Grand Valley State University
Grand Valley State University is a public liberal arts university in Allendale, Michigan. The university was established in 1960 and its main campus is situated on 1,322 acres 12 miles west of Grand Rapids. Classes are offered at the university's campus in Downtown Grand Rapids, its international campus in Holland, through Traverse City established in cooperation with local community colleges. GVSU is a comprehensive coeducational university serving nearly 25,000 students as of fall 2018, from all 83 Michigan counties and dozens of other states and foreign countries, it is one of America's 100 largest universities, employs more than 3,000 people with about 1,780 academic faculty and 1,991 support staff. The university has alumni in all 50 U. S. states, 25 countries around the world. GVSU's NCAA Division II sports teams are called the Lakers, compete in the Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference in all 19 intercollegiate varsity sports, they have won 20 NCAA Division II National Championships since 2002 in seven different sports.
In January 2019, the GVSU Board of Trustees announced that Dr. Philomena V. Mantella, senior vice president at Northeastern University, will be GVSU's fifth president and the first woman to serve in the position, her term will start July 1, 2019. In 1958 the Michigan Legislature commissioned a study that demonstrated a need for a four-year college in the Grand Rapids area, Michigan's second largest metropolitan region. Local businessman Bill Seidman created a committee to study the report and spearhead the planning and promotion to create such an institution. In the following year the Michigan Legislature established the college. A naming contest was held, out of 2500 submissions, "Grand Valley State College" was chosen. Private donations, including $350,000 to purchase land and $1,000,000 for construction, were secured from 5,000 individuals and business throughout West Michigan. In 1961, the Grand Valley State College Board of Control chose a 876-acre site in Ottawa County near the Grand River for the new campus, construction of academic buildings began the following year.
Grand Valley State College accepted its first class of 225 students in 1963 and held its first graduation of 138 students on June 18, 1967. The middle-late 1960s saw the addition of the first dormitories and construction of new academic buildings, including the Zumberge Library, named for the university's first president, James Zumberge. In 1969, the Grand Valley Lanthorn printed an issue containing several obscenities. After complaints from some at Grand Valley State College and the surrounding communities, the Ottawa County, sheriff arrested the editor, the prosecutor closed down the newspaper office; the university a co-ed college, sued the sheriff and prosecutor for closing the Lanthorn offices. Michigan's Attorney General settled the case out of court, ruling in favor of Grand Valley State College. Which cited. During the 1970s Grand Valley used a multiple college concept: "College of Arts and Sciences," "Thomas Jefferson College," "William James College," "Seidman College of Business," and "College IV."
Former Michigan Governor William Milliken signed into law for the name to be changed to Grand Valley State Colleges in 1973. However the "s" was dropped and the name was reverted to Grand Valley State College in 1983 when the academic programs were reorganized into divisions. In 1987 the Michigan Legislature passed a law renaming the college to "Grand Valley State University." The 1980s and 1990s saw addition of satellite campuses or centers in downtown Grand Rapids, Muskegon and Traverse City. In 2004, the Board of Control reorganized the University structure again into a college system consisting of College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, College of Interdisciplinary Studies, College of Community and Public Service, College of Education, College of Health Professions, Kirkhof College of Nursing, Seidman College of Business, Seymour and Esther Padnos College of Engineering and Computing; the fall semester 2010 began a year-long celebration of the university's first 50 years of history and change.
Grand Valley completed its first 50 years with a comprehensive campaign that raised $100 million from over 17,000 donors, making it the university's largest campaign to date. Money raised from the campaign has helped fund many new construction projects on campus, including the Mary Idema Pew Library and L. William Seidman Center. In 2012, GVSU announced several land purchases. Future buildings to be constructed include a new biology laboratory building and an addition and renovation to the Zumberge Library on the Allendale campus. Land purchases in 2012 included property in downtown Grand Rapids adjacent to the medical mile for healthcare program expansion. In 2013, GVSU announced that it would be adding onto Au Sable Hall as well as construct a new building to house the GVSU Laker Store, with expanded dining facilities. Grand Valley has three campuses: the main campus in Allendale and two satellite campuses in the surrounding area. Smaller centers in Muskegon and Traverse City exist; the Interurban Transit Partnership operates several The Rapid bus routes under contract with the university.
