Manuel Carlos Valls Galfetti is a French and Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of France from 2014 until 2016. He was Minister of the Interior from 2012 to 2014, he was a member of the Socialist Party, was a candidate in their primary for the 2017 presidential election, losing the Socialist nomination in the second round to Benoît Hamon. Born in Barcelona to a Spanish father and a Swiss mother, Valls was Mayor of Évry from 2001 to 2012 and was first elected to the National Assembly of France in 2002, he was regarded as belonging to the Socialist Party's social liberal wing, sharing common orientations with Blairism. Valls' paternal grandfather was the editor-in-chief of a Republican newspaper in Spain. During the Spanish Civil War, he sheltered priests. After Francisco Franco's victory, he was forced out of his job as editor. Valls' father was the Barcelona-born painter Xavier Valls. In the late 1940s, Xavier Valls moved to Paris and met his future wife, Luisangela Galfetti, a Ticino-born Swiss citizen, the sister of architect Aurelio Galfetti.
In 1955, he won the prize for best still life in the third Spanish-American Art Biennial inaugurated by Franco. Valls was born in Barcelona, he became naturalized as French. In 1980, aged 17, Valls joined the French Socialist Party to support Michel Rocard. Within the PS, he defended the'Second left', rather than the more pragmatic left of François Mitterrand. While studying history at the Pantheon-Sorbonne University, Tolbiac campus, he was a member of the UNEF-ID, a progressive students' union. In 1980, he met two other student supporters of Rocard with whom he became close friends: Alain Bauer, Stéphane Fouks. From 1983 to 1986, Valls was a parliamentary attaché for the member for Robert Chapuis. In 1986 he was elected to the regional Council for the Île-de-France and served until 1992. In 1988, he became head of the Socialist Party in deputy mayor. From 1988 to 1991 he was responsible for the functioning of the prime minister's cabinet. From 1991 to 1993 he was an inter-ministerial delegate to the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville.
In 1995, he became the Secretary of Communications for the national Socialist Party and in 1997 communications and media relations chief for the prime minister's Cabinet. In 1998 he was elected vice-president of the regional council for Île-de-France, a post which he held until 2002. While vice-president of the regional Council, he was elected mayor of Évry in 2001, a post he held until 2012. In 2002, he became the deputy for the First Electoral District in Essonne and in 2008, the president of the tri-city jurisdiction of Évry-Centre-Essonne. In the 2008 elections to choose the head of the Socialist Party, Valls supported the former presidential candidate Ségolène Royal over her former partner François Hollande. On June 13, 2009, Valls announced his intention to run in the Socialist presidential primary in 2011 for the 2012 election. On 30 June 2009 he founded a political organisation with the slogan "The Left Needs Optimism," to provide legal and financial support the Socialist Primary candidates.
On 7 June 2011, he confirmed his candidacy for the Socialist primary. On the evening of the first primary round, 9 October 2011, Valls achieved only 6% of the vote, just behind Ségolène Royal, he was therefore eliminated. On the night of his defeat, he endorsed François Hollande for the second round. Valls was appointed Minister of the Interior in the Ayrault Cabinet in May 2012. In March 2014, following major losses to centre-right and extreme-right political parties in French municipal elections, President François Hollande appointed Valls to the post of Prime Minister, he replaced Jean-Marc Ayrault. The Valls Cabinet was formed on 2 April 2014, consisting of 15 ministers from the Socialist Party and two ministers from the Radical Party of the Left. After the 2016 Nice attack, he was criticised for saying that "France will have to live with terrorism." French citizens booed him when he joined the memorial for the victims, yelling "murderer" and "resign" at him before the minute of silence for the dead began.
Valls left office on 6 December 2016 to run in the primaries to be the Socialist candidate in the 2017 presidential election. He was replaced by Minister of the Interior Bernard Cazeneuve, he came in second during the first round of the primary on 22 January, behind his ex-Minister of National Education Benoît Hamon. The two candidates advanced to the second round, held 29 January. In the second round, Valls was defeated in the second round, in which he received 41% of the vote to Hamon's 58%; the more left-leaning candidate unexpectedly defeated Valls and became the Socialist Party's nominee. Despite subsequently promising to support Hamon's candidature, Valls declared his support for Emmanuel Macron of En Marche!. After his loss in the Socialist Party primary, Valls refused to endorse Benoît Hamon, citing the difference in views. In March, Valls announced on BFMTV. After Macron's win in the second round of the presidential election, Valls announced that he wanted to run for reelection to the National Assembly under the En Marche! banner, declaring that the Socialist Party was "dead".
