Collectible card game
A collectible card game called a trading card game or many other names, is a kind of strategy card game, created in 1993 and consists of specially designed sets of playing cards. These cards use proprietary artwork or images to embellish the card. CCGs may depict anything from fantasy or science fiction genres, horror themes, cartoons, or sports. Game text is on the card and is used to interact with the other cards in a strategic fashion. Games are played between two players, though multiplayer formats are common. Players may use dice, card sleeves, or play mats to complement their gameplay. CCGs can be played with or collected, both. A CCG is played using a starter deck; this deck may be modified by adding cards from booster packs, which contain around 8 to 15 random cards. As a player obtains more cards, they may create new decks from scratch; when enough players have been established, tournaments are formed to compete for prizes. Successful CCGs have thousands of unique cards extended through expansion sets that add new mechanics.
Magic: The Gathering, the first developed and most successful, has over 18,000 distinct cards. By the end of 1994, Magic: The Gathering had sold over 1 billion cards, between the time period of 2008 to 2016 sold over 20 billion. Other successful CCGs include Yu-Gi-Oh! which sold over 25 billion cards as of March 2011, Pokémon which has sold over 25 billion cards as of March 2018. Other notable CCGs have come and gone, including Legend of the Five Rings, Star Wars, Lord of the Rings, Vampire: The Eternal Struggle, World of Warcraft. Many other CCGs had little or no commercial success. Digital collectible card games have gained popularity, spurred by the success of Hearthstone. DCCGs do not use physical cards and instead use digital representations, with newer DCCGs foregoing card images altogether by using basic icons. A collectible card game is defined as a game where players acquire cards into a personal collection from which they create customized decks of cards and challenge other players in matches.
Players start by purchasing a starter deck, ready to play, but additional cards are obtained from randomized booster packs or by trading with other players. The goal of most CCGs is to beat your opponent by crafting customized decks that play to synergies of card combinations. Refined decks will try to account for randomness as well as opponent's actions, by using the most complementary and efficient cards possible; the exact definition of what makes a CCG is varied, as many games are marketed under the "collectible card game" moniker. The basic definition requires the game to resemble trading cards in shape and function, be mass-produced for trading and/or collectibility, have rules for strategic gameplay; the definition of CCGs is further refined as being a card game in which the player uses his own deck with cards sold in random assortments. If every card in the game can be obtained by making a small number of purchases, or if the manufacturer does not market it as a CCG it is not a CCG. CCGs can further be designated as dead games.
Dead games are those CCGs which are no longer supported by their manufacturers and have ceased releasing expansions. Living games are those CCGs; this means that new expansions are being created for the game and official game tournaments are occurring in some fashion. Card games that should not be mistaken for CCGs: Deck-Building Games - Construction of the deck is the main focus of gameplay. Collectible Common-Deck Card Games are card games where players share a common deck rather than their own personal deck. No customization of decks nor trading occurs, no metagame is developed. There is little to no interest in collecting the cards. Non-Collectible Customizable Card Games are those games where each player has their own deck, but no randomness occurs when acquiring the cards. Many of these games are sold as complete sets. A few were intended to have booster packs; this category may be referred to as an ECG, or Expandable Card Game. This category includes LCGs. Living Card Games - LCGs are a type of non-collectible customizable card game, a registered trademark of Fantasy Flight Games.
They don't use the randomized booster packs like CCGs and instead are bought in a single purchase. LCGs are known for costing much less; each CCG system has a fundamental set of rules that describes the players' objectives, the categories of cards used in the game, the basic rules by which the cards interact. Each card will have additional text explaining that specific card's effect on the game, they generally represent some specific element derived from the game's genre, setting, or source material. The cards are illustrated and named for these source elements, the card's game function may relate to the subject. For example, Magic: The Gathering is based on the fantasy genre, so many of the cards represent creatures and magical spells from that setting. In the game, a dragon is illustrated as a reptilian beast and has the flying ability and higher combat stats than smaller creatures; the bulk of CCGs are designed around a resource system. The cards which constitute a player's deck are considered a resource, with the frequency of cards moving from the deck to the play area or player's hand being controlled.
