%. Frank Stronach's net was $US 2.72 Billion in 2011-2012. The Chan family's net worth was $US 1.03 billion. JR Shaw's net worth was $US 1.5 billion up 4.41 percent from last year. Canadian Business
Loblaws Inc. is a Canadian supermarket chain with stores located in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta and Quebec. Headquartered in Brampton, Loblaws is a subsidiary of Loblaw Companies Limited, Canada's largest food distributor. Founded by Theodore Loblaw and John Milton Cork in 1919, Loblaws stores used to operate across Canada until the early 1960s, when most locations in western Canada were rebranded as SuperValu, as Real Canadian Superstore; the company once operated stores in upstate New York, Northwest Pennsylvania, Northeast Ohio. These were sold to Bells Markets in the mid-1970s; some of the Loblaws stores in northwestern Pennsylvania continued operation into the early 1990s. What is the final empty Loblaws building in New York, in Johnstown/Gloversville, was demolished in 2015, having been standing empty since the chain's departure in the 1970s with the name still on the sign, showing no reuse of the site. Actor William Shatner did a number of television commercials for Loblaws in the 1970s, finished the ad spots by saying "At Loblaws, more than the price is right.
Beginning in 2008, some new and renovated Loblaws stores were given a new store format and were named "Loblaw Great Food", dropping the red-orange curved-L logo. Stores under this banner are subject to different collective-agreement terms with the United Food and Commercial Workers, the union representing Loblaw employees; the chain's location on the site of the former Maple Leaf Gardens in Toronto, opened in late 2011, is promoted as Loblaws and uses the familiar "L" logo, but is named "Loblaws Great Food", indicating that similar terms are in place at that store. On July 19, 2013, Loblaws introduced their new concept "Loblaws CityMarket" in British Columbia. Loblaws CityMarkets are now operational in British Columbia and Alberta. On July 23, 2015, Loblaws announced the planned closure of 52 non-profitable stores over the next year. Loblaws offers a grocery pickup service called PC Express where customers can order groceries online and select a time slot to pick up their orders; the rewards program used at Loblaws is PC Optimum which allows customers to accumulate points from purchases of certain items to be used in increments of ten dollars on purchases.
In December 2017, Loblaws and George Weston Limited disclosed to the Competition Bureau that it had arranged to fix the price of bread from 2000 to 2014. In response, the chain offered a $25 gift card to Canadian customers as a gesture of goodwill, but was met with public backlash over its restrictions and lack of remorse. List of supermarket chains in Canada Dave Nichol Official website
Virgin Mobile Canada
Virgin Mobile Canada Ltd. is a provider of postpaid and prepaid wireless voice and data communications services throughout Canada. They offer Home Internet services in select areas of Ontario and Quebec. Launched on March 1, 2005 as a joint venture between Virgin Group and BCE Inc. BCE took sole ownership on July 1, 2009 when it closed a deal to purchase the stake it did not own. Virgin Mobile calls its customers'Members' and offers a Member Benefits program, which provides its customers with special offers, VIP experiences; the VirginMobile.ca domain name was registered by Virgin Enterprises Limited on July 4, 2003 with the Canadian Internet Registration Authority. When accessed, it displayed a domain parking page until June 14, 2004, when it was replaced with an announcement. There were links to information about the company, related news articles, career opportunities. Virgin Mobile claimed: "we work like maniacs to bring you Canada’s most awesome mobile phone company." Virgin Mobile launched in Canada on March 1, 2005 as a mobile virtual network operator using the Bell Mobility network.
At the time, Virgin Mobile was operating as a prepaid service. The company's website showcased several feature phones it offered, advertised itself as a "no catch" mobile operator. Virgin Mobile Canada was the first mobile carrier in Canada to launch without a system access fee; the company’s “no catch” campaign at launch featured cheeky advertisements likening existing Canadian mobile carriers as “the catch”, Virgin Mobile Canada as the cure to unclear contracts and undesirable hidden fees. Sir Richard Branson helped create excitement at launch by zip-lining from a high-rise building into Yonge-Dundas Square in a superhero costume, drove a monster truck over three cars symbolizing “The Big Three” mobile carriers in Canada – Rogers and Bell. Since its launch, Virgin Mobile has used edgy and controversial advertising, leading to demands for an apology, requests to cease and desist the advertising, boycotts; this marketing technique is still used by Virgin Mobile Canada to this day. In February 2008, Virgin Mobile Canada launched postpaid wireless service.