The public can ride these buses by paying the fare, but rides are free to Grand Valley students and staff on all Rapid routes with a valid I. D. card. The University's main and original campus in Allendale is the location of most of the university's programs; the Allendale campus is composed of 1,322 a
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Hope College is a private, Christian liberal arts college in Holland, Michigan. It opened in 1851 as the Pioneer School by Dutch immigrants four years after the community was first settled; the first freshman college class matriculated in 1862 and Hope received its state charter in 1866. Hope College is affiliated with the Reformed Church in America and it retains a Christian atmosphere; the school's 125 acres campus is adjacent to the downtown commercial district and has been shared with Western Theological Seminary since 1884. Hope's motto is taken from Psalm 42:5: "Spera in Deo"; the college's emblem is an anchor. This is drawn from a speech made by Albertus van Raalte, the leader of the community, on the occasion of the founding of the Pioneer School in 1851: "This is my anchor of hope for this people in the future,"; the primary-level Pioneer School was expanded to secondary, soon after, college level education as Hope College. Van Vleck Hall, which housed the Pioneer School, is the oldest building on campus and now serves as a dormitory.
It is the second oldest building in the city. The first freshman college class matriculated in 1862, Hope received its state charter in 1866; the college admitted its first female students in 1878. 2015 marks Hope College's 150th year of education. In honor of this celebration, Hope College held many events throughout 2015; the celebration began with the 150th commencement on May 3, 2015. The year held two grand openings, the Kruizenga Art Museum and the Jack H. Miller Center for Musical Arts, the groundbreaking ceremony of the Jim and Martie Bultman Student Center; the College sponsored the Presidential Colloquium lecture series which featured an address by David Brooks on Christian education in the 21st century. The college offers 90+ majors, all of which lead to a Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Music, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Engineering, or Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree, it has a student population of about 3,400 with a student-to-faculty ratio of 12:1. The college offers off-campus study programs in several US cities, including Philadelphia, Washington, D.
C. and Chicago, overseas programs for the summer, semester, or an entire academic year. Among its international programs, a long-standing summer semester in Vienna is popular among students. Hope maintains strong ties to the Reformed Church of America and seeks to educate students within the historic Christian faith while maintaining a rigorous academic education. In addition, Hope College is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association. Courses offered at Hope are divided into five disciplines. General Education While taking courses in General Education at Hope, students encounter a diverse array of topics rooted in the liberal arts education. Regardless of his or her major, students take courses in the areas of art, language, literature and sciences. Students participate in a First-Year Seminar course and a Senior Seminar course; these courses were developed to help transition students out of their college career. Arts and Humanities The Fine and Performing Arts degree at Hope College consists of four departments, which include Art and Art History, Dance and Theatre.
The Humanities division includes the departments of English, History and Classical Language and Religion. The Arts division at Hope College seeks to "educate every student and the community in the transformational power of the arts." Hope College was the first private, liberal arts college to hold national accreditation in art, dance and theatre. Natural and Applied Sciences The Natural and Applied Sciences programs at Hope College include Biology and Molecular Biology, Computer Science, Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Neuroscience and Physics. Many of these departments offer research positions for students in the summer and provide summer camps for elementary to high school students. Social Sciences A Social Science degree at Hope College consists of the departments of Communication and Business, Kinesiology and Justice minor, Political Science and Sociology/Social Work. Pre-health programs There are a wide variety of pre-health programs offered by Hope at the undergraduate level; these programs include Chiropractic Medicine, Genetic Counseling, Occupational Therapy, Pharmacy, Physician Assistant, Physical Therapy, Public Health, Speech Language Pathology and Veterinary Medicine.
Other pre-health professions include Athletic Training, nd Pre-clinical Psychology. Accreditation Hope College is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association, with professional accreditation from the following: Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology American Chemical Society Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education Council on Social Work Education National Association of Schools of Art and Design National Association of Schools of Dance National Association of Schools of Music National Association of Schools of Theatre Housing On-campus housing is provided in 11 residence halls, 15 apartment buildings, 70+ houses that the college owns near the campus. A small percentage of students—primarily juniors and Holland residents—live off-campus. All full-time students without commuter status are required to live in on-campus housing for three years. Demographics The majority of Hope students come from the greater Great Lakes region - in 2012 90% of the student body comes from the states of Michigan, Illinois, New York, Wisconsin, a
Helen June DeVos was an American philanthropist and political donor. She was the wife of Richard DeVos, co-founder of Amway beauty and home care products company and owner of the Orlando Magic basketball team, she was the mother-in-law of U. S. Secretary of Education, Betsy DeVos. Helen June Van Wesep was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, on February 24, 1927, to George and Wilma Van Wesep, her family moved to Frankfort, when she was a teenager and she graduated from Frankfort High School. She attended Calvin College, she worked as a teacher until she married when she moved to Michigan. Helen DeVos served on the board of directors of the Grand Rapids Symphony and the St. Cecelia Music Center, she married Richard DeVos in 1953. They lived next door to his wife Betty. Richard and Jay were high school friends who had gone into the Nutrilite sales business together, which grew into Amway, they had three sons, Dick and Doug, a daughter, Cheri DeVos-Vander Weide. All four siblings are active in the family charities.
