The Erdős number describes the "collaborative distance" between mathematician Paul Erdős and another person, as measured by authorship of mathematical papers. The same principle has been applied in other fields where a particular individual has collaborated with a large and broad number of peers. Paul Erdős was an influential Hungarian mathematician who in the latter part of his life spent a great deal of time writing papers with a large number of colleagues, working on solutions to outstanding mathematical problems, he published more papers during his lifetime than any other mathematician in history. Erdős spent a large portion of his life living out of a suitcase, visiting his over 500 collaborators around the world; the idea of the Erdős number was created by the mathematician's friends as a tribute to his enormous output. It gained prominence as a tool to study how mathematicians cooperate to find answers to unsolved problems. Several projects are devoted to studying connectivity among researchers, using the Erdős number as a proxy.
For example, Erdős collaboration graphs can tell us how authors cluster, how the number of co-authors per paper evolves over time, or how new theories propagate. Several studies have shown that leading mathematicians tend to have low Erdős numbers; the median Erdős number of Fields Medalists is 3. Only 7,097 have an Erdős number of lower; as time passes, the smallest Erdős number that can still be achieved will increase, as mathematicians with low Erdős numbers die and become unavailable for collaboration. Still, historical figures can have low Erdős numbers. For example, renowned Indian mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan has an Erdős number of only 3 though Paul Erdős was only 7 years old when Ramanujan died. To be assigned an Erdős number, someone must be a coauthor of a research paper with another person who has a finite Erdős number. Paul Erdős has an Erdős number of zero. Anybody else's Erdős number is k + 1; the American Mathematical Society provides a free online tool to determine the Erdős number of every mathematical author listed in the Mathematical Reviews catalogue.
Erdős wrote around 1,500 mathematical articles in his lifetime co-written. He had 511 direct collaborators; the people who have collaborated with them have an Erdős number of 2, those who have collaborated with people who have an Erdős number of 2 have an Erdős number of 3, so forth. A person with no such coauthorship chain connecting to Erdős has an Erdős number of infinity. Since the death of Paul Erdős, the lowest Erdős number that a new researcher can obtain is 2. There is room for ambiguity over; the American Mathematical Society collaboration distance calculator uses data from Mathematical Reviews, which includes most mathematics journals but covers other subjects only in a limited way, which includes some non-research publications. The Erdős Number Project web site says:... Our criterion for inclusion of an edge between vertices u and v is some research collaboration between them resulting in a published work. Any number of additional co-authors is permitted... but they do not include non-research publications such as elementary textbooks, joint editorships and the like.
The “Erdős number of the second kind” restricts assignment of Erdős numbers to papers with only two collaborators. The Erdős number was most first defined in print by Casper Goffman, an analyst whose own Erdős number is 2. Goffman published his observations about Erdős' prolific collaboration in a 1969 article entitled "And what is your Erdős number?" See some comments in an obituary by Michael Golomb. The median Erdős number among Fields medalists is as low as 3. Fields medalists with Erdős number 2 include Atle Selberg, Kunihiko Kodaira, Klaus Roth, Alan Baker, Enrico Bombieri, David Mumford, Charles Fefferman, William Thurston, Shing-Tung Yau, Jean Bourgain, Richard Borcherds, Manjul Bhargava, Jean-Pierre Serre and Terence Tao. There are no Fields medalists with Erdős number 1, however Endre Szemerédi is an Abel Prize Laureate with Erdős number 1. While Erdős collaborated with hundreds of co-authors, there were some individuals with whom he co-authored dozens of papers; this is a list of the ten persons who most co-authored with Erdős and their number of papers co-authored with Erdős.
As of 2016, all Fields Medalists have a finite Erdős number, with values that range between 2 and 6, a median of 3. In contrast, the median Erdős number across all mathematicians is 5, with an extreme value of 13; the table below summarizes the Erdős number statistics for Nobel prize laureates in Physics, Chemistry and Economics. The first column counts the number of laureates; the second column counts the number of winners with a finite Erdős number. The third column is the percentage of winners with a finite Erdős number; the remaining columns report the minimum, maximum and median Erdős numbers among those laureates. Among the Nobel Prize laureates in Physics, Albert Einstein and Sheldon Lee Glashow have an Erdős number of 2. Nobel Laureates with an Erdős number of 3 include Enrico Fermi, Otto Stern, Wolfgang Pauli, Max Born, Willis E. Lamb, Eugene Wigner, Richard P. Feynman, Hans A. Bethe, Murray Gell-Mann, Abdus
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain; the RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence, which are to "provide the capabilities needed to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism. The RAF describes its mission statement as "... an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power.