To promote and encourage Canadians to consider the new postpaid service, the company released a new slogan, "It's Better to Be a Member". At launch, this was known as'myPlan', the company offered a multitude of options, including the ability to set one's own timeframe for unlimited calling, as opposed to the windows offered by competing mobile companies. Since postpaid plans have become a popular choice for new and existing Members, plans continue to evolve in the competitive telecom market. On July 1, 2009, Bell Mobility acquired 50% of Virgin Mobile Canada that it did not own for $142 million and entered into a long-term agreement to use the Virgin brand. Following this, Bell reduced its investments into Solo Mobile in order to invest in and improve its new Virgin brand. On December 21, 2009, Virgin Mobile Canada's then-president Robert Blumenthal promised "a different Virgin Mobile" with "higher-value devices and services" in 2010. Virgin Mobile launched HSPA+ services on February 2, 2010.
This was promoted with a “SIM Fashion Show” launch event featuring Victoria's Secret models. The company launched HSPA+ with several phones, including the BlackBerry Bold 9700, BlackBerry Curve 8530, the iPhone 3G, iPhone 3GS, MiFi and Samsung M330. A Broadband2Go USB mobile broadband modem was part of the launch lineup. To prepare for the back-to-school season of that year, the Virgin Mobile SuperTab was introduced on August 23 as a response to competition from other providers Koodo Mobile; the SuperTab was only available to postpaid Members, while HSPA+ products and services were unavailable to prepaid Members until around spring in 2011. To differentiate itself from other mobile providers, Virgin Mobile Canada launched its Member Benefits program in 2010; this program is available to all Postpaid and Prepaid Members and provides exclusive discounts and VIP experiences with many well-known brands in the fashion, travel and entertainment space. Since launch, the program offers exclusive offers for its Members.
In response to competition from major mobile brands and new entrants, Virgin Mobile introduced a City Unlimited plan on February 18, 2011. That year, in order to imitate Koodo Mobile's pricing, Virgin Mobile reduced Canadian long distance charges eliminating them altogether. For the same reason, a plan with unlimited Canadian long distance minutes was launched by Virgin, priced identically to Koodo's equivalent offering; the carrier is notable for being one of Canada's two carriers to carry the Galaxy Nexus smartphone for the country's Christmas and holiday season of 2011. Bell Mobility, Virgin Mobile's parent has this exclusivity during that time period; the flagship device from the Google Nexus series is the first in the world to run the Android 4 operating system. On November 29, Virgin Mobile invited its Members to join the Galaxy Nexus Tester Team; each Member in this team of five received a complimentary Galaxy Nexus, but they had to tweet about their experiences with the device. The smartphone was launched on December 8, the five Tester Team members were chosen on the following day.
Other Canadian carriers sold the Galaxy Nexus in 2012. On January 9, 2012, Virgin Mobile Canada launched a limited time promotion where postpaid customers who activated only a SIM card during that month would obtain an ongoing $5/month discount when they subscribed to any talk and text plan; those with a smartphone plan would receive an ongoing $10/month discount instead. On January 25, 2013, Virgin Mobile Canada introduced "Bring Your Own Ph
George Weston Limited
George Weston Limited referred to as Weston or Weston's, is a Canadian food processing and distribution company. Founded by George Weston in 1882, the company today consists of Weston Foods, a wholly owned subsidiary, Loblaw Companies Limited, the country's largest supermarket retailer, in which it maintains controlling interest. Retail brands include President's Choice, No Name, Joe Fresh, in addition to bakery brands Wonder, Country Harvest, D'Italiano, Ready Bake, Moulin Rouge and Gadoua; the company is controlled by the Weston family, which owns a majority share in George Weston Limited. In 1882, Toronto bread salesman George Weston, who got his start at the age of 12 as a baker's apprentice, went into business for himself when he bought a bread route from his employer, G. H. Bowen. Two years Weston bought out Bowen's Sullivan St. bakery and began baking and delivering his own bread. His first employee was Charles Upshall, another young baker, the two worked long hours baking and delivering bread.
