CBGB was a New York City music club opened in 1973 by Hilly Kristal in Manhattan's East Village. The club was a biker bar and before, a dive bar; the letters CBGB were for Country, BlueGrass, Blues, Kristal's original vision, yet CBGB soon became a famed venue of punk rock and new wave bands like the Ramones, Patti Smith Group and Talking Heads. From the early 1980s onward, CBGB was known for hardcore punk. One storefront beside CBGB became the "CBGB Record Canteen", a record shop and café. In the late 1980s, "CBGB Record Canteen" was converted into an art gallery and second performance space, "CB's 313 Gallery". CB's Gallery was played by music artists of milder sounds, such as acoustic rock, jazz, or experimental music, such as Dadadah, Kristeen Young and Toshi Reagon, while CBGB continued to showcase hardcore punk, post punk and alternative rock. 313 Gallery was the host location for Alchemy, a weekly Goth night showcasing goth, dark rock, darkwave bands. On the other side, CBGB was operating a small cafe and bar in the mid-1990s, which served classic New York pizza, among other items.
Around 2000, CBGB entered a protracted dispute over unpaid rent amounts until the landlord, Bowery Residents' Committee, sued in 2005 and lost the case, but a deal to renew CBGB's lease, expiring in 2006, failed. The club closed upon its final concert, played by Patti Smith, on October 15, 2006. CBGB Radio launched on the iheartradio platform in 2010, CBGB music festivals began in 2012. In 2013, CBGB's onetime building, 315 Bowery, was added to the National Register of Historic Places as part of The Bowery Historic District. CBGB was founded on December 10, 1973 on the site of Kristal's earlier bar, Hilly's on the Bowery, that he ran from 1969 to 1972. Kristal focused on his more profitable East Village nightspot, Hilly's, which Kristal closed amid complaints from the bar's neighbors. After Hilly's closure, Kristal focused on the Bowery club, its full name of CBGB & OMFUG stands for "Country, Bluegrass and Other Music for Uplifting Gormandizers". Although a gormandizer is a ravenous eater of food, what Kristal meant was "a voracious eater of... music".
Kristal's intended theme of country and blues music along with poetry readings yielded to the American movement in punk rock. A pioneer in the genre, the Ramones played their first shows at CBGB. In 1973, while the future CBGB was still Hilly's, two locals—Bill Page and Rusty McKenna—convinced Kristal to let them book concerts. In February 1974, Hilly booked local band Squeeze to a residency, playing Tuesdays and Wednesdays, the club's change from country and bluegrass to original rock bands. Squeeze was led by guitarist Mark Suall with CBGB's quasi house band the Revelons, which included Fred Smith of Television and JD Daugherty of the Patti Smith Group. Although these bands did not play punk rock, they helped lay its foundation; the August 1973 collapse of the Mercer Arts Center left unsigned bands little option in New York City to play original music. Mercer refugees—including Suicide, The Fast, Wayne County, the Magic Tramps—soon played at CBGB. In 1974, on April 14, in the audience of Television's third gig were Patti Smith and Lenny Kaye, whose Patti Smith Group debuted at CBGB on February 14, 1975.
Other early performers included the Dina Regine Band. Dennis Lepri was lead guitarist as well as the Stillettoes; the newly formed band Angel and the Snake renamed Blondie, as well as the Ramones arrived in August 1974. Mink DeVille, Talking Heads, the Shirts, the Heartbreakers, the Fleshtones and other bands soon followed. In April 1977, The Damned played the club, marking the first time a British punk band had played in America. During 1975 and 1976, Metropolis Video recorded. Starting in 1977, Metropolis Video filmmaker Pat Ivers and partner Emily Armstrong continued to record shows in a project called Advanced TV renamed GoNightclubbing. Ivers' and Armstrong's films are available at the New York University Fales Library. CBGB's two rules were that a band must move its own equipment and play original songs—that is, no cover bands—although regular bands played one or two covers in set. CBGB's growing reputation drew more acts from outside New York City. In 1978, new wave songwriter Elvis Costello would open shows for The Voidoids, while The Police played at CBGB for their first American gigs.
