Saber of London
Saber of London is a half-hour 1950s detective television series about a British police captain named Mark Saber, who works, in the original version of the show, in the homicide department of a large American city. Tom Conway portrayed Mark Saber from October 1951 to June 1954. Donald Gray, a native of South Africa, played the part from December 1955 through May 1960. Nelson Case was the announcer. Several of the episodes were released as second feature films; the character appeared in the radio series ABC Mystery Theater. The debonair Saber sported a pencil-thin mustache, he tracked down criminals by his brilliant use of deduction as well as by regular police methods. Saber always got the culprit, his assistant, the more traditional Sergeant Tim Moloney, was first played by James Burke. A succession of actors comprised the supporting cast. One of the longest-performing of the cast members was Colin Tapley as Inspector Parker of Scotland Yard; the program had different titles during its nearly-nine-year run: Mystery Theater, Inspector Mark Saber - Homicide Squad, The Vise, Saber of London.
In syndication and in rebroadcasts on Saturday afternoons on NBC from 1957 to 1961, the series was entitled Detective's Diary. The series aired at various times on ABC between 1951 and 1957, with a year and a half absence from the screen between June 1954 and December 1955. Saber of London was renamed and switched to NBC beginning in September 1957, when it aired at 7:30 p.m. EST on Fridays, opposite Leave It to Beaver on CBS, The Adventures of Rin Tin Tin on ABC. In the 1958-1959 season, Saber of London switched to 7 pm opposite CBS's Lassie. In its last year, 1959–1960, it was moved half an hour earlier, just outside prime time, to 6:30 EST on Sundays; the 1955-1957 segments, which aired on ABC at 9:30 EST on Fridays, were called The Vise. In those particular sixty-five episodes, Saber was a private detective who, with one arm, worked in Europe—London and The Riviera; the Vise is so titled as a reference to people impacted in "the vise" of fate by their own actions or misdeeds. In The Vise, Saber greets his viewers, accordingly: "I'm Mark Saber - and this is London".
Danziger Brothers in London were the production company behind Saber of London. In the 1950s, the Danzigers were considered proficient at producing low-budget films and could complete two episodes of the series each week. Mark Saber at IMDB The Vise at IMDB
Vincent Eugene Craddock, known as Gene Vincent, was an American musician who pioneered the styles of rock and roll and rockabilly. His 1956 top ten hit with his Blue Caps, "Be-Bop-A-Lula", is considered a significant early example of rockabilly, he was inducted into the Rockabilly Hall of Fame. Craddock was born February 11, 1935, in Norfolk, Virginia, to Mary Louise and Ezekiah Jackson Craddock, his musical influences included country and blues and gospel music. His favourite composition was Beethoven's Egmont overture, he showed his first real interest in music while his family lived in Munden Point, in Princess Anne County, near the North Carolina line, where they ran a country store. He received his first guitar at the age of twelve as a gift from a friend. Vincent's father volunteered to serve in the U. S. Coast Guard and patrolled American coastal waters to protect Allied shipping against German U-boats during World War II. Vincent's mother maintained the general store in Munden Point, his parents moved the family to Norfolk, the home of a large naval base, opened a general store and sailors' tailoring shop.
Vincent dropped out of school in 1952, at the age of seventeen, enlisted in the United States Navy. As he was under the age of enlistment, his parents signed the forms allowing him to enter the Navy, he completed boot camp and joined the fleet as a crewman aboard the fleet oiler USS Chukawan, with a two-week training period in the repair ship USS Amphion, before returning to the Chukawan. He never completed a Korean War deployment, he sailed home from Korean waters aboard the battleship USS Wisconsin but was not part of the ship's company. Craddock planned a career in the Navy and, in 1955, used his $612 re-enlistment bonus to buy a new Triumph motorcycle. In July 1955, while he was in Norfolk, his left leg was shattered in a motorcycle crash, he refused to allow the leg to be amputated, the leg was saved, but the injury left him with a limp and pain. He wore a steel sheath around the leg for the rest of his life. Most accounts relate the accident as the fault of a drunk driver who struck him, but some claim Craddock had been riding drunk.
Years in some of his music biographies, there is no mention of an accident, but it was claimed that his injury was due to a wound incurred in combat in Korea. He spent time in the Portsmouth Naval Hospital and was medically discharged from the Navy shortly thereafter. Craddock became involved in the local music scene in Norfolk, he formed a rockabilly band, Gene Vincent and His Blue Caps. The band included Willie Williams on rhythm guitar, Jack Neal on upright bass, Dickie Harrell on drums, Cliff Gallup on lead guitar, he collaborated with another rising musician, Jay Chevalier of Rapides Parish, Louisiana. Vincent and His Blue Caps soon gained a reputation playing in various country bars in Norfolk. There they won a talent contest organized by a local radio DJ, "Sheriff Tex" Davis, who became Vincent's manager. In 1956 he wrote "Be-Bop-A-Lula", which drew comparisons to Elvis Presley and which Rolling Stone magazine listed as number 103 on its "500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Local radio DJ "Sheriff Tex" Davis arranged for a demo of the song to be made, this secured Vincent a contract with Capitol Records.