Helen DeVos died at her home in Ada Township on October 18, 2017, aged 90, from complications from a stroke following a recent diagnosis of myeloid leukemia. It was reported at the time of her death that the DeVos family had made donations of "more than $1.2 billion over the years". The Richard and Helen DeVos Foundation was a major focus of the DeVos family philanthropy. Helen was active in charity to children and music; the Helen DeVos Children's Hospital in Grand Rapids is named after her. Other named buildings include Richard and Helen DeVos Japanese Garden at Frederik Meijer Gardens, the Richard and Helen DeVos Fieldhouse at Hope College as well as the theater there named for her parents and Wilma Van Wesep; the Helen DeVos Presidential Scholarship for study of music and the arts was created at Grand Valley State University. Helen DeVos, biographical website
Mount Vernon was the plantation of George Washington, the first President of the United States, his wife, Martha Dandridge Custis Washington. The estate is situated on the banks of the Potomac River in Fairfax County, near Alexandria, across from Prince George's County, Maryland; the Washington family had owned land in the area since the time of Washington's great-grandfather in 1674. Around 1734 they embarked on an expansion of the estate that continued under George Washington, who began leasing the estate in 1754, but did not become its sole owner until 1761; the mansion was built of wood in a loose Palladian style. George Washington expanded once in the late 1750s and again in the 1770s, it remained Washington's home for the rest of his life. Following his death in 1799, under the ownership of several successive generations of the family, the estate progressively declined as revenues were insufficient to maintain it adequately. In 1858, the house's historical importance was recognized and it was saved from ruin by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association.
Escaping the damage suffered by many plantation houses during the American Civil War, Mount Vernon was restored. Mount Vernon was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1960 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it is still owned and maintained in trust by the Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, is open every day of the year, including Thanksgiving Day, Christmas Day and New Year's Day. Allowing the public to see the estate is not an innovation, but part of a 200-year-old tradition started by George Washington himself. In 1794 he wrote: "I have no objection to any sober or orderly person's gratifying their curiosity in viewing the buildings, Gardens, &ca. about Mount Vernon." When George Washington's ancestors acquired the estate, it was known as Little Hunting Creek Plantation, after the nearby Little Hunting Creek. However, when Washington's older half-brother, Lawrence Washington, inherited it, he changed its name to Mount Vernon in honor of Vice Admiral Edward Vernon, famed for the War of Jenkins' Ear and capture of the Portobelo, Colón.
Vernon had been Lawrence's commanding officer in the British Royal Navy. When George Washington inherited the property, he retained the name; the current property consists of 500 acres. The property was 8,000 acres; the present mansion was built in phases from 1734, by an unknown architect, under the supervision of Augustine Washington. This staggered and unplanned evolution is indicated by the off-center main door; as completed and seen today, the house is in a loose Palladian style. The principal block, dating from about 1734, was a one story house with a garret. In the 1750s, the roof was raised to a third floor garret. There were one-story extension added to the north and south ends of the house, these would be torn down during the next building phase; the present day mansion is 11,028 sq ft. A two-storied wing was added to the south side. Two years a large two-story room was added to the north side. Two single-story secondary wings were built in 1775; these secondary wings, which house the servants hall on the northern side and the kitchen on the southern side, are connected to the corps de logis by symmetrical, quadrant colonnades, built in 1778.
The completion of the colonnades cemented the classical Palladian arrangement of the complex and formed a distinct cour d'honneur, known at Mount Vernon as Mansion Circle, giving the house its imposing perspective. The corps de logis and secondary wings have hipped roofs with dormers. In addition to its second story, the importance of the corps de logis is further emphasized by two large chimneys piercing the roof, by a cupola surmounting the center of the house; this placement of the cupola is more in the earlier Carolean style than Palladian, was incorporated to improve ventilation of the enlarged attic and enhance the overall symmetry of the structure and the two wings. The rooms at Mount Vernon have been restored to their appearance at the time of George and Martha Washington's occupancy; these rooms include Washington's study, two dining rooms, the West Parlour, the Front Parlour, the kitchen and some bedrooms. The interior design follows the classical concept of the exterior, but owing to the mansion's piecemeal evolution, the internal architectural features – the doorcases and plasterwork – are not faithful to one specific period of the 18th-century revival of classical architecture.
Instead they range from severe Palladianism to a finer and neoclassicism in the style of Robert Adam. This varying of the classical style is best exemplified in the doorcases and surrounds of the principal rooms. In the West Parlour and Small Dining rooms there are doorcases complete with ionic columns and full pediments, whereas in the hall and passageways the doors are given broken pediments supported only by an architrave. Many of the rooms are lined with painted panelling and have ceilings ornamented by plasterwork in a Neoclassical style.
Amway is an American multi-level marketing company that sells health and home care products. The company is based in Ada, Michigan. Amway and its sister companies under Alticor reported sales of $8.8 billion in 2018. It conducts business through a number of affiliated companies in more than a hundred countries and territories. Amway has been investigated in various countries and by institutions such as the Federal Trade Commission for alleged pyramid scheme practices. Jay Van Andel and Richard DeVos had been friends since school days and business partners in various endeavors, including a hamburger stand, an air charter service, a sailing business. In 1949, they were introduced to the Nutrilite Products Corporation by Van Andel's second cousin Neil Maaskant. DeVos and Van Andel signed up to become distributors for Nutrilite food supplements in August, they lost interest for the next two weeks. They traveled to Chicago to attend a Nutrilite seminar soon after, at the urging of Maaskant, who had become their sponsor.
They watched promotional filmstrips and listened to talks by company representatives and successful distributors they decided to pursue the Nutrilite business. They sold their second box of supplements on their return trip to Michigan, proceeded to develop the business further. Earlier in 1949, DeVos and Van Andel had formed the Ja-Ri Corporation to import wooden goods from South American countries. After the Chicago seminar, they turned Ja-Ri into a Nutrilite distributorship instead. In addition to profits on each product sold, Nutrilite offered commissions on sales made by new distributors introduced to the company by existing distributors—a system known as multi-level marketing or network marketing. By 1958, DeVos and Van Andel had built an organization of more than 5,000 distributors; however and some of their top distributors formed the American Way Association, or Amway, in April 1959 in response to concerns about the stability of Nutrilite and in order to represent the distributors and look for additional products to market.
Their first product was called Frisk, a concentrated organic cleaner developed by a scientist in Ohio. DeVos and Van Andel bought the rights to manufacture and distribute Frisk, changed the name to LOC, they subsequently formed the Amway Sales Corporation to procure and inventory products and to handle sales and marketing plans, the Amway Services Corporation to handle insurance and other benefits for distributors. In 1960, they purchased a 50% share in Atco Manufacturing Company in Detroit, the original manufacturers of LOC, changed its name to Amway Manufacturing Corporation. In 1964, the Amway Sales Corporation, Amway Services Corporation, Amway Manufacturing Corporation merged to form the Amway Corporation. Amway bought controlling interest of Nutrilite in 1972 and full ownership in 1994. Amway expanded to Australia in 1971, to parts of Europe in 1973, to parts of Asia in 1974, to Japan in 1979, to Latin America in 1985, to Thailand in 1987, to China in 1995, to Africa in 1997, to India and Scandinavia in 1998, to Ukraine in 2003, to Russia in 2005, to Vietnam in 2006.
In 2014, a Russian loyalty card program called "Alfa-Amway" was created when Amway joined with Alfa-Bank. Amway was ranked as the 42nd largest held company in the United States by Forbes in 2018, as the number one largest company on the Direct Selling News Global 100 list in 2018. In 1999 the founders of the Amway corporation established a new holding company, named Alticor, launched three new companies: a sister Internet-focused company named Quixtar, Access Business Group, Pyxis Innovations. Pyxis replaced by Fulton Innovation, pursued research and development and Access Business Group handled manufacturing and logistics for Amway and third-party clients; the main difference was that all "Independent Business Owners" could order directly from Amway on the Internet, rather than from their upline "direct distributor", have products shipped directly to their home. The Amway name continued being used in the rest of the world. After all Amway distributors in North America switched to Quixtar, Alticor elected to close Amway North America after 2001.
In June 2007 it was announced that the Quixtar brand would be phased out over an 18- to 24-month period in favor of a unified Amway brand worldwide. In 2006, Quixtar published The Quixtar Independent Business Owner Compensation Plan, in which the company reported that the average monthly gross income for "Active" IBOs was $115. According to the Amway website, as of 2011 the company operates in over 100 countries and territories, organized into regional markets: the Americas, greater China and Korea, SE Asia/Australia. Amway’s top ten markets are China, the United States, Thailand, India, Russia and Italy. In 2008, Alticor announced that two-thirds of the company's 58 markets reported sales increases, including strong growth in the China, Russia and India markets. See Amway Australia Private Ltd. Amway China launched in 1995. In 1998, after abuses of illegal pyramid schemes led to riots, the Chinese government enacted a ban on all direct selling companies, including Amway. After the negotiations, some companies like Amway and Mary Kay continued to operate through a network of retail stores promoted by an independent sales force.
China introduced new direct selling laws in December 2005, in December 2006 Amway was one of the first companies to receive a license to resume direct sales. However, the law forbids teachers