Air power is defined as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events". Today the Royal Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described by the RAF as being "leading-edge" in terms of technology; this consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, ISTAR and SIGINT aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft. The majority of the RAF's rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces. Most of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. Although the RAF is the principal British air power arm, the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm and the British Army's Army Air Corps deliver air power, integrated into the maritime and land environments. While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.
Following publication of the "Smuts report" prepared by Jan Smuts the RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. At that time it was the largest air force in the world. After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire; the RAF's naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924 but handed over to Admiralty control on 24 May 1939. The RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War; the RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed "Article XV squadrons" for service with RAF formations.
Many individual personnel from these countries, exiles from occupied Europe served with RAF squadrons. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations approximately a quarter of Bomber Command's personnel were Canadian. Additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe. In what is the most prolonged and complicated air campaign in history, the Battle of Britain contributed to the delay and subsequent indefinite postponement of Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom. In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".
The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available; the RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden, developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the "Dambusters" raid by No. 617 Squadron, or the Amiens prison raid known as Operation Jericho. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, as technological advances in air warfare saw the arrival of jet fighters and bombers. During the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Between 26 June and the lifting of the Russian blockade of the city on 2 May, the RAF provided 17% of the total supplies delivered du
Donald Ervin Knuth is an American computer scientist and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the author of the multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming, he contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he popularized the asymptotic notation. In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, the Computer Modern family of typefaces; as a writer and scholar, Knuth created the WEB and CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming, designed the MIX/MMIX instruction set architectures. Knuth opposes granting software patents, having expressed his opinion to the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organisation. Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to German-Americans Ervin Henry Knuth and Louise Marie Bohning.
His father had two jobs: running a small printing company and teaching bookkeeping at Milwaukee Lutheran High School. Donald, a student at Milwaukee Lutheran High School, received academic accolades there because of the ingenious ways that he thought of solving problems. For example, in eighth grade, he entered a contest to find the number of words that the letters in "Ziegler's Giant Bar" could be rearranged to create. Although the judges only had 2,500 words on their list, Donald found 4,500 words, winning the contest; as prizes, the school received a new television and enough candy bars for all of his schoolmates to eat. In 1956, Knuth received a scholarship to the Case Institute of Technology in Ohio, he joined Beta Nu Chapter of the Theta Chi fraternity. While studying physics at the Case Institute of Technology, Knuth was introduced to the IBM 650, one of the early mainframes. After reading the computer's manual, Knuth decided to rewrite the assembly and compiler code for the machine used in his school, because he believed he could do it better.
In 1958, Knuth created a program to help his school's basketball team win their games. He assigned "values" to players in order to gauge their probability of getting points, a novel approach that Newsweek and CBS Evening News reported on. Knuth was one of the founding editors of the Engineering and Science Review, which won a national award as best technical magazine in 1959, he switched from physics to mathematics, in 1960 he received his bachelor of science degree being given a master of science degree by a special award of the faculty who considered his work exceptionally outstanding. In 1963, with mathematician Marshall Hall as his adviser, he earned a PhD in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. After receiving his PhD, Knuth joined Caltech's faculty as an assistant professor, he accepted a commission to write a book on computer programming language compilers. While working on this project, Knuth decided that he could not adequately treat the topic without first developing a fundamental theory of computer programming, which became The Art of Computer Programming.
He planned to publish this as a single book. As Knuth developed his outline for the book, he concluded that he required six volumes, seven, to cover the subject, he published the first volume in 1968. Just before publishing the first volume of The Art of Computer Programming, Knuth left Caltech to accept employment with the Institute for Defense Analyses' Communications Research Division situated on the Princeton University campus, performing mathematical research in cryptography to support the National Security Agency. Knuth left this position to join the Stanford University faculty, where he is now Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus. Knuth is a writer, as well as a computer scientist. Knuth has been called the "father of the analysis of algorithms". In the 1970s, Knuth described computer science as "a new field with no real identity, and the standard of available publications was not that high. A lot of the papers coming out were quite wrong.... So one of my motivations was to put straight a story, badly told."