Weston's business prospered with the development of his "Real Home Made Bread," made from a combination of Manitoba No. 1 Hard Wheat and Ontario Fall wheat. His bakery underwent at least four expansions. At a time when many bakers were reluctant to adopt new technology, believing it adversely affected the taste and quality of their bread, Weston began introducing modern equipment to automate the baking process. "He has not spared expense getting in the latest designs of machinery to mix his dough," proclaimed one newspaper ad. He renamed his bakery on Sullivan Street the "G. Weston’s Bread Factory." In October 1897, George Weston unveiled his "Model Bakery", Canada's largest and most modern bread factory, at the corner of Soho and Phoebe streets in Toronto. Newspaper reports told of how Weston had travelled to other countries to inspect the latest in baking technology and that his new establishment represented the best of what he had seen. Not only was the factory hailed for its efficiency and cleanliness, but its capacity to turn out thousands of loaves of bread: Remember that bread alone is made in this immense factory, such bread it is that has made the name of its maker famous.
Over 3200 large loaves are turned out on an average daily, but the factory has a capacity of 6,500 loaves. One may judge the largeness of the business done weekly when it takes nearly three hundreds barrels of flour to supply the weekly demand. Two teams are kept busy all day Friday and Saturday hauling flour to supply the week’s needs. Although the Model Bakery was well received by the Toronto press, its appearance resulted in a price war initiated by the city's other bakers. On hearing that competitors were offering cut-rate bread – contrary to a local bakers’ agreement that set a standard price for a loaf of bread – George Weston left the bakers' association and lowered his prices. In retaliation, the competition dropped what they charged at the wholesale level in an apparent attempt to fill store shelves with their bread. In spite of the price war, the Model Bakery continued to expand production such that a year business had increased by 78 percent. Less than two years George Weston was selling his bread to 38 cities and towns beyond Toronto's borders.
By 1901, the factory's output had reached 10,000 large loaves a day and its bread was shipped to over 100 communities throughout Ontario. By 1899, Weston had established in the town of Oshawa, northeast of Toronto, a branch bakeshop, which he described as a "miniature Model Bakery", for the production of bread. While the Model Bakery established George Weston as Canada's biggest baker, he had begun to move beyond bread into other lines of baked goods. By 1897, he had set up a separate shop for the making of cakes, crumpets and buns. Early in the new century, Weston began making biscuits, both fancy and sodas. While the bread business was competitive and low margin, biscuits offered higher margins. Within a few years, the Model Bakery had a dozen salesmen taking orders for Weston's biscuits from merchants throughout Ontario. In promoting his new vanilla wafer biscuits, Weston employed a form of early direct marketing. From a decorative bread wagon, salesmen handed out free samples of the new biscuits and told housewives to ask for them at their grocer's.
In 1901, George Weston merged with J. L. Spink, a flour mill operator at Pickering, Ontario; the amalgamation soon raised concerns, that the new partnership would result in higher bread prices. In a letter to local newspapers, Weston tried to allay fears of a "Bread Trust" and asserted that rather than an attempt to destroy competition that the merger would reduce the price of bread by cutting out the middleman's profit:... we are believers in honest competition. Some bakers are endeavouring to fill the minds of the grocers, the public in general, with the fact that we intend to get control of the bread baking business for the purpose of raising the price of bread to consumers. Now, I wish to give this a straight denial. By the amalgamation of these two concerns, the mill and the bakery, we are going to lessen our expenses, the public are going to reap the advantage. Weston further contended that the new venture would ensure the choicest flour for the Model Bakery and its bread, but while the Weston-Spink partnership lasted five years, for reasons unknown it was dissolved and the baker and miller went their separate ways.
In 1911, George Weston entered into another merger, this time with fellow bakers in Toronto and Winnipeg, to form the Canada Bread Company. The Model Bakery became part of the assets of Canada Bread and a new Weston's Biscuit Factory went into production at the corner of Peter and R