Duchy of Brunswick
The Duchy of Brunswick was a historical German state. Its capital was the city of Brunswick, it was established as the successor state of the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation, the North German Confederation and from 1871 the German Empire, it was disestablished after the end of World War I, its territory incorporated into the Weimar Republic as the Free State of Brunswick. The title "Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg" was held, from 1235 on, by various members of the Welf family who ruled several small territories in northwest Germany; these holdings did not have all of the formal characteristics of a modern unitary state, being neither compact nor indivisible. When several sons of a Duke competed for power, the lands became divided between them; the unifying element of all these territories was that they were ruled by male-line descendants of Duke Otto I. After several early divisions, Brunswick-Lüneburg re-unified under Duke Magnus II.
Following his death, his three sons jointly ruled the Duchy. After the murder of their brother Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, brothers Bernard and Henry redivided the land, Henry receiving the territory of Wolfenbüttel. Albert the Tall 1269–1279. Received the southern half of Brunswick-Lüneburg as Prince of Wolfenbüttel while his brother John became Prince of Lüneburg. Albert's sons first ruled jointly, but in 1291 divided the Wolfenbüttel territory: Henry the Admirable became Prince of Grubenhagen 1291–1322 Albert II the Fat became Prince of Göttingen 1286–1318 William received Wolfenbüttel proper but died in 1292. Wolfenbüttel fell to his brother Albert II. Otto the Mild 1318 -- 1344, son of Albert II, was Prince of Prince of Göttingen. After his death his son Ernest became Prince of Göttingen 1344–1367. Magnus the Pious became Prince of Wolfenbüttel 1344–1369. Magnus' son Magnus II with the Necklace, Prince of Wolfenbüttel 1369–1373, claimed the Principality of Lüneburg against Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg.
The War of the Lüneburg Succession continued until 1388. Frederick 1373–1400, son of Magnus II, conquered Lüneburg in 1388. Succeeded by his brothers: Henry the Mild, 1400–1408 Bernard, 1409–1428. Returned control of Wolfenbüttel to his nephew, Henry's son. William the Victorious 1428–1432, nephew. Was deprived by his brother: Henry the Peaceful 1432–1473, moved the residence to Wolfenbüttel. William the Victorious 1473–1482, again. William regained control of Wolfenbüttel after his brother's death, left the Principality to his two sons: Frederick III 1482–1484. Imprisoned and deprived of power by his younger brother: William IV 1484–1491. Took control of all of Wolfenbüttel ceded Wolfenbüttel to his sons. Died 1495. Co-rulers, sons of William IV: Eric I 1491–1494. Divided the territory in 1494, taking Calenberg. Henry IV 1491–1514. Sole ruler in Wolfenbüttel from 1494. Henry V 1514–1568. Son of Henry IV. Converted to Lutheranism. Julius 1568–1589. Son of Henry V. Acquired Calenberg in 1584 on the death of his cousin Eric II.
Henry Julius 1589–1613, son. Frederick Ulrich 1613–1634, son. Last of the male descendants of Albert the Tall. On Frederick Ulrich's death, his complex of territories passed to a line of distant cousins ruling in Lüneburg. Wolfenbüttel was awarded to Augustus, son of Henry of Dannenberg. Augustus 1635–1666 Augustus's sons succeeded him, sometimes ruling together: Rudolph Augustus 1666–1704 Anthony Ulrich 1685–1702, 1704–1714. Disputed with Hanover. Deposed 1702–1704 for allying with France in the War of the Spanish Succession. Converted to Catholicism 1709. Anthony Ulrich's sons succeeded him in sequence: Augustus William 1714–1731 Louis Rudolph 1731–1735 Ferdinand Albert March–September 1735. Grandson of Augustus the Younger. Charles I 1735–1780. Son of Ferdinand Albert. Moved the ducal court from Wolfenbüttel to Braunschweig in 1753. Charles William Ferdinand 1780–1806. Son of Charles I. Died in battle at Jena. Frederick William 1806–1807, 1813–1815. Son of Charles William Ferdinand. During the Napoleonic Wars, from 1806 to 1813, France occupied Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
Died in battle at Quatre Bras. Frederick William's son Charles became the first Duke of independent Brunswick; the territory of Wolfenbüttel was recognized as a sovereign state by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. It had been a portion of the medieval Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. From 1705 onward, all other portions of Brunswick-Lüneburg except Wolfenbüttel had been held by the Prince of Calenberg and Celle, i.e. the Elector of Hanover, but the Wolfenbüttel line retained its independence from Hanover. The Wolfenbüttel principality had for the period from 1807 to 1813 been held as part of the Kingdom of Westphalia; the Congress turned it into an independent country under the name Duchy of Brunswick. The underage Duke Charles, the eldest son of Duke Frederick William, was put under the guardianship of George IV, the Prince Regent of the United Kingdom and Hanover. First, the young duke had a dispute over the date of his majority. In 1827, Charles declared some of the laws made during his minority invalid, which caused conflicts.