Meanwhile, CBGB became famed for the Misfits, Patti Smith Group, Mink DeVille, the Dead Boys, the Dictators, the Fleshtones, the Voidoids, the Cramps, the B-52's, Joan Jett & the Blackhearts, the Shirts, Talking Heads. Yet in the 1980s, hardcore punk's New York underground was CBGB's mainstay. Named "thrash day" in a documentary on hardcore, Sunday at CBGB was matinée day, which became an institution, played from afternoon until evening by hardcore bands. In 1990, violence inside and outside of the venue prompted Kristal to suspend hardcore bookings, yet CBGB brought hardcore back at times. CBGB's last several years had no formal bans by genre. In 2005, atop its paid monthly rent of $19,000, CBGB was sued for some $90,000 in rent owed to its landlord, Bowery Residents' Committee. Refusing to pay until a judge ruled the debt legitimate, Kristal claimed that he had never been notified of scaled rent increases, accruing over a number of years, asserted by BRC's executive director Muzzy Rosenblatt.
Ruling the debt false—that BRC had never properly billed the rent increases—the judge indicated that CBGB ought to be declared a landmark, but noted that Rosenblatt did not need to renew the lease, soon expiring. Rosenblatt v
New Directions Publishing
New Directions Publishing Corp. is an independent book publishing company, founded in 1936 by James Laughlin and incorporated in 1964. Its offices are located at 80 Eighth Avenue in New York City. New Directions was born in 1936 of Ezra Pound's advice to the young James Laughlin a Harvard University sophomore, to "do something useful" after finishing his studies at Harvard; the first projects to come out of New Directions were anthologies of new writing, each titled New Directions in Poetry and Prose. Early writers incorporated in these anthologies include Dylan Thomas, Marianne Moore, Wallace Stevens, Thomas Merton, Denise Levertov, James Agee, Lawrence Ferlinghetti. New Directions broadened their focus to include writing of all genres, representing not only American writing, but a considerable amount of literature in translation from modernist authors around the world. New Directions published the early work of many writers including Ezra Pound and William Carlos Williams, Tennessee Williams was published as a poet for the first time in a New Directions poetry collection.
Laughlin initiated a number of thematic series and publications. The New Directions "Poet of the Month" series consisted of thin volumes of either lengthy individual poems or small collections of poems by one author were released on a monthly basis to subscribers, a larger "Poet of the Year" volume was issued once annually; the series were discontinued after a few years. "Directions" began in 1941 as a quarterly soft-bound journal, with each edition dedicated to a single author or work in prose. Early issues included a collection of short stories by Vladimir Nabokov and a play by William Carlos Williams; the subscription model did not take hold, editions in the series were published in more traditional form and sold as individual works to the general public. Another short-lived New Directions periodical, was discontinued after its fourth number was published in the winter of 1947. Other notable undertakings include the New Classics and Modern Readers series, which reissued recent books that had gone out of print.