He signed a publishing contract with Bill Lowery of the Lowery Group of music publishers in Atlanta, Georgia. "Be-Bop-A-Lula" was not on Vincent's first album and was picked by Capitol producer Ken Nelson as the B-side of his first single, Woman Love. Prior to the release of the single, Lowery pressed promotional copies of "Be-Bop-A-Lula" and sent them to radio stations throughout the country. By the time Capitol released the single, "Be-Bop-A-Lula" had gained attention from the public and radio DJs; the song was picked up and played by other U. S. radio stations and became a hit, peaking at number 5 and spending 20 weeks on the Billboard pop chart and reaching number 5 and spending 17 weeks on the Cashbox chart, launching Vincent's career as a rock-and-roll star. After "Be-Bop-A-Lula" became a hit and His Blue Caps were unable to follow it up with the same level of commercial success, although they released critically acclaimed songs like "Race with the Devil" and "Bluejean Bop". Cliff Gallup left the band in 1956, Russell Williford joined as the new guitarist for the Blue Caps.
Williford played and toured Canada with Vincent in late 1956 but left the group in early 1957. Gallup came back to do the next album and left again. Williford exited again before Johnny Meeks joined the band; the group had another hit in 1957 with "Lotta Lovin'". Vincent was awarded gold records for two million sales of "Be-Bop-A-Lula", 1.5 million sales of "Lotta Lovin'". The same year he toured the east coast of Australia with Little Richard and Eddie Cochran, drawing audiences totaling 72,000 to their Sydney Stadium concerts. Vincent made an appearance in the film The Girl Can't Help It, with Jayne Mansfield, performing "Be-Bop-A-Lula" with the Blue Caps in a rehearsal room. "Dance to the Bop" was released by Capitol Records on October 28, 1957. On November 17, 1957, Vincent and His Blue Caps performed the song on the nationally broadcast television program The Ed Sullivan Show; the song spent nine weeks on the Billboard c
National Socialism, more known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – the National Socialist German Workers' Party – in Nazi Germany, of other far-right groups with similar aims. Nazism is a form of fascism and showed that ideology's disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system, but incorporated fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, eugenics into its creed, its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, it was influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's "cult of violence", "at the heart of the movement."Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community.
The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either community aliens or "inferior" races. The term "National Socialism" arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of "socialism", as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free market capitalism. Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism, sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization; the Nazi Party's precursor, the Pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party, was founded on 5 January 1919. By the early 1920s the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party – to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats and the Communists – and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization.
The National Socialist Program or "25 Points" was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. In Mein Kampf, Hitler outlined the anti-Semitism and anti-Communism at the heart of his political philosophy, as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion; the Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, but still short of an outright majority. Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, in 1933 Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul Von Hindenburg, through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Through the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg, a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis had soon established a one-party state.
The Sturmabteilung and the Schutzstaffel functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". From that point, Hitler was the dictator of Nazi Germany, known as the "Third Reich", under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Many millions of people were exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust during World War II, including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe. Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced.
It is regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei for which they used the acronym NSDAP; the term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Ignatz – Ignatz being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and – using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist as an example – shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above; the first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi.
In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of
Edward J. Danziger and Harry Lee Danziger were American-born brothers who produced many British films and TV shows in the 1950s and 1960s. According to one profile "throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, their second features and TV series seemed to be on screens everywhere, their pervasive presence forming a part of every British filmgoer's and television viewer's experience during those years." Edward and Harry Danziger were native New Yorkers. Edward studied law and had worked on the Nuremberg Trials while brother Harry had a musical background, they operated a sound studio in New York that specialised in the dubbing of foreign films for US release. Their first feature film as producers was Jigsaw. In 1952, they moved to Britain and began making television films, using resources at various facilities including London's Riverside Studios, Shepperton and Nettlefold. Among their first productions was the series Adventure Theater which were shown on American television in 1956. Several episodes were compiled as supporting featurettes and released theatrically in the UK during 1954.