After the German Confederation intervened, Charles was forced to accept those laws. His administration was considered misguided. In the aftermath of the July Revolution in 1830, Charles had to abdicate, his absolutist governing style had alienated the nobil
University of Oslo
The University of Oslo, until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University, is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. Until 1 January 2016 it was the largest Norwegian institution of higher education in terms of size, now surpassed only by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology; the Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked it the 58th best university in the world and the third best in the Nordic countries. In 2015, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it the 135th best university in the world and the seventh best in the Nordics. While in its 2016, Top 200 Rankings of European universities, the Times Higher Education listed the University of Oslo at 63rd, making it the highest ranked Norwegian university; the university has 27,700 students and employs around 6,000 people. Its faculties include Theology, Medicine, Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences and Education; the university's original neoclassical campus is located in the centre of Oslo.
Most of the university's other faculties are located at the newer Blindern campus in the suburban West End. The Faculty of Medicine is split between several university hospitals in the Oslo area; the university was founded in 1811 and was modeled after the University of Copenhagen and the established University of Berlin. It was named for King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway and received its current name in 1939; the university is informally known as Universitetet, having been the only university in Norway, until 1946 and was referred to as "The Royal Frederick's", prior to the name change. The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in the university's Atrium, from 1947 to 1989, making it the only university in the world to be involved in awarding a Nobel Prize. Since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in the Atrium. Five researchers affiliated with the university have been Nobel laureates. In 1811, a decision was made to establish the first university in the Dano-Norwegian Union, after an agreement was reached with King Frederik VI, who had earlier believed that such an institution might encourage political separatist tendencies.
In 1813, The Royal Frederik's University was founded in a small city at that time. Circumstances changed one year into the commencement of the university, as Norway proclaimed independence. However, independence was somewhat restricted, as Norway was obliged to enter into a legislative union with Sweden based on the outcome of the War of 1814. Norway retained its own constitution and independent state institutions, although royal power and foreign affairs were shared with Sweden. At a time when Norwegians feared political domination by the Swedes, the new university became a key institution that contributed to Norwegian political and cultural independence; the main initial function of The Royal Frederick University was to educate a new class of upper-echelon civil servants, as well as parliamentary representatives and government ministers. The university became the centre for a survey of the country—a survey of culture, language and folk traditions; the staff of the university strove to undertake a wide range of tasks necessary for developing a modern society.
Throughout the 1800s, the university's academic disciplines became more specialised. One of the major changes in the university came during the 1870s when a greater emphasis was placed upon research, the management of the university became more professional, academic subjects were reformed, the forms of teaching evolved. Classical education came under increasing pressure; when the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the university became important for producing educated experts in a society which placed increasing emphasis on ensuring that all its citizens enjoy a life of dignity and security. Education, health services and public administration were among those fields that recruited personnel from the university's graduates. Research changed qualitatively around the turn of the century as new methods, scientific theories and forms of practice changed the nature of research, it was decided that teachers should arrive at their posts as qualified academics and continue academic research alongside their role as teachers.
Scientific research—whether to launch or test out new theories, to innovate or to pave the way for discoveries across a wide range of disciplines—became part of the increased expectations placed on the university. Developments in society created a need for more and more specialised and practical knowledge, not competence in theology or law, for example; the university strove to meet these expectations through increasing academic specialisation. The position of rector was established by Parliament in 1905 following the Dissolution of the Union. Waldemar Christofer Brøgger became the university's first rector. Brøgger vacillated between a certain pessimism and a powerfully energetic attitude regarding how to procure finances for research and fulfill his more general funding objectives. With the establishment of the national research council after World War II, Brøgger's vision was fulfilled; this coincided with a massive rise in student enrollment during the 1960s, which again made it difficult to balance research with the demands for teaching.