Relative card strength is balanced by the number or type of resources needed in order to play the card, pacing after that may be determined by the flow of car
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
Internationale Spieltage SPIEL called the Essen Game Fair after the city where it is held, is an annual four-day boardgame trade fair, open to the public held in October at the Messe Essen exhibition centre in Essen. With 1,021 exhibitors from 50 nations SPIEL is the worldwide biggest fair for board games. Many new games are released at the fair each year European-style board games. At SPIEL board games are offered which are hard to find in retail because a lot of international and small exhibitors present their products. While the prices for buying the games at the fair do not tend to be lower than those in retail, the games are available sooner than in regular board game shops, come with promotional materials and it is an occasion where passionate board gamers can meet and chat with game designers and famous game reviewers; the fair began in 1983. Going Cardboard Official web-site Essen FAQ at BoardGameGeek Stewart Pilling at the Lizard Lounge - What is it all about
Dungeons & Dragons
Dungeons & Dragons is a fantasy tabletop role-playing game designed by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson. It was first published in 1974 by Tactical Studies Rules, Inc.. The game has been published by Wizards of the Coast since 1997, it was derived from miniature wargames, with a variation of the 1971 game Chainmail serving as the initial rule system. D&D's publication is recognized as the beginning of modern role-playing games and the role-playing game industry. D&D departs from traditional wargaming by allowing each player to create their own character to play instead of a military formation; these characters embark upon imaginary adventures within a fantasy setting. A Dungeon Master serves as the game's referee and storyteller, while maintaining the setting in which the adventures occur, playing the role of the inhabitants of the game world; the characters form a party and they interact with the setting's inhabitants and each other. Together they solve dilemmas, engage in battles, gather treasure and knowledge.
In the process, the characters earn experience points in order to rise in levels, become powerful over a series of separate gaming sessions. The early success of D&D led to a proliferation of similar game systems. Despite the competition, D&D has remained as the market leader in the role-playing game industry. In 1977, the game was split into two branches: the rules-light game system of basic Dungeons & Dragons, the more structured, rules-heavy game system of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons. AD&D 2nd Edition was published in 1989. In 2000, a new system was released as D&D 3rd edition, continuing the edition numbering from AD&D; these 3rd edition rules formed the basis of the d20 System, available under the Open Game License for use by other publishers. D&D 4th edition was released in June 2008; the 5th edition of D&D, the most recent, was released during the second half of 2014. As of 2004, D&D remained the best-known, best-selling, role-playing game, with an estimated 20 million people having played the game, more than US$1 billion in book and equipment sales.
The game has been supplemented by many pre-made adventures, as well as commercial campaign settings suitable for use by regular gaming groups. D&D is known beyond the game itself for other D&D-branded products, references in popular culture, some of the controversies that have surrounded it a moral panic in the 1980s falsely linking it to Satanism and suicide; the game has been translated into many languages. Dungeons & Dragons is a open-ended role-playing game, it is played indoors with the participants seated around a tabletop. Each player controls only a single character, which represents an individual in a fictional setting; when working together as a group, these player characters are described as a "party" of adventurers, with each member having their own area of specialty which contributes to the success of the whole. During the course of play, each player directs the actions of their character and their interactions with other characters in the game; this activity is performed through the verbal impersonation of the characters by the players, while employing a variety of social and other useful cognitive skills, such as logic, basic mathematics and imagination.
A game continues over a series of meetings to complete a single adventure, longer into a series of related gaming adventures, called a "campaign". The results of the party's choices and the overall storyline for the game are determined by the Dungeon Master according to the rules of the game and the DM's interpretation of those rules; the DM selects and describes the various non-player characters that the party encounters, the settings in which these interactions occur, the outcomes of those encounters based on the players' choices and actions. Encounters take the form of battles with "monsters" – a generic term used in D&D to describe hostile beings such as animals, aberrant beings, or mythical creatures; the game's extensive rules – which cover diverse subjects such as social interactions, magic use and the effect of the environment on PCs – help the DM to make these decisions. The DM may choose to deviate from the published rules or make up new ones if they feel it is necessary; the most recent versions of the game's rules are detailed in three core rulebooks: The Player's Handbook, the Dungeon Master's Guide and the Monster Manual.