The screenwriter Brian Clemens worked for the Danzigers. He recalled that the Danzigers would shoot at a variety of British studios and order their writers to concoct a screenplay to use the standing sets, he stated they shot television episodes in two and a half to three days and shot a feature film in eight to ten days with a budget of £17,000. In 1956, the Danzigers decided to form their own studio base and founded the New Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, they converted a former wartime aero-engine testing factory into a studio with six sound stages and exterior shooting facilities. They acquired control of the Gordon Hotels Group and moved into the hotel business, they owned the Shipman and King Cinema group. New Elstree Studios were sold in October 1965, their niece is former judge Leslie Crocker Snyder. The British film historians Steve Chibnall and Brian McFarlane noted, "The Danzigers were not in the business for art. Calling Scotland Yard - two compilation features were released to UK cinemas as Gilbert Harding Speaking of Murder and A Tale of Three Women The Vise Mark Saber The Man from Interpol The Cheaters Richard the Lionheart The Danzingers at BFI Screenonline The Danzingers at Movie Gems Films Edward J. Danziger on IMDb Harry Lee Danziger on IMDb The Danzigers series guide at CTVA Edward J. Danziger at the British Film Institute Harry Lee Danziger at the British Film Institute
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
London Film School
London Film School is a not-for-profit film school in London and is situated in a converted brewery in Covent Garden, neighbouring Soho, a hub of the UK film industry. LFS was founded in 1956 by Gilmore Roberts as the London School of Film Technique. Based on Electric Avenue in Brixton, the school moved to its current premises on Shelton Street in 1966, after a brief parenthesis in Charlotte Street, changed its name to London Film School in 1969. From 1974 to 2000, it was known as the London International Film School, reverted to the name London Film School in 2001. LFS offers various degrees at postgraduate level: an MA in Filmmaking, an MA in Screenwriting, and, in partnership with the University of Exeter, an MA in International Film Business and a PhD in Film by Practice, it offers an expanding range of short and part-time professional development courses under the LFS Workshops banner. LFS recruits students from all over the world and is constituted as an international community. LFS is one of the ScreenSkills "Film Academy Centres of Excellence".
The school's current Director is Gísli Snær and its current chairman is Greg Dyke. In October 1956, the principal of the Heatherley School of Fine Art, Gilmore Roberts, set up a short course in filmmaking. Before applicants could enrol, he found out that the school had been sold from under him, he decided to continue the course independently, so he set up the London School of Film Technique in Brixton. The first filmmaking course started in April 1957; the school was the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. Inspired by the emergence of film schools in Eastern Europe after World War II, it was set up around the belief that the future of the British film industry required properly designed formal training, rather than the apprenticeship basis which was, at the time, the only access into the field. At first, the school offered a 6-months diploma course which students could take over the day or evening classes, with an optional 6-months extension. Under the leadership of principal Robert Dunbar, the course was expanded to 33 weeks and 2 years, forming the basic structure for a curriculum, still in place today.
This caused a drastic increase in the student numbers, which made the original premises in Electric Avenue, unsuited. The school moved to the West End in 1963, first into a building in Charlotte Street and in 1966, in its current premises on Shelton Street. In 1969 it changed name to London Film School, to avoid being regarded as an institution that only offered narrow technical training. Notable alumni from the 1960s include directors such as Mike Leigh, Michael Mann, Don Boyd, Les Blair, cinematographers such as Tak Fujimoto and Roger Pratt, as well as producers like Iain Smith. In the early 1970s, a decrease of student numbers caused by various factors, including the establishment of the National Film School and the global impact of the oil crisis, brought the school into a financial crisis and into liquidation. Staff and students banded together to press for continuation of the school; the school was newly incorporated as nonprofit-making company limited by guarantee. All students automatically became members of the company upon enrolment, with the right to elect, together with the other members, a board of governors with the overall responsibility for the management of the school.
Manny Wynn was appointed Principal of the re-established LIFS until his sudden death six months when he was succeeded by John Fletcher. Notable filmmakers from all over the world studied at the LIFS in the 1970s and 1980s, including Mexican director Luis Mandoki, Hong Kong director Ann Hui, Swiss cinematographer Ueli Steiger and Argentinian director Miguel Pereira. After John Fletcher’s death, Martin Amstel was appointed principal in 1986. Ten years in 1996, the 40th anniversary of the school was celebrated with events and screening of graduates’ work in London, Los Angeles and Mexico City. After the appointment of principal Ben Gibson in 2000, the school returned to be known as London Film School. Under Ben Gibson, LFS transitioned from offering a diploma course to offering postgraduate MA programmes, first validated by the London Metropolitan University and by University of Warwick; the curriculum of the filmmaking course remained similar, with a continued focus on practical filmmaking. Adjustments where brought in place to reflect the technological developments in the film industry and the transition to digital.
The school started diversifying its courses: next to its traditional course in filmmaking, it started offering an MA course in screenwriting in 2005 and, from 2014, an MA in International Film Business in partnership with the University of Exeter. Ben Gibson was succeeded as the director of the school by Jane Roscoe, who held the post from 2014 to 2017. In 2018, Gísli Snær LFS Head of Studies since 2016 and former head of the Puttnam School of Film at the LASALLE College of the Arts in Singapore, was appointed as the new director. In recent years, films made at the school have featured and won awards in some of the world’s top film festivals, including Venice, Berlin, the BFI London Film Festival and Sundance. Recent alumni include Benjamin Cleary and Anu Menon; the main London Film School building in Shelton Street was a brewery and a banana warehouse. Additional facilities are present in an annex building in Long Acre. Facilities at LFS include two studios (Stage B a
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo