click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Richard Hakluyt

Richard Hakluyt was an English writer. He is known for promoting the English colonization of North America through his works, notably Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America and The Principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoueries of the English Nation. Hakluyt was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. Between 1583 and 1588 he was chaplain and secretary to Sir Edward Stafford, English ambassador at the French court. An ordained priest, Hakluyt held important positions at Bristol Cathedral and Westminster Abbey and was personal chaplain to Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, principal Secretary of State to Elizabeth I and James I, he was the chief promoter of a petition to James I for letters patent to colonize Virginia, which were granted to the London Company and Plymouth Company in 1606. The Hakluyt Society, which publishes scholarly editions of primary records of voyages and travels, was named after him in its 1846 formation. Hakluyt's patrilineal ancestors were of Welsh extraction, rather than Dutch as is suggested.

Some of Hakluyt's ancestors established themselves at Yatton in Herefordshire, must have ranked amongst the principal landowners of the county. A person named Hugo Hakelute, who may have been an ancestor or relative of Richard Hakluyt, was elected Member of Parliament for the borough of Yatton in 1304 or 1305, between the 14th and 16th centuries five individuals surnamed "de Hackluit" or "Hackluit" were sheriffs of Herefordshire. A man named Walter Hakelut was knighted in the 34th year of Edward I and killed at the Battle of Bannockburn, in 1349 Thomas Hakeluyt was chancellor of the diocese of Hereford. Records show that a Thomas Hakeluytt was in the wardship of Henry VIII and Edward VI. Richard Hakluyt, the second of four sons, was born in Eyton in Herefordshire in 1553. Hakluyt's father named Richard Hakluyt, was a member of the Worshipful Company of Skinners whose members dealt in skins and furs, he died in 1557 when his son was aged about five years, his wife Margery followed soon after.

Hakluyt's cousin named Richard Hakluyt, of the Middle Temple, became his guardian. While a Queen's Scholar at Westminster School, Hakluyt visited his guardian, whose conversation, illustrated by "certain bookes of cosmographie, an universall mappe, the Bible", made Hakluyt resolve to "prosecute that knowledge, kind of literature". Entering Christ Church, Oxford, in 1570 with financial support from the Skinners' Company, "his exercises of duty first performed", he set out to read all the printed or written voyages and discoveries that he could find, he took his Bachelor of Arts on 19 February 1574, shortly after taking his Master of Arts on 27 June 1577, began giving public lectures in geography. He was the first to show "both the old imperfectly composed and the new reformed mappes, globes and other instruments of this art". Hakluyt held on to his studentship at Christ Church between 1577 and 1586, although after 1583 he was no longer resident in Oxford. Hakluyt was ordained in 1578, the same year he began to receive a "pension" from the Worshipful Company of Clothworkers to study divinity.

The pension would have lapsed in 1583, but William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, intervened to have it extended until 1586 to aid Hakluyt's geographical research. Hakluyt's first publication was one that he wrote himself, Divers Voyages Touching the Discoverie of America and the Ilands Adjacent unto the Same, Made First of all by our Englishmen and Afterwards by the Frenchmen and Britons. Hakluyt's Voyages brought him to the notice of Lord Howard of Effingham, Sir Edward Stafford, Lord Howard's brother-in-law. At the age of 30, being acquainted with "the chiefest captaines at sea, the greatest merchants, the best mariners of our nation", he was selected as chaplain and secretary to accompany Stafford, now English ambassador at the French court, to Paris in 1583. In accordance with the instructions of Secretary Francis Walsingham, he occupied himself chiefly in collecting information of the Spanish and French movements, "making diligent inquirie of such things as might yield any light unto our westerne discoveries in America".

Although this was his only visit to Continental Europe in his life, he was angered to hear the limitations of the English in terms of travel being discussed in Paris. The first fruits of Hakluyt's labours in Paris were embodied in his important work entitled A Particuler Discourse Concerninge the Greate Necessitie and Manifolde Commodyties That Are Like to Growe to This Realme of Englande by the Westerne Discoueries Lately Attempted, Written in the Yere 1584, which Sir Walter Raleigh commissioned him to prepare; the manuscript, lost for 300 years, was published for the first time in 1877. Hakluyt revisited England in 1584, laid a copy of the Discourse before Elizabeth I together with his analysis in Latin of Aristotle's Politicks, his objective was to recommend the enterprise of planting the English race in the unsettled parts of North America, thus gain the Queen's support for Raleigh's expedition. In May 1585 when Hakluyt was in Paris with the English Embassy, the Queen granted to him the next prebendary at Bristol Cathedral that should become vacant, to which he was admitted in 1585 or 1586 and held with other preferments till his death.

Hakluyt's other works during his time in Paris consisted of translations and compilations, with his own dedications and

Gustave Tassell

Gustave Tassell was an American fashion designer and Coty Award winner who became a fashion star in the early 1960s with starkly refined clothes that appealed to women like Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Greer Garson and Princess Grace of Monaco. Tassell designed clothes that Jackie Kennedy wore as first lady on a publicized goodwill tour of India in 1962; that year the fashion press hailed him as one of America's hottest new designers. Tassell was born on February 1926, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Lena and Samuel Tassell, his father was a businessman. Encouraged by his mother, he and studied painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. After serving in the Army, Tassell was studying painting in New York City in the late 1940s when he took a job in the advertising and display department for Hattie Carnegie, a pioneer in the fashion design world, well known for both custom-made and high-end ready-to-wear clothes. Inspired by Carnegie designer Norman Norell, he shifted into designing and in 1952 moved to Paris, where he made sketches for various couturiers, including Jacques Fath.

During this period he met James Galanos. In 1956 Tassell set up shop in Los Angeles and soon became "one of the stalwarts of the apparel industry," said Ilse Metchek, president of the California Fashion Assn. By 1958 Tassell was hosting his first show in a cramped workroom on Sunset Boulevard and within a few days had more than $20,000 in orders. A 1959 review commended his style as "akin to Paris' Balenciaga." "He was inspired by both Balenciaga and Norell," said Dilys Blum, senior curator for costumes and textiles at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, whichshowed Tassell’s work along with that of Galanos and another Philadelphia native, Ralph Rucci, in the show "A Passion for Perfection" in 2007. "He continued the Norell legacy." In 1962, the year after he won the Coty Award, Jacqueline Kennedy was photographed in India wearing a shimmering yellow silk Tassell dress while riding an elephant. The dress was among the Tassell designs showcased in a 2001 exhibit at New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art called "Jacqueline Kennedy: The White House Years."

In 1972 he moved to New York to run Norell's fashion house. He returned to designing under his own label in 1976 after the business ran into financial difficulties and closed, his clientele desired what he called "a subtle form of chic" — coats and evening wear in fine silks and gabardines and subdued colors, with simple lines that skimmed the body and price tags that sometimes exceeded those for a car. The most embellishment he allowed was a sprinkling of diamonds, he did not chase trends, a quality that appealed to the women of means who filled his showroom in the'60s and'70s. Betsy Bloomingdale, wife of department store heir Alfred Bloomingdale, once bragged about a cotton dress by Tassell she had owned for 12 years "and I still wheel it out every summer and get compliments on it every time. Last summer I wore it barefoot for dinner," she told the New York Times in 1969. Tassell's design sensibility changed little from the 20th to the 21st century—he sought to create forward-looking fashion appropriate for elegant, confident women.

He envisioned designs in natural fibers able to serve many purposes, with changing silhouette according to how the garment was buttoned, seamed, or tucked. Tassell aimed to produce affordable clothing with a sense of proportion and design. Once described as a "brunet Harpo Marx" because of his curly hair, Tassell earned a bit part as a cabaret patron in director Woody Allen's 1980 movie "Stardust Memories." Allen spotted him at the popular New York hangout Elaine's "and liked his face," said his sister, Rebecca Welles Weis. According to Tassell's sister, actress Rebecca Welles, Tassell succumbed to complications from Alzheimer's disease in Los Angeles on June 9, 2014. Modern Fashion Encyclopedia. Gustave Tassell at FMD

The News (Adelaide)

The News was an afternoon daily tabloid newspaper in the city of Adelaide, South Australia that had its origins in 1869, ceased circulation in 1992. Through much of the 20th century, The Advertiser was Adelaide's morning broadsheet, The News the afternoon tabloid, with The Sunday Mail covering weekend sport, Messenger Newspapers community news, its former names were The Evening Journal and The Journal, with the Saturday edition called The Saturday Journal until 1929. The News began with Vol. I No. I issued on 2 January 1869. From 11 September 1912 it was renamed The Journal. News Limited was established in 1923 by James Edward Davidson, when he purchased the Broken Hill Barrier Miner and the Port Pirie Recorder, he went on to purchase The Journal and Adelaide's weekly sports-focussed Mail in May 1923. On 24 July 1923, The Journal was renamed The News, with the Saturday edition being retained as The Saturday Journal. In 1923, the new newspaper had a circulation of 30,000, by 1953 it had a daily readership of 106,000.

In early 1948 the regular format was changed from broadsheet to tabloid. In 1933, a controlling stake was taken by The Advertiser, managed by The Herald and Weekly Times. HWT sold off its stake in 1949, allowing Sir Keith Murdoch to acquire a major interest in the company and to assume control of the paper in 1951; the News became the main asset passed upon his death in 1952 to his son Rupert Murdoch. It was the latter's first media interest and commenced the foundation of what was to become the international media conglomerate, News Corporation. On 6 February 1954, The Mail was renamed SA Sunday Mail and Sunday Mail in 1955. On 28 August 1976, the final Saturday issue of The News was published. Murdoch acquired the city's other local newspaper, the morning daily broadsheet, The Advertiser, in 1987. Murdoch sold The News that year to Northern Star Holdings, many of its journalists moved to The Advertiser. However, in the face of continuing losses brought about by the competition of television and the decline of use of public transport, given the more prominent existence of The Advertiser, The News was stopped on 27 March 1992.

List of newspapers in Australia History of The News newspaper from State Library of South Australia The News at Trove

Chen Min'er

Chen Min'er is a Chinese politician serving as the Communist Party Secretary of Chongqing, an interior region governed as a municipality. Chen spent most of his career in his native Zhejiang province, serving as head of the provincial department of propaganda, Vice Governor of Zhejiang. In 2013, he was transferred to Guizhou as governor, in 2015 promoted to provincial Communist Party Secretary. Chen was catapulted to prominence in 2017 in the aftermath of the ouster of Chongqing party chief Sun Zhengcai, a move that made him well-positioned for further elevation. Chen was born in September 1960 in Zhejiang. From 1978 to 1981 Chen Min'er studied Chinese at Shaoxing Teacher's College in Zhejiang. After college he worked in the Shaoxing government, rising through the ranks to become the county governor of Shaoxing County in 1991, Communist Party Secretary in 1994. In 1997 Chen was transferred to the neighbouring city of Ningbo to become its Vice Mayor. In 1999 he was promoted to deputy party secretary Ningbo.

In December 1999 Chen was appointed the chief editor of Zhejiang Daily, the official government newspaper of Zhejiang province, in 2001 he became the Propaganda Chief of the Zhejiang Communist Party organization. In June 2002, Chen 42, earned a seat on the provincial Party Standing Committee. From May 2007 to January 2012 he was a Vice Governor of Zhejiang. During this period he worked under Zhejiang party secretary Xi Jinping. In January 2012, Chen was transferred to the southwestern interior province of Guizhou to become its Deputy Party Secretary, in December he was appointed Acting Governor of Guizhou, succeeding Zhao Kezhi, promoted to Communist Party Secretary. In January 2013 he was confirmed as governor by the Guizhou Provincial Congress. In July 2015, Chen was promoted to Party Secretary of Guizhou, becoming only the third provincial party-level chief born after the year 1960. Due to the Communist Party's rigid age-based promotion system, it led to speculation that Chen may be destined for higher office.

After taking charge as party secretary, Chen enthusiastically advanced the policies of General secretary Xi Jinping, such as the "Three Stricts and Three Honests" education campaign. Chen led an initiative to set up formal discussions over alleged wrongdoing by officials in the province taking charge of the most serious cases. In an interview with the media organs of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, Chen repeated the slogan "power must be restricted in the cage of institutions, power should be exercised in sunshine,". Chen set up over 1,400 working committees in neighbourhoods and rural areas in the province to oversee complaints over routine government services. In Guizhou, Chen instituted a program of poverty reduction and invested in making Guizhou a center of innovation for big data. In July 2017, Chen was appointed as the Communist Party Secretary of Chongqing municipality, replacing Sun Zhengcai; as Chen assumed leadership over one of the four direct-controlled municipalities, the move assured him a seat in the Politburo at the 19th Party Congress.

Chen was an alternate member of the 17th Central Committee and a full member of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Chen has been portrayed by overseas media as an associate of Xi Jinping, has been named as part of the "New Zhijiang Army"

Statistical syllogism

A statistical syllogism is a non-deductive syllogism. It argues, using inductive reasoning, from a generalization true for the most part to a particular case. Statistical syllogisms may use qualifying words like "most", "frequently", "almost never", "rarely", etc. or may have a statistical generalization as one or both of their premises. For example: Almost all people are taller than 26 inches Gareth is a person Therefore, Gareth is taller than 26 inchesPremise 1 is a generalization, the argument attempts to draw a conclusion from that generalization. In contrast to a deductive syllogism, the premises logically support or confirm the conclusion rather than implying it: it is possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false, but it is not likely. General form: X proportion of F are G I is an F I is a GIn the abstract form above, F is called the "reference class" and G is the "attribute class" and I is the individual object. So, in the earlier example, " taller than 26 inches" is the attribute class and "people" is the reference class.

Unlike many other forms of syllogism, a statistical syllogism is inductive, so when evaluating this kind of argument it is important to consider how strong or weak it is, along with the other rules of induction. In the above example, if 99% of people are taller than 26 inches the probability of the conclusion being true is 99%. Two dicto simpliciter fallacies can occur in statistical syllogisms, they are "accident" and "converse accident". Faulty generalization fallacies can affect any argument premise that uses a generalization. A problem with applying the statistical syllogism in real cases is the reference class problem: given that a particular case I is a member of many reference classes F, in which the proportion of attribute G may differ how should one decide which class to use in applying the statistical syllogism? The importance of the statistical syllogism was urged by Henry E. Kyburg, Jr. who argued that all statements of probability could be traced to a direct inference. For example, when taking off in an airplane, our confidence that we will land safely is based on our knowledge that the vast majority of flights do land safely.

The widespread use of confidence intervals in statistics is justified using a statistical syllogism, in such words as "Were this procedure to be repeated on multiple samples, the calculated confidence interval would encompass the true population parameter 90% of the time." The inference from what would happen in multiple samples to the confidence we should have in the particular sample involves a statistical syllogism. One person who argues that statistical syllogism is more of a probability is Donald Williams. Ancient writers on logic and rhetoric approved arguments from "what happens for the most part". For example, Aristotle writes "that which people know to happen or not to happen, or to be or not to be in a particular way, is for example, that the envious are malevolent or that those who are loved are affectionate."The ancient Jewish law of the Talmud used a "follow the majority" rule to resolve cases of doubt. From the invention of insurance in the 14th century, insurance rates were based on estimates of the frequencies of the events insured against, which involves an implicit use of a statistical syllogism.

John Venn pointed out in 1876 that this leads to a reference class problem of deciding in what class containing the individual case to take frequencies in. He writes, “It is obvious that every single thing or event has an indefinite number of properties or attributes observable in it, might therefore be considered as belonging to an indefinite number of different classes of things”, leading to problems with how to assign probabilities to a single case, for example the probability that John Smith, a consumptive Englishman aged fifty, will live to sixty-one. In the 20th century, clinical trials were designed to find the proportion of cases of disease cured by a drug, in order that the drug can be applied confidently to an individual patient with the disease; the statistical syllogism was used by Donald Cary Williams and David Stove in their attempt to give a logical solution to the problem of induction. They put forward the argument, which has the form of a statistical syllogism: The great majority of large samples of a population match the population This is a large sample from a population Therefore, this sample matches the populationIf the population is, say, a large number of balls which are black or white but in an unknown proportion, one takes a large sample and finds they are all white it is using this statistical syllogism, that the population is all or nearly all white.

That is an example of inductive reasoning. Statistical syllogisms may be used as legal evidence but it is believed that a legal decision should not be based on them. For example, in L. Jonathan Cohen's "gatecrasher paradox", 499 tickets to a rodeo have been sold and 1000 people are observed in the stands; the rodeo operator sues a random attendee for non-payment of the entrance fee. The statistical syllogism: 501 of the 1000 attendees have not paid The defendant is an attendee Therefore, on the balance of probabilities the defendant has not paidis a strong one, but it is felt to be unjust to burden a defendant with membership of a class, without evidence that bears directly on the defendant. Reference class problem Fuzzy logic Statistical inference "Four Varieties of Inductive Argument". Department of Philosophy, University of North Carolina at Greensboro. 2006-12-12. Archived from the original on 20

List of Vogue Taiwan cover models

This list of Vogue Taiwan cover models is a catalog of cover models who have appeared on the cover of Vogue Taiwan, the Taiwanese edition of Vogue magazine, starting with the magazine's first issue in October 1996. List of Vogue cover models List of Vogue cover models List of Vogue Arabia cover models List of Vogue Australia cover models List of Vogue Brasil cover models List of British Vogue cover models List of Vogue China cover models List of Vogue Czechoslovakia cover models List of Vogue España cover models List of Vogue Germany cover models List of Vogue Hong Kong cover models List of Vogue India cover models List of Vogue Italia cover models List of Vogue Japan cover models List of Vogue Korea cover models List of Vogue Mexico cover models List of Vogue Netherlands cover models List of Vogue Paris cover models List of Vogue Polska cover models List of Vogue Portugal cover models List of Vogue Russia cover models List of Vogue Thailand cover models List of Vogue Türkiye cover models List of Vogue Ukraine cover models