By 2011, the first three volumes and part one of volume four of his series had been published. Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science 2nd ed. which originated with an expansion of the mathematical preliminaries section of Volume 1 of TAoCP, has been published. Bill Gates has praised the difficulty of the subject matter in The Art of Computer Programming, stating, "If you think you're a good programmer... You should send me a résumé if you can read the whole thing." Knuth is the author of Surreal Numbers, a mathematical novelette on John Conway's set theory construction of an alternate system of numbers. Instead of explaining the subject, the book seeks to show the development of the mathematics. Knuth wanted the book to prepare students for doing creative research. In 1995, Knuth wrote the foreword to the book A=B by Marko Petkovšek, Herbert Wilf and Doron Zeilberger. Knuth is an occasional contributor of language puzzles to Word Ways: The Journal of Recreational Linguistics. Knuth has delved into recreational mathematics.
He contributed articles to the Journal of Recreational Mathematics beginning in the 1960s, was acknowledged as a major contributor in Joseph Madachy's Mathematics on Vacation. Knuth has appeared in a number of Numberphile and Computerphile videos on YouTube where he has discussed topics f
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
Gonville & Caius College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The college is the fourth-oldest college at one of the wealthiest; the college has been attended by many students who have gone on to significant accomplishment, including fourteen Nobel Prize winners, the second-most of any Oxbridge college. The college has long historical associations with medical teaching due to its alumni physicians: John Caius and William Harvey. Other famous alumni in the sciences include James Chadwick and Howard Florey. Stephen Hawking Cambridge's Lucasian Chair of Mathematics Emeritus, was a fellow of the college until his death in 2018; the college maintains reputable academic programmes in many other disciplines, including law, English literature and history. Gonville & Caius is said to have rights to much of the land in Cambridge. Several streets in the city, such as Harvey Road, Glisson Road and Gresham Road, are named after alumni of the College; the college and its masters have been influential in the development of the university, founding other colleges like Trinity Hall and Darwin College and providing land on the Sidgwick Site, e.g. for the Squire Law Library.
The college was first founded, as Gonville Hall, by Edmund Gonville, Rector of Terrington St Clement in Norfolk in 1348, making it the fourth-oldest surviving college. When Gonville died three years he left a struggling institution with no money; the executor of his will, William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, stepped in, transferring the college to its current location. He leased himself the land close to the river to set up his own college, Trinity Hall, renamed Gonville Hall The Hall of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Bateman appointed as the first Master of the new college his former chaplain John Colton Archbishop of Armagh. By the sixteenth century, the college had fallen into disrepair, in 1557 it was refounded by Royal Charter as Gonville & Caius College by the physician John Caius. John Caius was master of the college from 1559 until shortly before his death in 1573, he provided the college with significant funds and extended the buildings. During his time as Master, Caius insisted on several unusual rules.
He insisted that the college admit no scholar who “is deformed, blind, maimed, mutilated, a Welshman, or suffering from any grave or contagious illness, or an invalid, sick in a serious measure”. Caius built a three-sided court, Caius Court, “lest the air from being confined within a narrow space should become foul”. Caius did, found the college as a strong centre for the study of medicine, a tradition that it aims to keep to this day. By 1630, the college had expanded having around 25 fellows and 150 students, but numbers fell over the next century, only returning to the 1630 level in the early nineteenth century. Since the college has grown and now has one of the largest undergraduate populations in the university; the college first admitted women as fellows and students in 1979. It now has over 110 Fellows, over about 200 staff. Gonville & Caius is one of the wealthiest of all Cambridge colleges with net assets of £180 million in 2014; the college’s present Master, the 43rd, is Pippa Rogerson.
The first buildings to be erected on the college’s current site date from 1353 when Bateman built Gonville Court. The college chapel was added in 1393 with the Old Hall and Master’s Lodge following in the next half century. Most of the stone used to build the college came from Ramsey Abbey near Cambridgeshire. Gonville and Caius has the oldest purpose-built college chapel in either Oxford or Cambridge, in continuous use as such; the chapel is situated centrally within the college, reflecting the college's religious foundation. On the re-foundation by Caius, the college was updated. In 1565 the building of Caius Court began, Caius planted an avenue of trees in what is now known as Tree Court, he was responsible for the building of the college's three gates, symbolising the path of academic life. On matriculation, one arrives at the Gate of Humility. In the centre of the college one passes through the Gate of Virtue regularly, and graduating students pass through the Gate of Honour on their way to the neighbouring Senate House to receive their degrees.