The Socialist Party has started discipli
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Paris Descartes University
Paris Descartes University known as Paris V, is a French public research university located in Paris. It is one of the inheritors of the University of Paris, split into multiple separate institutions in 1970. Paris Descartes is a member of the Sorbonne Paris Cité University group, it was established as a multidisciplinary university "of humanities and health sciences" ("des Sciences de l’Homme et de la Santé". It focuses in the areas of medical sciences, biomedical sciences, computer science and psychology, its main campus is in the historic École de Chirurgie in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. The historic University of Paris first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was divided into thirteen universities, managed by a common rectorate, the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, after the student protests of the French May. Descartes University has ten campuses in Paris, its headquarters are centered on the "Collège de chirurgie", built in place of the "Collège de Bourgogne", in the Quartier latin, on the rue des Écoles.
The teaching facilities and the research laboratories are housed in the Saints-Pères university center, as far as the medical school and the social sciences school are concerned. The refurbished Henri-Piéron center contains the school of psychology, whereas the Law school is located in Malakoff; the dentistry school is located in Montrouge. The undergraduate program of Paris Descartes is selective, with an acceptance rate of 11%. Admission to the second year of the university's master programs is selective as well, some of these programs admitting only 1.7% of applicants which can represent 25 students by programs. The University Paris V has signed over 150 conventions with foreign universities across five continents, including Manchester, Copenhagen, Madrid, Helsinki, Stockholm or Ghent; the university focuses on medical sciences, biomedical sciences, social sciences, computer science and law. The University Paris Descartes supports a modern approach of social sciences on the basis of fieldwork, participant observation and ethnography.
The dual master's degree in partnership with other important French academic institutions such as Pantheon-Sorbonne University and the École Normale Supérieure emphasizes opportunities offered as far as research is concerned. Paris Descartes was rated by the 2017 QS World University Ranking by Subject: 51-100th in Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 151-200 in Biological Sciences, 121 in Medicine, 251-300th in Psychology, 251-300th in Linguistics It was rated by the 2016/17 The Times Higher Education Subject Rankings as: 201-250 in Medicine, 201-250 in Psychology. In Law, in 2016/17, it was not ranked among the top 10 of France of Eduniversal rankings. Georges Balandier Erwan Dianteill Axel Kahn Michel Kazatchkine Michel Maffesoli Hervé Morin Georges Vigarello Olivier Brandicourt and former CEO of Sanofi Jon Elster and political theorist François Fillon, former French Prime Minister Béatrice Galinon-Mélénec, founder of the e. laboratory on Human Trace Complex System Unesco Nadey Hakim and Vice President of the Royal Society of Medicine Élizabeth Teissier, astrologist Jardin Botanique, Université Paris V Musée d'Anatomie Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière René Descartes Media related to Université Paris Descartes at Wikimedia Commons University web site Faculté des Sciences Humaines et Sociales - Sorbonne Institut de Psychologie
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is a French politician serving as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 2017. He was Minister of the Economy and Digital Affairs from 2014 to 2016. Macron was born in Amiens and studied philosophy at Paris Nanterre University, completed a Master's of Public Affairs at Sciences Po and graduated from the École nationale d'administration in 2004, he worked as a senior civil servant at the Inspectorate General of Finances and became an investment banker at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was appointed Deputy Secretary General to the President by François Hollande in May 2012, he was appointed Minister of Economy and Digital Affairs in August 2014 under the Second Valls government, where he pushed through business-friendly reforms. He resigned in August 2016 to launch a bid in the 2017 presidential election. After being a member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009, Macron ran in the election under the banner of a centrist political movement he founded in April 2016, En Marche!.
He won the election on 7 May 2017 with 66.1% of the vote in the second round. At age 39, Macron became the youngest President of France in history and appointed Édouard Philippe to be Prime Minister. In the June 2017 legislative elections, Macron's party, renamed "La République en marche", together with its ally the Democratic Movement, secured a majority in the National Assembly. Born in Amiens, Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is the son of Françoise, a physician, Jean-Michel Macron, professor of neurology at the University of Picardy; the couple were divorced in 2010. Macron has two siblings, born in 1979 and Estelle, born in 1982. Françoise and Jean-Michel's first child was born stillborn. Raised in a non-religious family, he was baptized a Roman Catholic at his own request at age 12, although he is agnostic today; the Macron family legacy is traced back to the village of Authie in Hauts-de-France. One of Macron's paternal great-grandfathers, George William Robertson, was English, was born in Bristol, United Kingdom.