The only items required to play the game are the rulebooks, a character sheet for each player, a number of polyhedral dice. Many players use miniature figures on a grid map as a visual aid during combat; some editions of the game presume such usage. Many optional accessories are available to enhance the game, such as expansion rulebooks, pre-designed adventures and various campaign settings. Before the game begins, each player creates their player character and records the details on a character sheet. First, a player determines their character's ability scores, which consist of Strength, Dexterity, Intelligence and Charisma; each edition of the game has offered differing methods of determining these statistics. The player chooses a race such as human or elf, a character class such as fighter or wizard, an alignment, other features to round out the character's abilities and backstory, which have varied in nature through differing editions. During the game, players describe their PC's intended actions, such as punching an opponent or pi
James A. Garfield
James Abram Garfield was the 20th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his death by assassination six and a half months later. He was the first sitting member of Congress to be elected to the presidency, remains the only sitting House member to gain the White House. Garfield entered politics as a Republican in 1857, he served as a member of the Ohio State Senate from 1859 to 1861. Garfield opposed Confederate secession, served as a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, fought in the battles of Middle Creek and Chickamauga, he was first elected to Congress in 1862 to represent Ohio's 19th District. Throughout Garfield's extended congressional service after the Civil War, he supported the gold standard and gained a reputation as a skilled orator. Garfield agreed with Radical Republican views regarding Reconstruction, but favored a moderate approach for civil rights enforcement for freedmen. At the 1880 Republican National Convention, Senator-elect Garfield attended as campaign manager for Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman, gave the presidential nomination speech for him.
When neither Sherman nor his rivals – Ulysses S. Grant and James G. Blaine – could get enough votes to secure the nomination, delegates chose Garfield as a compromise on the 36th ballot. In the 1880 presidential election, Garfield conducted a low-key front porch campaign and narrowly defeated Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock. Garfield's accomplishments as president included a resurgence of presidential authority against senatorial courtesy in executive appointments, purging corruption in the Post Office, appointing a U. S. Supreme Court justice, he enhanced the powers of the presidency when he defied the powerful New York senator Roscoe Conkling by appointing William H. Robertson to the lucrative post of Collector of the Port of New York, starting a fracas that ended with Robertson's confirmation and Conkling's resignation from the Senate. Garfield advocated agricultural technology, an educated electorate, civil rights for African Americans, he proposed substantial civil service reforms. On July 2, 1881, Garfield was shot at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington D.
C. by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker; the wound was not fatal for Garfield, but he succumbed on September 19, 1881. Guiteau was executed for the murder of Garfield in June 1882. Historians forgo listing Garfield in rankings of U. S. presidents due to the short duration of his presidency. James Garfield was born the youngest of five children on November 19, 1831, in a log cabin in Orange Township, now Moreland Hills, Ohio. Orange Township had been in the Western Reserve until 1800, like many who settled there, Garfield's ancestors were from New England, his ancestor, Edward Garfield immigrating from Hillmorton, England, to Massachusetts in around 1630. James' father Abram had been born in Worcester, New York, came to Ohio to woo his childhood sweetheart, Mehitabel Ballou, only to find her married, he instead wed her sister Eliza, born in New Hampshire. James was named for an older brother. In early 1833, Abram and Eliza Garfield joined the Church of Christ, a decision that would help shape their youngest son's life.
Abram Garfield died that year. James was her favorite child, the two remained close for the rest of his life. Eliza Garfield remarried in 1842, but soon left her second husband, Warren Belden, a then-scandalous divorce was awarded against her in 1850. James took his mother's side and when Belden died in 1880, noted the fact in his diary with satisfaction. Garfield enjoyed his mother's stories about his ancestry his Welsh great-great-grandfathers and his ancestor who served as a knight of Caerffili Castle. Poor and fatherless, Garfield was mocked by his fellow boys, throughout his life was sensitive to slights, he escaped through reading. He left home at age 16 in 1847. Rejected by the only ship in port in Cleveland, Garfield instead found work on a canal boat, responsible for managing the mules that pulled it; this labor would be used to good effect by Horatio Alger, who penned Garfield's campaign biography in 1880. After six weeks, illness forced Garfield to return home and, during his recuperation, his mother and a local education official got him to promise to postpone his return to the canals for a year and go to school.