These reprints included such works as Exiles and Stephen Hero by James Joyce and The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald. After the time of World War II, New Directions developed a close relationship with the artist Alvin Lustig, who designed modernist abstract book jackets. Lustig was responsible for developing a distinctive style of dust jacket that served as a New Directions hallmark for many years; the company's colophon is a figure of a centaur based upon a sculpture by Heinz Henghes, appears on the spine of New Directions books. James Laughlin Griselda Ohannessian Peggy Fox Barbara Epler In 1977, New Directions was presented with a Carey Thomas Award special citation for distinguished publishing in experimental literature. New Directions' authors have won numerous national and international awards, including the: Tomas Tranströmer, 2011 Octavio Paz, 1990 Camilo José Cela, 1989 Elias Canetti, 1981 Eugenio Montale, 1975 Pablo Neruda, 1971 Yasunari Kawabata, 1968 Jean-Paul Sartre, 1964 Saint-John Perse, 1960 Boris Pasternak, 1958 Andre Gide, 1947 Hermann Hesse, 1946 Frédéric Mistral, 1904 Hilton Als, 2017 Gary Snyder, 1975 George Oppen, 1969 Richard Eberhart, 1966 William Carlos Williams, 1963 Tennessee Williams, 1948, 1955 Robert Penn Warren, 1947, 1958, 1979 Yoko Tawada, 2018 Nathaniel Mackey, 2006 Peter Cole, 2007 Lydia Davis, 2003 Anne Carson, 2000 Guy Davenport, 1990 Allen Grossman, 1989 Walter Abish, 1987 Toby Olson, 1983 Mathias Énard, 2015 Eugène Guillevic, 1988 Emile Ajar, 1975 Romain Gary, 1956 Laszlo Krasznahorkai / George Szirtes and Ottilie Mulzet, 2015 Jenny Erpenbeck / Susan Bernofsky, 2015 Denise Levertov, 1976 Nathaniel Mackey, 2015 Susan Howe, 2011 Allen Grossman, 2009 Robert Creeley, 1999 Gary Snyder, 1997 Robert Penn Warren, 1967 Robert Fitzgerald, 1961 Delmore Schwartz, 1960 Ezra Pound, 1948 Susan Howe, 2017 Kamau Brathwaite, 2015 Lawrence Ferlinghetti, 2003 Denise Levertov, 1999 James Laughlin, 1999 Robert Creeley, 1987 Luljeta Lleshanaku, 2009 The current focus of New Directions is threefold: discovering and introducing to the US contemporary international writers.
Drawing from the tradition of the early anthologies and series, New Directions launched the Pearl series, which presents short works by New Directions writers in slim, minimalist volumes designed by Rodrigo Corral. Recent additions to the series include On Booze by F. Scott Fitzgerald and The Leviathan by Joseph Roth. New Directions publishes a selection of academic reading guides to accompany a number of their books, including Hermann Hesse's Siddhartha and The Night of the Iguana by Tennessee Williams. New Directions was the first American publisher of such notables as Vladimir Nabokov, Jorge Luis Borges, Henry Miller. Today, their authors include: American literature Central American, South American, Caribbean literature British, Irish and Australian literature European literature Chinese and Japanese literature Middle Eastern and Indian literature Labyrinths, Jorge Luis Borges A Coney Island of the Mind, Lawrence Ferlinghetti Siddhartha, Hermann Hesse Christie Malry's Own Double-Entry, B. S. Johnson Selected Poems, Denise Levertov The Air-Conditioned Nightmare, Henry Miller Nausea, Jean-Paul Sartre Turtle Island, Gary Snyder Miss Lonelyhearts & The Day of the Locust, Nathanael West The Glass Menagerie, Tennessee Williams Selected Poems, William Carlos Williams The Cantos, Ezra Pound Laughlin, James.
The Way It Wasn't. Ed. Barbara Epler and Daniel Javitch. New York: New Directions, 2006. Dana, Robert. "Jame Laughlin". Against the Grain: Interviews wit
Pancake Mountain described as an alt-rock guerrilla kids' dance party, forged in the crucible of Washington, D. C. cable-access television was a children's television show created by filmmaker Scott Stuckey. It is notable for featuring many punk rock/indie rock musicians like The White Stripes, Eddie Vedder, Fat Mike, The Melvins, Kings of Leon, Henry Rollins, Shirley Manson, Gerard Way, Daniel Johnston and Sara, Katy Perry, Bright Eyes, Ted Leo and the Pharmacists, The Fiery Furnaces, Thievery Corporation, Arcade Fire, Built to Spill, Jenny Lewis and many others; the show is hosted by a goat puppet named Rufus Leaking, superhero Captain Perfect and his more sensible foil Garnett who serve as interviewers and dance-party impresarios. Interviews have included George Clinton, Juliette Lewis, Chuck Leavell among others. Anti-Flag performed the theme song on the original 12 DVD episodes. During an interview with CNN correspondent Heidi Collins, Scott Stuckey had this to say about the origin of the name for the show:...
Musician friend, Brendan Canty, had written a song called "Pancake Mountain" and knew I was doing the show, thought that it would be a good song for the show. And when I listened to it, I was like a name—this—we should name the show that, it was just an amazing song. And so the song kind of came first the name; the majority of the show is filmed in Washington, D. C. and Arlington, but the crew has been known to be fond of road trips and appear at such music festivals as SXSW, Bonnaroo and the Virgin Fest. Many of the early episodes were written with Fugazi frontman Ian MacKaye; as of 2009 Pancake Mountain had completed twelve episodes and can be seen on public-access television in New York City, North Carolina, Texas and Washington State. Filming for the show moved to Los Angeles in late 2008. In 2010, Stuckey got a call from director JJ Abrams, who signed on to produce the show through his production company Bad Robot. Abrams and Stuckey spent a year pitching the show to various networks. Stuckey recalls "everyone wanted to try and fit us into a specific demographic, but we weren't willing to change the format" so Stuckey and Bad Robot ended their relationships on good terms.
In 2011, Pancake Mountain decided to stop production. In April 2014, The New York Times reported that PBS would start licensing new episodes of Pancake Mountain through their online platform, PBS Digital Studios; the first episode premiered on June 9, 2014. It contained a new version of the original theme song performed by Brody Dalle of The Distillers. Stuckey stated that PBS had given him and co-producer J. R. Soldano complete creative control of the show, and, a deciding factor in bringing the show back. Rufus Leaking is a fictional character, the star of Pancake Mountain, he was created by director Scott Stuckey and voiced by producer J. R. Soldano, his dialogue was written by both Soldano. The name is taken from Dave Schools, who would use it as an alias when checking into hotels while on tour. Rufus is most famous for his interviews and sing-along duets with musical performers like The White Stripes and Henry Rollins. Lily Allen, Anti-Flag, Arcade Fire, Lou Barlow, Big Bad Voodoo Daddy, Lewis Black, Bright Eyes, The Buzzcocks, The Candy Band, Vic Chesnutt, George Clinton, Cypress Hill, The Datsuns, Rick Derringer, Liz Durrett, Eddie Vedder, Elf Power, The Evens, Eyeball Skeleton, Fat Mike from NOFX, Fiery Furnaces, Tim Fite, The Flaming Lips, Franz Ferdinand, The Go!
Team, Billy Idol, Ted Leo, Juliette Lewis, Jason Mraz, Kaiser Chiefs, Kate Pierson of The B-52's, Katy Perry, Kings Of Leon, Lez Zeppelin, Ian MacKaye / The Evens, Shirley Manson, The Melvins, M. I. A, My Morning Jacket, Nellie McKay, Northern State, Presidents of the United States, Robert Randolph, Rock Kills Kid, Henry Rollins, Scissor Sisters, Shonen Knife, Steel Pulse, The Subways and Sara, Thievery Corporation and The Wall, Uncalled 4, The Undertones, The Watson Twins, Craig Wedren, Weird War, The White Stripes, Widespread Panic, Wreckless Eric, X, Curt Kirkwood, Gerard Way. Official Pancake Mountain website Article from Time Magazine:Pancake Mountain: With a mix of puppets and rock bands, Scott Stuckey created a show that's fun and smart--and a bit ironic - May 2008 Article from Portfolio Magazine date January 2008; the LA Times highlighted Pancake Mountain in their list of the Best Television of 2007. Pancake Mountain's MySpace Pancake Mountain on YouTube Pancake Mountain on IMDb LAist on Pancake Mountain date Sept 2007 Nothing Syrupy About'Pancake' Washington Post date June 2006.
Article from the Washington Post date March 14, 2005
Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, located on the shore of Lake Erie in downtown Cleveland, Ohio and archives the history of the best-known and most influential artists, producers and other notable figures who have had some major influence on the development of rock and roll. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Foundation was established on April 20, 1983, by Atlantic Records founder and chairman Ahmet Ertegun. In 1986, Cleveland was chosen as the Hall of Fame's permanent home. Founder Ahmet Ertegun assembled a team that included attorney Suzan Evans, Rolling Stone magazine editor and publisher Jann S. Wenner, attorney Allen Grubman, record executives Seymour Stein, Bob Krasnow, Noreen Woods; the Foundation began inducting artists in 1986. The search committee considered several cities, including Philadelphia, Detroit, New York City, Cleveland. Cleveland lobbied for the museum, with civic leaders in Cleveland pledging $65 million in public money to fund the construction, citing that WJW disc jockey Alan Freed both coined the term "rock and roll" and promoted the new genre—and that Cleveland was the location of Freed's Moondog Coronation Ball credited as the first major rock and roll concert.
Freed was a member of the hall of fame's inaugural class of inductees in 1986. In addition, Cleveland cited radio station WMMS, which played a key role in breaking several major acts in the U. S. during the 1970s and 1980s, including David Bowie, who began his first U. S. tour in the city, Bruce Springsteen, Roxy Music, Rush among many others. A petition drive was signed by 600,000 fans favoring Cleveland over Memphis, Cleveland ranked first in a 1986 USA Today poll asking where the Hall of Fame should be located. On May 5, 1986, the Hall of Fame Foundation chose Cleveland as the permanent home of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum. Author Peter Guralnick said. Cleveland may have been chosen as the organization's site because the city offered the best financial package; as The Plain Dealer music critic Michael Norman noted, "It was $65 million... Cleveland wanted it here and put up the money." Co-founder Jann Wenner said, "One of the small sad things is we didn't do it in New York in the first place," but added, "I am delighted that the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum is in Cleveland."
During early discussions on where to build the Hall of Fame and Museum, the Foundation's board considered the Cuyahoga River. The chosen location was along East Ninth Street in downtown Cleveland by Lake Erie, east of Cleveland Stadium. At one point in the planning phase, when a financing gap existed, planners proposed locating the Rock Hall in the then-vacant May Company Building, but decided to commission architect I. M. Pei to design a new building. Initial CEO Dr. Larry R. Thompson facilitated I. M. Pei in designs for the site. Pei came up with the idea of a tower with a glass pyramid protruding from it; the museum tower was planned to stand 200 ft high, but had to be cut down to 162 ft due to its proximity to Burke Lakefront Airport. The building's base is 150,000 square feet; the groundbreaking ceremony took place on June 7, 1993. Pete Townshend, Chuck Berry, Billy Joel, Sam Phillips, Ruth Brown, Sam Moore of Sam and Dave, Carl Gardner of the Coasters and Dave Pirner of Soul Asylum all appeared at the groundbreaking.
The museum was dedicated on September 1, 1995, with the ribbon being cut by an ensemble that included Yoko Ono and Little Richard, among others, before a crowd of more than 10,000 people. The following night an all-star concert was held at the stadium, it featured Chuck Berry, Bob Dylan, Al Green, Jerry Lee Lewis, Aretha Franklin, Bruce Springsteen, Iggy Pop, John Fogerty, John Mellencamp, many others. In addition to the Hall of Fame inductees, the museum documents the entire history of rock and roll, regardless of induction status. Hall of Fame inductees are honored in a special exhibit located in a wing that juts out over Lake Erie. Since 1986, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame has selected new inductees; the formal induction ceremony has been held in New York City 26 times. As of 2018, the induction ceremonies alternate each year between New Cleveland; the 2009 and 2012 induction weeks were made possible by a public–private partnership between the City of Cleveland, the State of Ohio, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, local foundations, civic organizations and individuals.
Collectively these entities invested $5.8 million in 2009 and $7.9 million in 2012 to produce a week of events, including free concerts, a gospel celebration, exhibition openings, free admission to the museum, induction ceremonies filled with both fans and VIPs at Public Hall. Millions viewed the television broadcast of the Cleveland inductions; the economic impact of the 2009 induction week activities was more than $13 million, it provided an additional $20 million in media exposure for the region. The 2012 induction week yielded similar results. There are seven levels in the building. On the lower level is the Ahmet M. Ertegun Exhibition Hall, the museum's main gallery, it includes exhibits on the roots of roll. It featu
The safety pin is a variation of the regular pin which includes a simple spring mechanism and a clasp. The clasp serves two purposes: to form a closed loop thereby properly fastening the pin to whatever it is applied to, to cover the end of the pin to protect the user from the sharp point. Safety pins are used to fasten pieces of fabric or clothing together. Safety pins, or more a special version with an extra safe cover, called a nappy pin, or loincloth pin, are used to fasten cloth diapers, or modern loincloths, as the safety clasp, while remaining ingestion hazard, prevents the baby or boy from being jabbed, they can be used to patch torn or damaged clothing. Safety pins can be used as an accessory in jewelry, like earrings and wristbands. Sometimes they are used to attach an embroidered patch. Size 3 is used in quilting and may be labelled for purchase as a "quilting pin". Size 4 and larger may be called "blanket pins" and deemed acceptable as kilt pins for informal dress, depending upon design and appearance.
The fibula, a form of brooch, was invented by the Myceaneans on the Greek Peloponnesus between the 14th and 13th Century BC, is considered an early precursor to a safety pin since they were used in a similar manner. Fibulae were used by Greek men to help secure tunics. American mechanic Walter Hunt is regarded as the inventor of the safety pin that bears resemblance to those used today; the safety pin included a clasp that covered the point and kept it from opening, a circular twist at the bend to act as a spring and hold it in place. Charles Rowley independently patented a similar safety pin in October 1849, although the company no longer makes these. Hunt made the invention, he used a piece of brass wire, about 8 inches long and made a coil in the center of the wire so it would open up when released. The clasp at one end was devised in order to shield the sharp edge from the user. After being issued U. S. patent #6,281 on April 10, 1849, Hunt sold the patent to W. R. Grace and Company for $400.
Using that money, Hunt paid the $15 owed to a friend and kept the remaining amount of $385 for himself. What Hunt failed to realize is that in the years to follow, W. R. Grace and Company would make millions of dollars in profits from his invention; the sharpened pin, attached to a coiled wire is connected with a cap, hooked at the end of the wire. Pushing the pin into the opening of the cap secures the safety of the pin, the clasp is the closed. Whilst the cover on the safety pin makes it less to hurt someone, a version was invented specially for use with babies' nappies/diapers or loincloths; this is stronger than the typical safety pin. Modern pins have the sliding cap to lock the pin; the laryngologist Dr. Chevalier Jackson devised special instruments for removing swallowed safety pins; because small children swallowed them and open pins could be lodged dangerously in their throats, Jackson called them "danger pins" and sometimes displayed arrangements of those he had extracted. Safety pin ingestion is still a common problem including Turkey, today.
During the emergence of punk rock in the late seventies, safety pins became associated with the genre, its followers and fashion. Some claim the look was taken from Richard Hell whom the British punks saw in pictures, whose style they adopted; this is disputed by a number of artists from the first wave of British punks, most notably Johnny Rotten, who insists that safety pins were incorporated for more practical reasons, for example, to remedy "the arse of your pants falling out". British punk fans, after seeing the clothing worn by such punk forerunners incorporated safety pins into their own wardrobe as clothing decoration or as piercings, shifting the purpose of the pins from practicality to fashion; the safety pin subsequently has become an image associated with punk rock by media and popular culture outlets. Safety pins hold a value in certain traditions. In India pins are passed down to daughters. Ukrainians use pins as a way to ward off evil spirits. In other countries a safety pin is a form of good luck.
Drawing pin Infant clothing Fibulae and ancient brooches Paper clip Tie pin
BlackBook is an arts and culture magazine published biannually and at bbook.com. Founded by Evanly Schindler in 1996 as a quarterly print publication, the now digital magazine covers topics ranging from art and literature to politics, popular culture, travel guides. Mr. Schindler sold the magazine to Ari Horowitz in 2006. Vibe Holdings, whose investors include Ron Burkle and Magic Johnson, purchased the company in January 2012, forming Vibe Media. In June 2013, Vibe Media Holdings sold BlackBook to Schindler and Jon Bond of the ad agency Kirshenbaum Bond Senecal + Partners. Official site