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Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974. The nation's 36th vice president from 1953 to 1961, he came to national prominence as a representative and senator from California. After five years in the White House that saw the conclusion to the U. S. involvement in the Vietnam War, the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency, he became the only president to resign from the office. Nixon was born to a poor family in a small town in Southern California, he returned to California to practice law. He and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government, he served on active duty in the Navy Reserve during World War II. He was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-Communist and elevated him to national prominence, he was elected to the Senate in 1950. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election, he became the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40, serving for eight years in that capacity.

He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, he lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating Vice President Hubert Humphrey and Alabama Governor George Wallace in a close election. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973, ending the military draft that same year. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations, he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from federal control to state control. He imposed wage and price controls for 90 days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency, began the War on Cancer, he presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race. He was re-elected in one of the largest electoral landslides in American history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.

In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, leading to the oil crisis at home. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time an American president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote his memoirs and nine other books and undertook many foreign trips, thereby rehabilitating his image into that of an elder statesman and leading expert on foreign affairs, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994, died four days at age 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913, in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith. Through his mother, Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates.

Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. Richard was twelve years old. With a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class, his parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School.

He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades. He lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week, he played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games. He had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon said. At the start of his junior year in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier, Nixon suffered his first election defeat when he lost his bid for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market. He drove to the sto

Gas tungsten arc welding

Gas tungsten arc welding known as tungsten inert gas welding, is an arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld. The weld area and electrode is protected from oxidation or other atmospheric contamination by an inert shielding gas, a filler metal is used, though some welds, known as autogenous welds, do not require it; when helium is used, this is known as heliarc welding. A constant-current welding power supply produces electrical energy, conducted across the arc through a column of ionized gas and metal vapors known as a plasma. GTAW is most used to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-ferrous metals such as aluminum and copper alloys; the process grants the operator greater control over the weld than competing processes such as shielded metal arc welding and gas metal arc welding, allowing for stronger, higher quality welds. However, GTAW is comparatively more complex and difficult to master, furthermore, it is slower than most other welding techniques.

A related process, plasma arc welding, uses a different welding torch to create a more focused welding arc and as a result is automated. After the discovery of the short pulsed electric arc in 1800 by Humphry Davy and of the continuous electric arc in 1802 by Vasily Petrov, arc welding developed slowly. C. L. Coffin had the idea of welding in an inert gas atmosphere in 1890, but in the early 20th century, welding non-ferrous materials such as aluminum and magnesium remained difficult because these metals react with the air, resulting in porous, dross-filled welds. Processes using flux-covered electrodes did not satisfactorily protect the weld area from contamination. To solve the problem, bottled inert gases were used in the beginning of the 1930s. A few years a direct current, gas-shielded welding process emerged in the aircraft industry for welding magnesium. Russell Meredith of Northrop Aircraft perfected the process in 1941. Meredith named the process Heliarc because it used a tungsten electrode arc and helium as a shielding gas, but it is referred to as tungsten inert gas welding.

The American Welding Society's official term is gas tungsten arc welding. Linde Air Products developed a wide range of air-cooled and water-cooled torches, gas lenses to improve shielding, other accessories that increased the use of the process; the electrode overheated and, despite tungsten's high melting temperature, particles of tungsten were transferred to the weld. To address this problem, the polarity of the electrode was changed from positive to negative, but the change made it unsuitable for welding many non-ferrous materials; the development of alternating current units made it possible to stabilize the arc and produce high quality aluminum and magnesium welds. Developments continued during the following decades. Linde developed water-cooled torches that helped prevent overheating when welding with high currents. During the 1950s, as the process continued to gain popularity, some users turned to carbon dioxide as an alternative to the more expensive welding atmospheres consisting of argon and helium, but this proved unacceptable for welding aluminum and magnesium because it reduced weld quality, so it is used with GTAW today.

The use of any shielding gas containing an oxygen compound, such as carbon dioxide contaminates the tungsten electrode, making it unsuitable for the TIG process. In 1953, a new process based on GTAW was called plasma arc welding, it affords greater control and improves weld quality by using a nozzle to focus the electric arc, but is limited to automated systems, whereas GTAW remains a manual, hand-held method. Development within the GTAW process has continued as well, today a number of variations exist. Among the most popular are the pulsed-current, manual programmed, hot-wire and increased penetration GTAW methods. Manual gas tungsten arc welding is a difficult welding method, due to the coordination required by the welder. Similar to torch welding, GTAW requires two hands, since most applications require that the welder manually feed a filler metal into the weld area with one hand while manipulating the welding torch in the other. Maintaining a short arc length, while preventing contact between the electrode and the workpiece, is important.

To strike the welding arc, a high frequency generator provides an electric spark. This spark is a conductive path for the welding current through the shielding gas and allows the arc to be initiated while the electrode and the workpiece are separated about 1.5–3 mm apart. Once the arc is struck, the welder moves the torch in a small circle to create a welding pool, the size of which depends on the size of the electrode and the amount of current. While maintaining a constant separation between the electrode and the workpiece, the operator moves the torch back and tilts it backward about 10–15 degrees from vertical. Filler metal is added manually to the front end of the weld pool. Welders develop a technique of alternating between moving the torch forward and adding filler metal; the filler rod is withdrawn from the weld pool each time the electrode advances, but it is always kept inside the gas shield to prevent oxidation of its surface and contamination of the weld. Filler rods composed of metals with a low melting temperature, such as aluminum, require that the operator maintain some distance from the arc while staying inside the gas shield.

If held too close to the arc, the filler rod can melt. As the w

John Nightingale (academic)

John Bartholomew Wakelyn Nightingale is a British academic. Nightingale was born in the son of Michael and Hilary Nightingale, he is married to Lucy Fergusson, daughter of Drs. Patrick and Alison Fergusson, a partner at Linklaters LLP. Nightingale was educated at Winchester College, Hampshire, England, he graduated from Magdalen College, with a Master of Arts and with a Doctor of Philosophy as well. At Merton College, Oxford, he was the Harmsworth Senior Research Scholar between 1984 and 1986, was a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow from 1989-1992. In 1986, he became a Fellow of Magdalen College and from 1993, a Tutor of Modern History, he was Assessor of the University of Oxford from 2008-2009 and a member of its governing council from 2008-2014. Nightingale was an elected Fellow of the Governing Body of Winchester College from 2002-2017. Monasteries and Patrons in the Gorze Reform, published 2001 many articles on medieval history