His maternal grandparents and Germaine Noguès, are from the Pyrenean town of Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Gascony. Macron visited Bagnères-de-Bigorre to visit his grandmother Germaine, whom he called "Manette". Macron associates his enjoyment of reading and his left-ward political leanings to Germaine, after coming from a modest upbringing of a stationmaster father and a housekeeping mother, became a teacher a principal, died in 2013. Macron was educated at the Jesuit Lycée la Providence in Amiens before his parents sent him to finish his last year of school at the elite Lycée Henri-IV in Paris, where he completed the high school curriculum and the undergraduate program with a "Bac S, Mention Très bien". At the same time he was nominated for the "Concours Général" in French literature and received his diploma for his piano studies at Amiens Conservatory, his parents sent him off to Paris due to their alarm at the bond he had formed with Brigitte Auzière, a married teacher with three children at Jésuites de la Providence, who became his wife.
In Paris, he failed to gain entry to the École normale supérieure twice. He instead studied Philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense, obtaining a DEA degree. Around 1999 Macron worked as an editorial assistant to Paul Ricoeur, the French Protestant philosopher, writing his last major work, La Mémoire, l'Histoire, l'Oubli. Macron worked on the notes and bibliography. Macron became a member of the editorial board of the literary magazine Esprit. Macron did not perform national service. Born in December 1977, he belonged to the last year. Macron obtained a master's degree in public affairs at the Sciences Po, majoring in "Public Guidance and Economy" before training for a senior civil service career at the selective École nationale d'administration, training at an embassy in Nigeria and in an office in Oise before graduating in 2004. After graduating from ENA in 2004, Macron became an Inspector in the Inspection générale des finances, a branch of the Finance Ministry. Macron was mentored by Jean-Pierre Jouyet, the then-head of the IGF.
During his time as an Inspector of Finances, Macron gave lectures during the summer at the "prep'ENA" at IPESUP, an elite private school specializing in preparation for the entrance examinations of the Grandes écoles, such as HEC or Sciences Po. In 2006, Laurence Parisot offered him the job of managing director for Mouvement des Entreprises de France, the largest employer federation in France, but he declined. In August 2007, Macron was appointed deputy rapporteur for Jacques Attali's "Commission to Unleash French Growth". In 2008, Macron paid €50,000 to buy himself out of his government contract, he became an investment banker in a highly-paid position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. In March 2010, he was appointed to the Attali Commission as a member. In September 2008, Macron left his job as an Inspector of Finances and took a position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was inspired to leave the government due to the election of Nicolas Sarkozy to the presidency, he was offered the job by François Henrot.
His first responsibility at Rothschild & Cie Banque was assisting with the acquisition of Cofidis by Crédit Mutuel Nord Europe. Macron formed a relationship with a businessman on the supervisory board of Le Monde. In 2010, Macron
Bünde is a town in the Herford district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Bünde is situated between Hannover and Bielefeld; the town is crossed from west to east by the River Else, one of the few rivers in the world that does not originate from a spring, but as a result of bifurcation. It drains discharges via the Werre and Weser into the North Sea. Within the town area it is joined by numerous small streams from the north. One of the northern streams is the Gewinghauser Bach, which on its way to the Else crosses water meadows in the district of Ennigloh-Gewinghausen. Other tributaries coming from the north in downstream order are the Ahler Bruchbach, which starts in Rödinghausen, flows through the district of Ahler Bruch and enters the Else in the Melle area. From the south the Else is joined by the Werfener Bach; the town is divided into 12 districts: Bünde is twinned with:= Jakobstad / Pietarsaari, Finland - since 1968 Leisnig, Germany - since 1990 Bünde was first mentioned, as Buginithi, in 853.
It has one of the oldest church foundations of Westphalia, the'Laurentius Church'. During the Cold War, it was home to a British military base which closed in 1993; the two warriors shaking hands on the city's coat of arms are Hengist and Horsa, Saxon princes said to have led the Germanic conquest of southern Britain in the 5th century. Legend holds that it was here the brother warriors put aside their differences and swore to conquer the island together, a fact commemorated in the town's name. About 30 million-year-old fossils were found in the Doberg, including a skull of a toothed whale and a skeleton of a manatee. Both were found 1911-1912 by Friedrich Langewiesche; the fossils are presented in'Doberg Museum' in Bünde. The main industries are kitchen cigar manufacturers; the town is called the Cigar Box of Germany. Many tobacco products such as pipes, tobacco jars are produced here; the Westphalian tobacco industry is based here, as well as the tobacco museums. Among companies based in the town, the model maker Revell is known on the international stage.