Accordingly, in 1848, he began in nearby Chester Township. Garfield said of his childhood, "I lament that I was born to poverty, in this chaos of childhood, seventeen years passed before I caught any inspiration... a precious 17 years when a boy with a father and some wealth might have become fixed in manly ways." At Geauga Academy, which he attended from 1848 to 1850, Garfield learned academic subjects he had not had time for. He shone as a student, was interested in languages and elocution, he began to appreciate the power a speaker had over an audience, writing that the speaker's platform "creates some excitement. I love agitation and investigation and glory in defending unpopular truth against popular error." Geauga was co-educational, Garfield was attracted to one of his fellow students, Lucretia Rudolph, whom he married. To support himself at Geauga, he worked as a teacher; the need to go from town to town to find a place as a teacher disguste
Artifact (video game)
Artifact is a digital collectible card game developed and published by Valve Corporation. The game focuses on online player versus player battles across three boards, called lanes, is based upon the universe of Dota 2, a multiplayer online battle arena game from Valve. Artifact was designed by Magic: The Gathering creator Richard Garfield, allows for the buying and selling of cards on the Steam Marketplace; the game was released for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux in November 2018, is planned for Android and iOS devices in 2019. While Artifact's gameplay and drafting mechanics received praise, it was criticized for its high learning curve and monetization model, which some likened to being pay-to-win, saw a 95% decline in player count numbers within two months of its release; as a digital collectible card game, the gameplay of Artifact is to build a deck of collectable cards, obtained via purchasing either individual cards or packs of them on the Steam Marketplace, in order to defeat an opponent in a one-on-one situation.
Artifact is based upon and features many elements from the multiplayer online battle arena game Dota 2, which Valve developed. As such, the game differs from most other traditional collectible card games, as it features three "lanes" guarded by a tower at the end, with each lane existing as its own independent board; the victor is the first person to either destroy a structure called the "Ancient", which appears after a tower has been destroyed, or the first to destroy two towers in total. Each deck contains at least 40 cards, with nearly 300 cards in total being available at the game's launch. Cards are grouped into three rarity tiers, common and rare, are further grouped into four color themes, green and blue, that each have their own unique effects on the board; each lane has its own independent mana pool, used for casting hero abilities and grows by one point after each round while fully replenishing. In addition to hero abilities, item cards can be placed and used in any lane; each time a card is played, the initiative passes to the opposing player.
After all cards have been played in a lane, heroes and "creeps", which are weak, but numerous mobs that can not be directly controlled and respawn every round, begin attacking whatever is opposite them, including the opposing tower if there are no units left. This repeats until all three lanes have been played, after which it goes to the "Shopping Phase", where gold accumulated during battles is spent on buying items and upgrading hero equipment in three different slots for weapons and accessories; as with Dota 2, the game focuses on online player versus player matchmaking and does not have a single-player component, although a tutorial against an AI-controlled bot is used for teaching new players how to play. Development of Artifact began in late 2014, with lead designer Richard Garfield being brought in to help make a digital card game due to his experience with creating the popular Magic: The Gathering franchise; the game was announced via a teaser trailer played at The International 2017, a large Dota 2-specific esports tournament organized by Valve Corporation, although no specific details were revealed.
More details regarding its concept and gameplay were revealed by Valve co-founder Gabe Newell during a meeting with gaming press at Valve's headquarters in March 2018. There, Newell stated that it was not intended to be based on Dota 2, but it was decided to do so in development as it was "useful". Newell stated that it would not be free-to-play like Dota 2 and other similar card game competitors stating that he and the team wished for it to avoid becoming "pay-to-win", he further stated that he hoped Artifact would be for card games what Half-Life 2 was for single-player action games. Artifact was created using Valve's in-house Source 2 game engine, features direct integration with the Steam Marketplace for buying and selling cards. While acknowledging that card games and Steam Marketplace transactions can both get expensive, such as with gun cosmetics in Valve's own Counter-Strike: Global Offensive, Garfield notes that printing restrictions do not exist with digital cards, that Valve would directly control the production of them to limit extreme rarity.