In the years leading up to 1940, research was more linked with the growth of the nation, with progress an
In mathematics, a group is a set equipped with a binary operation which combines any two elements to form a third element in such a way that four conditions called group axioms are satisfied, namely closure, associativity and invertibility. One of the most familiar examples of a group is the set of integers together with the addition operation, but groups are encountered in numerous areas within and outside mathematics, help focusing on essential structural aspects, by detaching them from the concrete nature of the subject of the study. Groups share a fundamental kinship with the notion of symmetry. For example, a symmetry group encodes symmetry features of a geometrical object: the group consists of the set of transformations that leave the object unchanged and the operation of combining two such transformations by performing one after the other. Lie groups are the symmetry groups used in the Standard Model of particle physics; the concept of a group arose from the study of polynomial equations, starting with Évariste Galois in the 1830s.
After contributions from other fields such as number theory and geometry, the group notion was generalized and established around 1870. Modern group theory—an active mathematical discipline—studies groups in their own right. To explore groups, mathematicians have devised various notions to break groups into smaller, better-understandable pieces, such as subgroups, quotient groups and simple groups. In addition to their abstract properties, group theorists study the different ways in which a group can be expressed concretely, both from a point of view of representation theory and of computational group theory. A theory has been developed for finite groups, which culminated with the classification of finite simple groups, completed in 2004. Since the mid-1980s, geometric group theory, which studies finitely generated groups as geometric objects, has become an active area in group theory; the modern concept of an abstract group developed out of several fields of mathematics. The original motivation for group theory was the quest for solutions of polynomial equations of degree higher than 4.
The 19th-century French mathematician Évariste Galois, extending prior work of Paolo Ruffini and Joseph-Louis Lagrange, gave a criterion for the solvability of a particular polynomial equation in terms of the symmetry group of its roots. The elements of such a Galois group correspond to certain permutations of the roots. At first, Galois' ideas were rejected by his contemporaries, published only posthumously. More general permutation groups were investigated in particular by Augustin Louis Cauchy. Arthur Cayley's On the theory of groups, as depending on the symbolic equation θn = 1 gives the first abstract definition of a finite group. Geometry was a second field in which groups were used systematically symmetry groups as part of Felix Klein's 1872 Erlangen program. After novel geometries such as hyperbolic and projective geometry had emerged, Klein used group theory to organize them in a more coherent way. Further advancing these ideas, Sophus Lie founded the study of Lie groups in 1884; the third field contributing to group theory was number theory.
Certain abelian group structures had been used implicitly in Carl Friedrich Gauss' number-theoretical work Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, more explicitly by Leopold Kronecker. In 1847, Ernst Kummer made early attempts to prove Fermat's Last Theorem by developing groups describing factorization into prime numbers; the convergence of these various sources into a uniform theory of groups started with Camille Jordan's Traité des substitutions et des équations algébriques. Walther von Dyck introduced the idea of specifying a group by means of generators and relations, was the first to give an axiomatic definition of an "abstract group", in the terminology of the time; as of the 20th century, groups gained wide recognition by the pioneering work of Ferdinand Georg Frobenius and William Burnside, who worked on representation theory of finite groups, Richard Brauer's modular representation theory and Issai Schur's papers. The theory of Lie groups, more locally compact groups was studied by Hermann Weyl, Élie Cartan and many others.
Its algebraic counterpart, the theory of algebraic groups, was first shaped by Claude Chevalley and by the work of Armand Borel and Jacques Tits. The University of Chicago's 1960–61 Group Theory Year brought together group theorists such as Daniel Gorenstein, John G. Thompson and Walter Feit, laying the foundation of a collaboration that, with input from numerous other mathematicians, led to the classification of finite simple groups, with the final step taken by Aschbacher and Smith in 2004; this project exceeded previous mathematical endeavours by its sheer size, in both length of proof and number of researchers. Research is ongoing to simplify the proof of this classification; these days, group theory is still a active mathematical branch, impacting many other fields. One of the most familiar groups is the set of integers Z which consists of the numbers... − 4, − 3, − − 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4... together with addition. The following properties of integer addition serve as a model for the group axioms given in the definition below.
For any two integers a and b, the sum a + b is an integer. That is, addition of integers always yields an integer; this property is known as closure under addition. For all integers a, b and c, + c = a +. Expressed in words
The German Empire known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After 1850, the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones.
As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated; this period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882, it retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.
In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate; the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; the German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war. The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered; the Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism; the German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris.
German nationalism shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck's pragmatic Realpolitik. Bismarck sought to extend Hohenzollern hegemony throughout the German states, he envisioned a Prussian-dominated Germany. Three wars led to military successes and helped to persuade German people to do this: the Second Schleswig War against Denmark in 1864, the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, the Franco-Prussian War against France in 1870–71; the German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between the constituent Confederation entities of the Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. The war resulted in the partial replacement of the Confederation in 1867 by a North German Confederation, comprising the 22 states north of the Main; the patriotic fervour generated by the Franco-Prussian War overwhelmed the remaining opposition to a unified Germany in the four stat
Carl Friedrich Gauss
Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (. Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum and "the greatest mathematician since antiquity", Gauss had an exceptional influence in many fields of mathematics and science, is ranked among history's most influential mathematicians. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born on 30 April 1777 in Brunswick, in the Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, to poor, working-class parents, his mother was illiterate and never recorded the date of his birth, remembering only that he had been born on a Wednesday, eight days before the Feast of the Ascension. Gauss solved this puzzle about his birthdate in the context of finding the date of Easter, deriving methods to compute the date in both past and future years, he was christened and confirmed in a church near the school he attended as a child. Gauss was a child prodigy. In his memorial on Gauss, Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen says that when Gauss was three years old he corrected a math error his father made. Many versions of this story have been retold since that time with various details regarding what the series was – the most frequent being the classical problem of adding all the integers from 1 to 100.
There are many other anecdotes about his precocity while a toddler, he made his first groundbreaking mathematical discoveries while still a teenager. He completed his magnum opus, Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, in 1798, at the age of 21—though it was not published until 1801; this work was fundamental in consolidating number theory as a discipline and has shaped the field to the present day. Gauss's intellectual abilities attracted the attention of the Duke of Brunswick, who sent him to the Collegium Carolinum, which he attended from 1792 to 1795, to the University of Göttingen from 1795 to 1798. While at university, Gauss independently rediscovered several important theorems, his breakthrough occurred in 1796 when he showed that a regular polygon can be constructed by compass and straightedge if the number of its sides is the product of distinct Fermat primes and a power of 2. This was a major discovery in an important field of mathematics. Gauss was so pleased with this result that he requested that a regular heptadecagon be inscribed on his tombstone.
The stonemason declined, stating that the difficult construction would look like a circle. The year 1796 was productive for both Gauss and number theory, he discovered a construction of the heptadecagon on 30 March. He further advanced modular arithmetic simplifying manipulations in number theory. On 8 April he became the first to prove the quadratic reciprocity law; this remarkably general law allows mathematicians to determine the solvability of any quadratic equation in modular arithmetic. The prime number theorem, conjectured on 31 May, gives a good understanding of how the prime numbers are distributed among the integers. Gauss discovered that every positive integer is representable as a sum of at most three triangular numbers on 10 July and jotted down in his diary the note: "ΕΥΡΗΚΑ! num = Δ + Δ' + Δ". On 1 October he published a result on the number of solutions of polynomials with coefficients in finite fields, which 150 years led to the Weil conjectures. Gauss remained mentally active into his old age while suffering from gout and general unhappiness.
For example, at the age of 62, he taught himself Russian. In 1840, Gauss published his influential Dioptrische Untersuchungen, in which he gave the first systematic analysis on the formation of images under a paraxial approximation. Among his results, Gauss showed that under a paraxial approximation an optical system can be characterized by its cardinal points and he derived the Gaussian lens formula. In 1845, he became an associated member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands. In 1854, Gauss selected the topic for Bernhard Riemann's inaugural lecture "Über die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen". On the way home from Riemann's lecture, Weber reported that Gauss was full of excitement. On 23 February 1855, Gauss died of a heart attack in Göttingen. Two people gave eulogies at his funeral: Gauss's son-in-law Heinrich Ewald, Wolfgang Sartorius von Waltershausen, Gauss's close friend and biographer. Gauss's brain was preserved and was studied by Rudolf Wagner, who found its mass to be above average, at 1,492 grams, the cerebral area equal to 219,588 square millimeters.
Developed convolutions were found, which in the early 20th century were suggested as the explanation of his genius. Gauss was a Lutheran Protestant, a member of the St. Albans Evangelical Lutheran church in Göttingen. Potential evidence that Gauss believed in God comes from his response after solving a problem that had defeated him: "Finally, two days ago, I succeeded—not on account of my hard efforts, but by th
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich; the municipality has 409,000 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich is a hub for railways and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the busiest in the country. Permanently settled for over 2,000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6,400 years ago. During the Middle Ages, Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli; the official language of Zürich is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Zürich German. Many museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum and the Kunsthaus.
Schauspielhaus Zürich is one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world. Zürich is a leading global city and among the world's largest financial centres despite having a small population; the city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking companies. Most of Switzerland's research and development centres are concentrated in Zürich and the low tax rates attract overseas companies to set up their headquarters there. Monocle's 2012 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Zürich first on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within". According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zürich was named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe in terms of GDP per capita; the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking sees Zürich rank among the top ten most liveable cities in the world. In German, the city name is written Zürich, pronounced in Swiss Standard German. In Zürich German, the local dialect of Swiss German, the name is pronounced without the final consonant, as Züri, although the adjective remains Zürcher.
The city is called Zurich in French, Zurigo in Italian, Turitg in Romansh. In English, the name used to be written without the umlaut. So, standard English practice for German calques is to either preserve the umlaut or replace it with the base letter followed by e, it is pronounced ZEWR-ik, more sometimes with /ts/, as in German. The earliest known form of the city's name is Turicum, attested on a tombstone of the late 2nd century AD in the form STA TURICEN; the name is interpreted as a derivation from a given name Gaulish personal name Tūros, for a reconstructed native form of the toponym of *Turīcon. The Latin stress on the long vowel of the Gaulish name, was lost in German but is preserved in Italian and in Romansh; the first development towards its Germanic form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi. From the 9th century onward, the name is established in an Old High German form Zurih. In the early modern period, the name became associated with the name of the Tigurini, the name Tigurum rather than the historical Turicum is sometimes encountered in Modern Latin contexts.
Settlements of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were found around Lake Zürich. Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof, a morainic hill dominating the SE - NW waterway constituted by Lake Zurich and the river Limmat. In Roman times, during the conquest of the alpine region in 15 BC, the Romans built a castellum on the Lindenhof. Here was erected Turicum, a tax-collecting point for goods trafficked on the Limmat, which constituted part of the border between Gallia Belgica and Raetia: this customs point developed into a vicus. After Emperor Constantine's reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy was located east of Turicum, crossing the river Linth between Lake Walen and Lake Zürich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum's safety; the earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it as to the Statio Turicensis Quadragesima Galliarum, discovered at the Lindenhof. In the 5th century, the Germanic Alemanni tribe settled in the Swiss Plateau.
The Roman castle remained standing until the 7th century. A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne, Louis the German, is mentioned in 835. Louis founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard, he endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich and the Albis forest, granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. In 1045, King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, mint coins, thus made the abbess the ruler of the city. Zürich gained Imperial immediacy in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained a status comparable to statehood. During the 1230s, a city wall was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses on the Rennweg were built as well; the Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had st
A Technische Hochschule is a type of university focusing on engineering sciences in Germany. It existed in Austria, the Netherlands, Finland. In the 1970s and the 1980s, the Technische Hochschule emerged into the Technische Universität or Technische Universiteit. Since 2009, several German universities of applied sciences were renamed to Technische Hochschulen. In German-language countries, the term Hochschule is more general than Universität and encompasses universities which do not have the right to confer doctorates and habilitations, in contrast to Universitäten. Today, Universitäten as well as other Hochschulen call themselves Technische Hochschule for historical reasons. However, a Technische Hochschule with the status of a Universität is regarded as a Technische Universität despite the name. Since the Middle Ages, higher education institutions in Europe were called a university only if a certain classical canon of subjects encompassing philosophy, medicine and theology was taught; when engineering sciences became more important in academica due to the Industrial Revolution, institutions of tertiary education devoted to these were denied the prestigious denomination "university", had to use the more general term Hochschule instead.
It was a major breakthrough when in the first half of the 20th century, some Technische Hochschulen in Germany and Technische Hogescholen in the Netherlands were given the right to award the doctoral degrees, again when they were allowed to call themselves universities. This change of status was accompanied by a broader spectrum of academic disciplines and more fundamental research. While most former Technische Hochschulen opted to change their name to Technische Universität to reflect their new status, some of them preferred to maintain their traditional and established names, most notably the RWTH Aachen in Germany as well as ETH Zurich and EPF Lausanne in Switzerland. Starting in 2009, several German universities of applied sciences with a technical focus have changed their names to Technische Hochschule. List of Austrian Technische Universitäten by location: List of German Technische Universitäten by location: List of Technische Hochschulen by location: List of Swiss Federal Institutes of Technology by location: The concept of a TH exists in Finland as teknillinen korkeakoulu, equivalent to a TH.
Examples include Teknillinen korkeakoulu in Espoo, Tampereen teknillinen korkeakoulu and Lappeenrannan teknillinen korkeakoulu. To German speaking countries, most of them changed their name to teknillinen yliopisto, equivalent to a TU. However, Teknillinen korkeakoulu retained its old name until it merged with two other universities to form the current Aalto University. TU9 German Institutes of Technology e. V. List of universities in Germany