The European arm has been based here since 1957. The town supports the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie for regular symphony concerts. 1851, Carl Vandyk, Court Photographer and founder of Vandyk and Rubens Hotels, London 1942, Gunter Gabriel and lyricist 1949: Ulrich Horstmann, literary scientist and writer 1983, Aylin Tezel and dancer 1984: David Odonkor, footballer 1996: Pascal Stenzel, footballer The following personalities do not come from Bünde, but have worked or work in the city. Hengest and Horsa, according to the legend, these two Saxon tribe leaders and brethren forged the alliance in England Karl Koch, pastor in Ennigloh Hans Werner Henze, spent some years of his childhood in the Bünder district of Dünne Fritz Pleitgen, visited the Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gymnasium here and worked during this time for the Freie Presse as a sports reporter. Catch, lived in Bünde for several years and attended school Maximilian Hecker, lived for many years in Bünde and did his Abitur at the Freiherr-vom-Stein-Gymnasium Andreas Hermann, lived in Bünde Official website Official site of Doberg Museum
The bonnets rouges movement began in October 2013 in Brittany. It was a protest movement targeting a new tax on truck transport; this tax was to be enforced in part by gantries set up on highways to detect vehicles carrying heavy loads and the presence of the required billing apparatuses. Through a combination of demonstrations and violent actions, including the destruction of many of these tax gantries, the movement forced the French government to rescind the tax; the protesters considered the tax harmful to Breton agriculture, having a difficult time competing with its counterparts in Europe. They wore red caps, in reference to the seventeenth century revolt of the papier timbré, active in Brittany, though the Phrygian cap as a protest symbol goes back much further. Hundreds of red-cap-wearing demonstrators protested against the highway tax gantry at Pont-de-Buis on 28 October 2013, during the course of the protest a demonstrator had his hand blown off when he picked up a grenade thrown by law enforcement.
Soon after, the French government announced that it would be temporarily suspending the new tax until 2015 at the earliest. This did not satisfy the demonstrators, who went on to destroy more than two dozen tax gantries and many smaller radar-camera-like outposts, by the first week of November; these would be destroyed by fire by filling tires stacked at their bases with flammable material and lighting them. Sometimes, less-destructive means were used, such as wrapping the radar cameras in plastic and topping them with bonnets rouges of their own. By late November, 46 tax radars and gantries had been destroyed and other anti-tax groups were beginning their own direct action, including farmers and equestrians who disrupted traffic in Paris with their tractors and horses. At the end of November, the movement massed in Carhaix and used shipping trucks to blockade highways throughout France. At one point the demonstrators held an auction at which they sold off bits and pieces of previously-destroyed road tax gantries as souvenirs.
In an amusing moment, a hundred employees of Ecomouv, the quasi-private company responsible for collecting the new tax, held a holiday party in Metz. Posing for a group photo in front of the company offices in their Santa Claus hats, police mistook them for a demonstration of the bonnets rouges, they intervened. By January, the number of highway tax and radar-ticket machines destroyed had topped 200; this had the desired effect. In 2013, for the first time since ticket-giving radar cameras had been installed in France, the number of tickets issued by the machines declined; the government made its first big counterattacks in the Spring. Eleven suspected bonnets rouges were charged with conspiracy in April; the following month, the government convicted Samantha Prime of participating in the destruction of a radar outpost. Destruction of highway tax gantries, continued; the eleven conspirators were convicted and sentenced to between four and 18 months imprisonment, along with a total of about €10,000 in fines.
The same day the sentences were declared, farmers in Brittany invaded the city of Morlaix, dumped their produce in big piles in the streets, set fire to the tax office, blockaded the area to keep fire trucks from responding. In September and October, three other French tax offices were put to the torch, French tax officials complained of feeling threatened; the French government decided, in late October, to abandon the hated tax entirely. The cost to the government was enormous. In addition to the loss of anticipated revenue from the tax and the property damage and other costs associated with the demonstrations, the government was required to pay compensation to Ecomouv, the quasi-private company that had contracted to administer the tax, others — nearly one billion euros in all
Édouard Charles Philippe is a French politician serving as Prime Minister of France since 15 May 2017 under President Emmanuel Macron. A lawyer by occupation, Philippe is a former member of the Union for a Popular Movement, which became The Republicans, he served as a member of the National Assembly representing the 7th constituency of Seine-Maritime from 2012 to 2017, as well as Mayor of Le Havre and President of the Agglomeration community of Le Havre from 2010 to 2017. In 2017 President Macron appointed him Prime Minister. Édouard Philippe, the son of French teachers, was born in Rouen in 1970 and grew up in a left-wing household. He has a sister, he comes from a family of dockworkers, a profession in which members of his family are still employed. He grew up in a suburban neighbourhood in Rouen, he was at first a pupil at the Michelet School in Rouen before moving to Grand-Quevilly where he attended Jean-Texier College and attending Lycée les Bruyères in Sotteville-lès-Rouen. He obtained his baccalauréat at the École de Gaulle-Adenauer in Bonn, after a year in hypokhâgne, he studied at Sciences Po for three years and graduated in 1992, studied at the École nationale d'administration from 1995 to 1997.
Philippe served as an artillery officer during his national service in 1994. He continued to serve in the operational reserve for several years afterwards. In his years at Sciences Po, he supported Michel Rocard and was influenced by him, identifying with the Rocardian and social democratic wings of the Socialist Party, his brief flirtation with the Socialists ended after Rocard was toppled from the leadership of the Socialist Party. After leaving the ÉNA in 1997, he went on to work at the Council of State, specializing in public procurement law. In 2001, Philippe joined Antoine Rufenacht as Deputy Mayor of Le Havre charged with legal affairs. Recognising the ideological proximity between Michel Rocard and Alain Juppé, Philippe supported the latter at the time of the creation of the Union for a Popular Movement in 2002, marking the end of his left-wing activism, he served under Juppé as director general of services of the UMP until 2004, when the mayor of Bordeaux was convicted as a result of the fictitious jobs case implicating the Rally for the Republic.
He took a job in the private sector, working with the American law firm Debevoise & Plimpton LLP, was elected to the regional council of Upper Normandy the same year. In the wake of Nicolas Sarkozy's victory in the 2007 presidential election, Philippe returned to political life working for Alain Juppé, when Juppé served as Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy, before being appointed Director of Public Affairs at Areva, where he worked from 2007 to 2010, he was substitute to Jean-Yves Besselat, who served as the member of the National Assembly for Seine-Maritime's 7th constituency from 2007 to 2012. In 2008, he was elected to the general council of Seine-Maritime in the canton of Le Havre-5, in 2010 was elected mayor of Le Havre after the resignation of Rufenacht, his mentor, became President of the Agglomeration community of Le Havre the same year. After Besselat's death in 2012 following a long illness, Philippe took his seat holding it in the subsequent legislative elections.
He was reelected as Mayor of Le Havre in the 2014 municipal elections in the first round, with an absolute majority of 52.04% of expressed votes. Following his resignation on 20 May 2017 as Le Havre Mayor, he retains a seat in the municipal council, he worked for the campaign of Alain Juppé in the primary of the right and centre in 2016, serving as a spokesperson alongside Benoist Apparu. Though Philippe and Apparu, as well as Christophe Béchu joined the campaign of François Fillon for the 2017 presidential election after his victory in the primary, the three parliamentarians – close to Juppé – quit on 2 March 2017 after the candidate was summoned to appear before judges amidst the Fillon affair, he said he would not seek to retain his seat in the legislative elections in June to avoid breaching the law limiting the accumulation of mandates. Following the victory of Emmanuel Macron in the presidential election, there was speculation that Philippe was a potential choice for Prime Minister, representing three essential aspects: political renewal, affiliation with the moderate right, familiarity with the political terrain.
On 15 May 2017, Philippe was appointed as Prime Minister by Emmanuel Macron after speculation he was a contender for the office alongside former Ecology Minister Jean-Louis Borloo, MoDem Leader François Bayrou and IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde. In the June 2017 legislative elections, Macron's party, renamed "La République En Marche!", together with its ally the Democratic Movement, secured a comfortable majority, winning 350 seats out of 577, with his party alone winning an outright majority of 308 seats. Philippe is a member of The Republicans though he campaigned for La République En Marche! due to the party supporting his role as Prime Minister. He formed the Second Philippe government on 21 May, 2017 following a series of resignations after scandal embroiled Ministers François Bayrou, Sylvie Goulard, Marielle de Sarnez and Richard Ferrand; this diminished Democratic Movement's representation in the government significantly. Philippe secured a vote of confidence and was allowed to govern with a majority government on 4 July 201