The Gate of Honour, at the south side of Caius Court, though the most direct way from the Old Courts to the College Library, is only used for special occasions such as graduation. The students of Gonville and Caius refer to the fourth gate in the college, between Tree Court and Gonville Court, which gives access to some lavatories, as the Gate of Necessity; the buildings of Gonville Court were given classical facades in the 1750s, the Old Library and the Hall were designed by Anthony Salvin in 1854. On the wall of the Hall hangs a college flag which in 1912 was flown at the South Pole by Cambridge's Edward Adrian Wilson during the famous Terra Nova Expedition of 1910–1913. Gonville Court, though remodelled in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is the oldest part of the college. New lecture rooms were designed by Alfred Waterhouse and completed by Rattee and Kett in 1884. Tree Court is the largest of the Old Courts, it is so named. Although none of the
Béla Bollobás FRS is a Hungarian-born British mathematician who has worked in various areas of mathematics, including functional analysis, graph theory, percolation. He was influenced by Paul Erdős since the age of 14; as a student, he took part in the first three International Mathematical Olympiads, winning two gold medals. Paul Erdős invited Bollobás to lunch after hearing about his victories, they kept in touch afterward. Bollobás' first publication was a joint publication with Erdős on extremal problems in graph theory, written when he was in high school in 1962. With Erdős's recommendation to Harold Davenport and a long struggle for permission from the Hungarian authorities, Bollobás was able to spend an undergraduate year in Cambridge, England. However, the authorities denied his request to return to Cambridge for doctoral study. A similar scholarship offer from Paris was quashed, he wrote his first doctorate in discrete geometry under the supervision of László Fejes Tóth and Paul Erdős in Budapest University, 1967, after which he spent a year in Moscow with Israïl Moiseevich Gelfand.
After spending a year at Christ Church, where Michael Atiyah held the Savilian Chair of Geometry, he vowed never to return to Hungary due to his disillusion with the 1956 Soviet intervention. He went to Trinity College, where in 1972 he received a second PhD in functional analysis, studying Banach algebras under the supervision of Frank Adams. In 1970, he was awarded a fellowship to the college. By I said to myself, "If I manage to leave Hungary, I won't return." His main area of research is combinatorics graph theory. His chief interests are in random graph theory. In 1996 he remained a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Bollobás has been a Fellow of Trinity College, since 1970. Bollobás has proved results on extremal graph theory, functional analysis, the theory of random graphs, graph polynomials and percolation. For example, with Paul Erdős he proved results about the structure of dense graphs. In addition to over 350 research papers on mathematics, Bollobás has written several books, including the research monographs Extremal Graph Theory in 1978, Random Graphs in 1985 and Percolation in 2006, the introductory books Modern Graph Theory for undergraduate courses in 1979, Combinatorics and Linear Analysis in 1990, the collection of problems The Art of Mathematics – Coffee Time in Memphis in 2006, with drawings by Gabriella Bollobás.
He has edited a number of books, including Littlewood's Miscellany. Bollobás's research students have included Keith Ball at Warwick, Graham Brightwell at LSE, Timothy Gowers, Imre Leader at the University of Cambridge, Jonathan Partington at Leeds, Charles Read at Leeds, who died in 2015. Bollobás is an External Member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 2011 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society for his major contributions to many different areas of mathematics within the broad field of combinatorics, including random graphs, extremal graphs, set systems and isoperimetric inequalities; the citation recognises the profound influence of his textbooks in many of these areas, his key role in establishing Britain as one of the leading countries in probabilistic and extremal combinatorics. In 2012 he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society. Lee Hsien Loong, the present Prime Minister of Singapore, studied mathematics with Bollobás in Cambridge, but decided to pursue computer science instead.
Bollobás was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2011. His nomination reads He was elected Foreign Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences in 2013 and received an Honorary Doctorate from Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań in 2013. In 2016, he received the Bocskai Prize. In 2017, he became a Member of the Academy of Europea, his father is a physician. His wife, Gabriella Bollobás, born in Budapest, was an actress and a musician in Hungary before moving to England to become a sculptor, she made busts of mathematicians and scientists, including Paul Erdős, Bill Tutte, George Batchelor, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Stephen Hawking, as well as a cast bronze of David Hilbert. Bollobás is a sportsman, having represented the University of Oxford at modern pentathlon and the University of Cambridge at fencing. Extre
Delhi the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is a city and a union territory of India containing New Delhi, the capital of India. It is bordered by Haryana by Uttar Pradesh to the east; the NCT covers an area of 1,484 square kilometres. According to the 2011 census, Delhi's city proper population was over 11 million, the second-highest in India after Mumbai, while the whole NCT's population was about 16.8 million. Delhi's urban area is now considered to extend beyond the NCT boundaries and include the neighboring satellite cities of Faridabad, Gurgaon and Noida in an area now called Central National Capital Region and had an estimated 2016 population of over 26 million people, making it the world's second-largest urban area according to United Nations; as of 2016, recent estimates of the metro economy of its urban area have ranked Delhi either the most or second-most productive metro area of India. Delhi is the second-wealthiest city in India after Mumbai, with a total private wealth of $450 billion and is home to 18 billionaires and 23,000 millionaires.
Delhi has been continuously inhabited since the 6th century BCE. Through most of its history, Delhi has served as a capital of various empires, it has been captured and rebuilt several times during the medieval period, modern Delhi is a cluster of a number of cities spread across the metropolitan region. A union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more resembles that of a state of India, with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi is jointly administered by the federal government of India and the local government of Delhi, serves as the capital of the nation as well as the NCT of Delhi. Delhi hosted the first and ninth Asian Games in 1951 and 1982 1983 NAM Summit, 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup, 2010 Commonwealth Games, 2012 BRICS Summit and was one of the major host cities of the 2011 Cricket World Cup. Delhi is the centre of the National Capital Region, a unique'interstate regional planning' area created by the National Capital Region Planning Board Act of 1985.
There are a number of legends associated with the origin of the name Delhi. One of them is derived from Dhillu or Dilu, a king who built a city at this location in 50 BCE and named it after himself. Another legend holds that the name of the city is based on the Hindi/Prakrit word dhili and that it was used by the Tomaras to refer to the city because the iron pillar of Delhi had a weak foundation and had to be moved; the coins in circulation in the region under the Tomaras were called dehliwal. According to the Bhavishya Purana, King Prithiviraja of Indraprastha built a new fort in the modern-day Purana Qila area for the convenience of all four castes in his kingdom, he ordered the construction of a gateway to the fort and named the fort dehali. Some historians believe that Dhilli or Dhillika is the original name for the city while others believe the name could be a corruption of the Hindustani words dehleez or dehali—both terms meaning'threshold' or'gateway'—and symbolic of the city as a gateway to the Gangetic Plain.
The people of Delhi are referred to as Dilliwalas. The city is referenced in various idioms of the Northern Indo-Aryan languages. Examples include: Abhi Dilli door hai or its Persian version, Hanuz Dehli dur ast meaning Delhi is still far away, generically said about a task or journey still far from completion. Dilli dilwalon ka shehr or Dilli Dilwalon ki meaning Delhi belongs to the large-hearted/daring. Aas-paas barse, Dilli pani tarse meaning it pours all around, while Delhi lies parched. An allusion to the sometimes semi-arid climate of Delhi, it idiomatically refers to situations of deprivation when one is surrounded by plenty; the area around Delhi was inhabited before the second millennium BCE and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least the 6th century BCE. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata. According to the Mahabharata, this land was a huge mass of forests called'Khandavaprastha', burnt down to build the city of Indraprastha.
The earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period. Remains of eight major cities have been discovered in Delhi; the first five cities were in the southern part of present-day Delhi. King Anang Pal of the Tomara dynasty founded the city of Lal Kot in 736 CE. Prithviraj Chauhan renamed it Qila Rai Pithora; the king Prithviraj Chauhan was defeated in 1192 by Muhammad Ghori, a Muslim invader from Afghanistan, who made a concerted effort to conquer northern India. By 1200, native Hindu resistance had begun to crumble, the Muslims were victorious; the newfound dominance of foreign Turkic Muslim dynasties in north India would last for the next five centuries. The slave general of Ghori, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, was given the responsibility of governing the conquered territories of India until Ghori returned to his capital, Ghor; when Ghori died without a heir in 1206 CE, his territories fractured, with various generals claiming sovereignty over different areas. Qutb-ud-din assumed control of Ghori's Indian possessions, laid the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mamluk dynasty.
He began construction of the Qutb Minar and Quwwat-al-Islam mosque, the earlie
University of Calgary
The University of Calgary is a public research university located in Calgary, Canada. The University of Calgary started in 1944 as the Calgary branch of the University of Alberta, founded in 1908, prior to being instituted into a separate, autonomous university in 1966, it is composed over 85 research institutes and centres. The main campus is located in the northwest quadrant of the city near the Bow River and a smaller south campus is located in the city center, its enrollment is 25,000 undergraduate and 5,000 graduate students with over 170,000 alumni in 152 countries, including James Gosling, who invented the Java computer language, Garrett Camp, who co-founded Uber, former Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper, former Canadian astronaut Robert Thirsk, Lululemon Athletica founder, Chip Wilson. A member of the U15, the University of Calgary is one of Canada's top research universities; the university has a sponsored research revenue of $380.4 million, with total revenues exceeding $1.2 billion, one of the highest in Canada.
Being in Calgary, with Canada's highest concentration of engineers and geoscientists, the university maintains close ties to the petroleum and geoscience industry through the Department of Geosciences and the Schulich School of Engineering while maintaining a history of environmental research and leadership through the Faculty of Environmental Design, the School of Public Policy and the Faculty of Law. The main campus houses most of the research facilities and works with provincial and federal research and regulatory agencies, several of which are housed next to the campus such as the Geological Survey of Canada; the main campus covers 200 hectares. The University of Calgary was established in 1966, but its roots date back more than half a century earlier to the establishment of the Normal School in Calgary in 1905; the Alberta Normal School was established in Calgary to train primary and secondary school teachers in the new province. The Calgary Normal School was absorbed by the University of Alberta's Faculty of Education in 1945, operated as a part of its Calgary branch campus, a satellite campus of the University of Alberta.
Operating from the west wing of the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art, the Calgary University Committee was formed 1946, in an effort to lobby for separate permanent facilities for the branch campus. In July 1957, the University of Alberta signed a one dollar lease with the City of Calgary, for 121.4 hectares of land. In 1958, the University of Alberta changed the name of the branch campus to the "University of Alberta in Calgary," and unveiled plans for new permanent facilities on the leased land; the new campus opened its first permanent facilities in October 1960, the Arts and Education Building, the Science and Engineering Building. In May 1965, the satellite campus was granted academic and financial autonomy from the University of Alberta. In the following year, in April 1966, the institution was formally made into an independent university, with the passage of the Universities Act by the Legislative Assembly of Alberta; the university was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research.
The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters. The president, appointed by the board, was a link between the bodies to perform institutional leadership. In the early 20th century, professional education expanded beyond theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced; the university's first president, Herbert Stoker Armstrong, held a strong belief that "although the university is accountable to the society that supports it, the university must insist on playing a leadership role in intellectual matters if it is to be worthy of the name."During the late 1960s, the University of Calgary's campus expanded with new buildings for engineering and science, the opening of the new University Theatre in Calgary Hall and, in 1971, the launch of the program in architecture.
In addition, the Banff Centre affiliated with the University of Calgary in 1966. The University of Calgary played a central role in facilitating and hosting Canada's first winter olympic games, the XV Olympic Winter Games in 1988. In May 2001, the University of Calgary tartan was accredited in a ceremony presided over by the president of the Scottish Tartans Society, the director of the Register of All Publicly Known Tartans; the accreditation ceremony for the university's tartan was the first to take place in Canada. Use of the black and gold tartan is limited to formal ceremonies, a small number of items sold by the University; the tartan is used by the university's pipe band. On January 4, 2018, 21-year-old Connor Neurauter was sentenced to 90-days in jail, 2 years probation and had to register as a sex offender in Kamloops, B. C after obtaining and threatening to share photos of a minor under 16, it was revealed that Neurauter would not serve his sentence until May 2018, in order to allow him to finish his semester at the University of Calgary.
On January 6, the University of Calgary said that they were "reviewing the situation"