In addition, purchased card packs always include a rare card in them, which Valve hopes that would control the price of single cards being sold for high prices as it would be more valuable to purchase multiple card packs. Artifact allows for decks to be assembled outside of the game by using third-party tools, which can be imported back into the game. Wanting to build upon what they have learned from Dota 2, Global Offensive, Team Fortress 2, Valve plan for the game to have a professional esports scene, with revenue made from card pack purchasing feeding into tournament prize pools, similar to Dota 2's "Compendium" crowdfunding system. To start, Valve plans for a million dollar tournament to take place sometime in early 2019. Artifact is developed alongside updates for Dota 2, where it is planned to introduce new heroes and other content for both games. Writer Steve Jaros wrote character lore for Dota 2 and continued that role with Artifact by having each individual card provide more of it, all voiced, which he hopes would keep both games narratively connected.
Programmer Jeep Barnett said they plan to have card set expansions progress over time, so that heroes in one set may have an aged version in a future set, or may die in one, events of previous expansions can influence future ones. Its soundtrack was written by Tim Larkin, who composed for Dota 2. Artifact entered closed beta in early 2018, with numerous gaming industry members and professional card game players invited to test it, it was p
Herbert Saul Wilf was a mathematician, specializing in combinatorics and graph theory. He was the Thomas A. Scott Professor of Mathematics in Combinatorial Analysis and Computing at the University of Pennsylvania, he wrote numerous books and research papers. Together with Neil Calkin he founded The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics in 1994 and was its editor-in-chief until 2001. Wilf was the author of numerous papers and books, was adviser and mentor to many students and colleagues, his collaborators include Donald Knuth. One of Wilf's former students is Richard Garfield, the creator of the collectible card game Magic: The Gathering, he served as a thesis advisor for E. Roy Weintraub in the late 1960s. Wilf died of a progressive neuromuscular disease in 2012. In 1998, Wilf and Zeilberger received the Leroy P. Steele Prize for Seminal Contribution to Research for their joint paper, "Rational functions certify combinatorial identities"; the prize citation reads: "New mathematical ideas can have an impact on experts in a field, on people outside the field, on how the field develops after the idea has been introduced.
The remarkably simple idea of the work of Wilf and Zeilberger has changed a part of mathematics for the experts, for the high-level users outside the area, the area itself." Their work has been translated into computer packages. In 2002, Wilf was awarded the Euler Medal by the Institute of its Applications. "Perron-Frobenius theory and the zeroes of polynomials". Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 12: 247–250. 1961. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9939-1961-0120352-5. MR 0120352. "The argument of an entire function". Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 67: 488–489. 1961. Doi:10.1090/s0002-9904-1961-10649-6. MR 0131549. "The Possibility of Tschebycheff Quadrature on Infinite Intervals". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 47: 209–213. February 1961. Doi:10.1073/pnas.47.2.209. PMC 221658. PMID 16590820. 1968: "An inequality for the chromatic number of a graph", Journal of Combinatorial Theory 1971: Mathematical Aspects of Electrical Networks Analysis, SIAM-AMS Proceedings, Volume 3,American Mathematical Society MR0329788 1998: "The Number of Independent Sets in a Grid Graph", SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics A=B Algorithms and Complexity generatingfunctionology.
Mathematics for the Physical Sciences Combinatorial Algorithms, with Albert Nijenhuis East Side, West Side Lectures on Integer Partitions Lecture Notes on Numerical Analysis Line graph Calkin–Wilf tree Szekeres–Wilf number Wilf–Zeilberger pair Herbert Wilf's homepage Wilf's obituary at the University of Pennsylvania O'Connor, John J.. Herbert Wilf at the Mathematics Genealogy Project The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics