Indianapolis Museum of Art

The Indianapolis Museum of Art is an encyclopedic art museum located at Newfields, a 152-acre campus that houses Lilly House, The Virginia B. Fairbanks Art & Nature Park: 100 Acres, The Gardens at Newfields, the Beer Garden, more, it is located at the corner of North Michigan Road and West 38th Street, near downtown Indianapolis, northwest of Crown Hill Cemetery. There are exhibitions, classes and events, many of which change seasonally; the entire campus was referred to as the Indianapolis Museum of Art, but in 2017 the campus and organization were renamed "Newfields" to better reflect the breadth of offerings and venues. The "Indianapolis Museum of Art" now refers to the main art museum building that acts as the cornerstone of the campus, as well as the legal name of the organization doing business as Newfields; the Indianapolis Museum of Art is the ninth oldest and eighth largest encyclopedic art museum in the United States. The permanent collection comprises over 54,000 works, including African, American and European pieces.

Significant areas of the collection include: Neo-Impressionist paintings. Other areas of emphasis include textiles and fashion arts as well as a recent focus on modern design. Founded in 1883 by the Art Association of Indianapolis, the first permanent museum was opened in 1906 as part of the John Herron Art Institute. In 1969, the Art Association of Indianapolis changed its name to the Indianapolis Museum of Art, in 1970 the museum moved to its current location. Among the Art Association's founders was May Wright Sewall, known for her work in the women's suffrage movement. Other supporters have included Booth Tarkington, Eli Lilly, Herman C. Krannert, Caroline Marmon Fesler; the associated John Herron Art Institute was established with the help of notable Hoosier Group artists T. C. Steele and William Forsyth; the museum is recognized as innovative in its development of open source technologies, institutional transparency, collaboration between museums. In 2008, the IMA became the first fine art museum to be named an Energy Star partner due to its greening initiative and efforts to reduce energy consumption.

In 2009, the IMA was awarded the National Medal for Museum and Library Service for public service the museum's free admission policy and educational programming. The free admission policy ended in late 2014 after seven years to maintain long-term financial stability. Dr. Charles L. Venable is the current Melvin and Bren Simon Director and CEO; the Indianapolis Museum of Art was founded as the Art Association of Indianapolis, an open-membership group led by suffragist May Wright Sewall. Formed in 1883, the organization aimed to inform the public about visual art and provide art education; the Art Association's first exhibition, which opened November 7, 1883, contained 453 artworks from 137 artists. The death of wealthy Indianapolis resident John Herron in 1895 left a substantial bequest with the stipulation that the money be used for a gallery and a school with his name; the John Herron Art Institute opened in 1902 at the corner of Pennsylvania street. Emphasis on the Arts and Crafts movement grew throughout the early years of the school, with a focus on applied art.

William Henry Fox was hired in 1905 as the Art Institute's first director. From 1905 to 1910, Fox managed both the museum and the school while constructing two new buildings on the 16th street site. From the 1930s until the 1950s, the John Herron Art Institute placed an emphasis on professionalism and growth in collections. Wilbur Peat, director of the museum from 1929 until 1965, acquired significant portions of the collection. Peat made connections with benefactors such as Dr. George H. A. Clowes, Booth Tarkington, Eli Lilly. Caroline Marmon Fesler, president of the Art Association of Indianapolis, gave a number of artworks in the 1940s, including 20th-century modern artworks and Post-Impressionist works by Cézanne, Van Gogh, Seurat. After years of debate surrounding expansion and relocation of the museum and school, the great grandchildren of Eli Lilly, J. K. Lilly III and Ruth Lilly, donated the family estate, Oldfields, to the Art Association of Indianapolis in 1966. One year the Art Association decided that the school would become a part of Indiana University's Indianapolis campus in an effort to assist with accreditation.

That same year the Association confirmed that the museum would relocate to Oldfields, with the new Krannert Pavilion opening to the public in October 1970. In 1969, prior to moving to the new site, the Art Association of Indianapolis changed its name to the Indianapolis Museum of Art. In 1960, Art Association of Indianapolis board members began discussing the idea of placing the museum at the center of a new cultural campus. Inspired by University Circle in Cleveland, board chairman Herman Krannert proposed building an "Acropolitan Area" that would combine a number of cultural institutions in a natural setting; the museum's location on the grounds of Oldfields allowed architect Ambrose Madison Richardson to build on the idea of an acropolis while utilizing the natural features of the site. Krannert Pavilion opened in 1970 as the first of four buildings located on the museum's grounds. Following the opening of Krannert, the expansion continued with the Clowes Pavilion in 1972, which housed the Clowes' collection of Old Masters.

Construction on the Showalter Pavilion and Sutphin Fountain was completed in 1973. In 1986, the IMA's board members chose


Europeanisation refers to a number of related phenomena and patterns of change: The process in which a notionally non-European subject adopts a number of European features. Outside the social sciences, it refers to the growth of a European continental identity or polity over and above national identities and polities on the continent. Europeanisation may refer to the process through which European Union political and economic dynamics become part of the organisational logic of national politics and policy-making. Europeanisation in political science has been referred to generally as'becoming more European like'. More than this, it has been defined in a number of ways. One of the earliest conceptualisations of the term is by Ladrech, who defines Europeanisation as ‘an incremental process of re-orienting the direction and shape of politics to the extent that EC political and economic dynamics become part of the organisational logic of national politics and policy making.’ This emphasises what is known as the'top-down approach' to Europeanisation, in which change emanates from the impact of the Union on the national policy.

The state is viewed as reactive to actions of the Union. Another definition that needs to be taken into account is from Radaelli, who describes Europeanisation as "a process involving a) construction, b) diffusion and c) institutionalisation of formal and informal rules, policy paradigms, styles,'ways of doing things' and shared beliefs and norms which are first defined and consolidated in the EU policy process and incorporated in the logic of domestic discourse, political structures and public choices." More Moumoutzis has revised Radaelli's definition, arguing that Europeanisation should be defined as'a process of incorporation in the logic of domestic discourse, political structures and public policies of formal and informal rules, policy paradigms, styles, “ways of doing things” and shared beliefs and norms that are first defined in the EU policy processes'. From a'bottom-up' approach Europeanisation occurs when states begin to affect the policy of the European Union in a given area. A more nuanced analysis posits that the institutional interaction of policy actors at the various levels of European governance leads to the re-definition of national and other identities within a European context, where the multiple levels of governance in Europe are not seen as in opposition to one another.

An elected representative can, for example, see his loyalties and responsibilities as lying with Barcelona, Catalonia and Europe, or with Amsterdam and Europe, for unitary states. Some scholars, including Samuel Huntington, argue that citizens of European states identify themselves as such, rather than Portuguese, French, Italian, etc. An obvious area of change is in the institutions of Europe; the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union would be an example of this. Another perspective of Europeanisation is the'horizontal approach.' This approach takes into account the transfer of politics and policy making between member states of the European Union. The transfer is based on a form of'soft law' — it is not enforceable but based on'best practice' and mutual recognition. Whether Europeanisation is a continuing process that will lead to a full European government or whether centralisation will be unable to overcome persisting national identities and/or increasing interest in localism is a matter of some debate.

European integration Eurosphere Pan-European identity Pro-Europeanism Globalisation Accession of Turkey to the European Union Ukraine–European Union relations Euro-Slavism Börzel, T and Risse Conceptualizing the Domestic Impact of Europe: In K. Featherstone and C Radaelli, The Politics of Europeanization, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 57–80 Cernat, L. Europeanization, Varieties of Capitalism and Economic Performance in Central and Eastern Europe, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Howell, K. E. Developing Conceptualisations of Europeanization: Synthesising Methodological Approaches Queens University Belfast Working Papers Howell, K. E. Europeanization, European Integration and Financial Services. Palgrave. Maas, Willem. Creating European Citizens. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-5485-6. Johan Olsen, The Many Faces of Europeanization, ARENA Working Papers, 2002. Schmale, Wolfgang: Processes of Europeanization, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, retrieved: November 16, 2011.

Europeanisation Papers - Queen's University, Belfast. European Research Papers Archive