Holy Trinity Church, Cambridge
Holy Trinity Church is a church in Market Street, central Cambridge, England, on the corner with Sidney Street. Its current vicar is Rupert Charkham. Theologically, it stands within the charismatic evangelical tradition of the Church of England; the first Holy Trinity Church in Cambridge was next to the old Roman road and was just a small thatched timber building. This church burnt down in 1174. In 1189, a new stone church was begun; the stonework of the west wall under the tower is all. By around 1350, money was raised to add two aisles. In about 1348, a steeple was added to the tower. Around 1400, two transepts were constructed in the Perpendicular style. During the English Reformation, Holy Trinity Church developed further. In 1616, a gallery was erected along the north side of the nave for the increased size of the congregation. From 1782 to 1836, Holy Trinity Church was at the centre of spiritual life in Cambridge; the ministry of Charles Simeon started when he was appointed vicar by the Bishop of Ely against the wishes of the churchwardens and congregation at the time who disliked his evangelicalism.
In 1794, Simeon introduced a barrel organ with sixty hymn tunes into the church. Apart from the repair to the lower section of the steeple in 1824 and painting and varnishing inside the church, Simeon made no structural alterations until 1834; the small chancel with 14th century ribbed vaulting was demolished and replaced with the current much larger extension, constructed of brick and plaster. These changes were made without an architect. Simeon was one of the founders of the Church Missionary Society in 1799; the church continued to flourish with its evangelistic reputation during Victorian times. In 1887, the chancel was finished in stone, the pews were replaced, choir stalls added and most of the galleries removed. In the same year, the Henry Martyn Memorial Hall was built next to the church as a centre for Christian undergraduates at the University of Cambridge. From 1873 to 1889, there were about 140 offers to the Church Missionary Society. In 1885, the Cambridge Seven went to inspiring other Christian missionaries.
Peter Ackroyd, Biblical scholar, was an honorary curate here from 1957 to 1961 Thomas Rawson Birks, vicar from 1866–1877 Max Warren, vicar from 1936-1942 Church of St Mary the Great, the University Church on Senate House Hill to the west
New England is a region composed of six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and north, respectively; the Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, Long Island Sound is to the south. Boston is New England's largest city as well as the capital of Massachusetts; the largest metropolitan area is Greater Boston with nearly a third of the entire region's population, which includes Worcester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Providence, Rhode Island. In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. Ten years more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America.
In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship, enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which were termed the "Intolerable Acts" by the colonists; these confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, was the first region of the U. S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Merrimack river valleys. The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area.
Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south; each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries, it maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, isolation with immigration. The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages.
Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Pequots, Narragansetts and Wampanoag. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, the Western Abenakis inhabited New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine, their principal town was Norridgewock in Maine. The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in Maine; the Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. The Wampanoag occupied southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket; the Pocumtucks lived in Western Massachusetts, the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the Connecticut region. The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally and politically; as early as 1600, French and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal and cloth for local beaver pelts. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company.
These two funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, to return a profit. In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European settlement in New England. In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England"; the name was sanctioned on November 3, 1620 when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, it became their first governing document; the Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. Massachusetts Puritans began to settle in Connecticut as early as 1633. Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636.
At this time, Vermont was yet unsettled, the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alter
William Ames was an English Protestant divine and controversialist. He spent much time in the Netherlands, is noted for his involvement in the controversy between the Calvinists and the Arminians. Ames was born at Ipswich, was brought up by a maternal uncle, Robert Snelling of Boxford, he was educated from 1594 at Christ's College, Cambridge. He was influenced by his tutor at Christ's, William Perkins, by his successor Paul Bayne. Ames graduated BA in 1598 and MA in 1601, was chosen for a fellowship in Christ's College, he was popular in the university, in his own college. One of Ames's sermons became historical in the Puritan controversies, it was delivered in the university Church of St Mary the Great, Cambridge on 21 December 1609, in it he rebuked "lusory lotts" and the "heathenish debauchery" of the students during the Twelve Days of Christmas. A partisan election, had led to the mastership at Christ's going to Valentine Carey, he quarrelled with Ames for disapproving of other outward symbols.
Ames's vehemence led to his being summoned before the Vice-Chancellor, who suspended him "from the exercise of his ecclesiastical function and from all degrees taken or to be taken." He left Cambridge, was offered a lecturer position at Colchester, but George Abbot, the Bishop of London, went against the wishes of the local corporation, refused to grant institution and induction. Similar rebuffs awaited him elsewhere, he travelled with Robert Parker to the Netherlands, helped by English merchants who wished him to controvert the supporters of the English church in Leiden. At Rotterdam, he debated with Grevinchovius, minister of the Arminian party, with reasoning from Philippians ii. 13, "It is God that worketh in us both to will and to do." This dispute made his name in the Netherlands. Subsequently Ames entered into a controversy in print with Grevinchovius on universal redemption and election, cognate problems, he brought together all. At Leiden, Ames became intimate with pastor of the English church there.
He was sent for to The Hague by Sir Horatio Vere, the English governor of Brill, who appointed him a minister in the army of the states-general, of the English soldiers in their service. He married a daughter of John Burges, Vere's chaplain, and, on his father-in-law's return to England, succeeded to his place, it was at this time he began his controversy with Simon Episcopius, who, in attacking the Coronis, railed against the author as having been "a disturber of the public peace in his native country, so that the English magistrates had banished him thence. Episcopius was rebutted by Goodyear, who became a defender of Ames against the Remonstrants, provided Nethenus with material for his biography of Ames; the Coronis had been prepared for the Synod of Dort, which sat from 13 November 1618 until 9 May 1619. At this synod the position of Ames was anomalous; the High Church party in England had induced Vere to dismiss him from the chaplaincy. It was arranged he should attend the synod, he was retained by the Calvinist party at four florins a day to watch the proceedings.
He was adviser to the synod's President. A proposal to make him principal of a theological college at Leiden was frustrated by Archbishop Abbot, he was installed at Franeker on 7 May 1622 and delivered a discourse on the occasion on Urim and Thummim. He brought renown to Franeker as professor, preacher and theological writer. Another student was Nathaniel Eaton of Harvard College, he prepared a manual of Calvinistic doctrine, for his students. Ames was much influenced in terms of method by Ramism, opposed the residual teaching of Aristotle, his De Conscientia, ejus Jure et Casibus, an attempt to bring Christian ethics into clear relation with particular cases of conduct and of conscience, was a new thing in Protestantism. Having continued twelve years at Franeker, his health gave way, he contemplated a move to New England, but another door was opened with an invitation to Rotterdam. There he prepared his Fresh Suit against Ceremonies—the book which made Richard Baxter a Nonconformist, it sums up the issues between the Puritan school and that of Richard Hooker, was posthumously published.
Having caught a cold from a flood which inundated his house, he died in November 1633, at the age of fifty-seven in needy circumstances. He left, by a second wife Joan Fletcher, two sons and a daughter, who emigrated to Massachusetts in 1637, his works, which the Biographia Britannica testifies were known over Europe, were collected at Amsterdam in five volumes. Only a small proportion was translated into English. Ames' thought was influential in New England. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ames, William". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1. Cambridge University Press
A wheelwright is a craftsman who builds or repairs wooden wheels. The word is the combination of "wheel" and the archaic word "wright", which comes from the Old English word "wryhta", meaning a woodworker as in Wheelwright and Arkwright This occupational name became the English surname Wheelwright, akin to Arkwright and Wright, the latter pertaining to all woodworkers, or to metal workers being called Smith; these tradesmen made wheels for carts, wagons and coaches and the belt drives of steam powered machinery. First constructing the hub, the spokes and the rim/felloe segments and assembling them all into a unit working from the center of the wheel outwards. Most wheels were made from wood, but other materials have been used, such as bone and horn, for decorative or other purposes; some earlier construction for wheels such as those used in early chariots were bound by rawhide that would be applied wet and would shrink whilst drying and binding the woodwork together. After many centuries wheels evolved to be straked with iron, a method of nailing iron plates onto the felloes to protect against wear on the ground and to help bind the wheel together.
Over millennia the overall appearance of the wheel changed but subtle changes to the design of a wooden wheel such as dishing and staggered spokes helped keep up with the demands of a changing world. During the industrial age, iron strakes were replaced by a solid iron tyre custom made by a blacksmith after the Wheelwright had measured each wheel to ensure proper fit. Iron tyres that were always made smaller than the wheel in circumference, expanded by heating in a fire hammered and pulled by devils claw on the wheel it was released into the ducking pond where the afore mentioned work was conducted; this shrank it onto the wood, closed the wooden joints. Some heavy duty wheels needed extra fastenings be they nailed or tyre bolts, the metalwork was pre-drilled, Tyre-bolts were less than tyre-nails to break off because they were bolted through the fillies; the nails were flush countersunk into the wheel's outer surface. During the second half of the 19th century, the use of pre-manufactured iron hubs and other factory-made wood and rubber wheel parts became common.
Companies such as Henry Ford developed manufacturing processes that soon made the village wheelwright obsolete. With the onset of two world wars, the trade soon went into decline and was rare by the 1960s and extinct by the year 2000. However, owing to the efforts of organisations like the Worshipful Company of Wheelwrights, wheelwrights still continue to operate in the UK. In modern times, wheelwrights continue to make and repair a wide variety of wheels, including those made from wood and banded by iron tyres; the word wheelwright remains a term used for someone who makes and repairs wheels for horse-drawn vehicles, although it is sometimes used to refer to someone who repairs wheels, wheel alignment, drums and wire spokes on modern vehicles such as automobiles and trucks. Wheels for horse-drawn vehicles continue to be constructed and repaired for use by people who use such vehicles for farming and presentations of historical events such as reenactments and living history. A modern wooden wheel consists of three main parts, the nave or hub at the centre of the wheel, the spokes radiating out from the centre and the felloes or rims around the outside.
The wheel would be bound by a steel or iron tyre depending on its historical period and purpose. The main timbers used in a traditional wooden wheel are Elm for the nave, Oak for the spokes and Ash for the felloes although this can vary in some areas depending on availability of timber and style of production. Sometimes Hickory is substituted for Oak and Ash as it is easier to bend for mass production and is quite springy for light wheels that require a bit of flexibility; the Elm is used for its interwoven grain, this prevents the nave from splitting with the force of the spokes being driven in tight. The Oak is used because it doesn't bend, compress or flex and transfers any load pressures directly from the felloes to the nave; the Ash is used for its flexibility and springy nature, this acts as a form of suspension and protects against shock damage. In the second half of the 20th century wheelwright training faded away due to a lack of demand for new wooden wheels; the skills were kept alive by small businesses, museums and trusts such as The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and The Countryside Agency.
The Worshipful company of Wheelwrights in London maintains a flourishing apprenticeship scheme that began in 2013. Colonial Williamsburg has an ongoing apprenticeship program and has taken on new apprentices. Wheelbuilding Hendrikson, M. C.. The Secrets of Wheelwrighting: Tyres. Australia: M. C. and P. Hendrikson. Kariong, N. S. W. ISBN 0-646-31201-4. Morrison, Bruce. Wheelwrighting: A Modern Introduction. Cottonwood Press. Pp. 371. ISBN 0-9731947-0-7. Peloubet, Don. Wooden Wheel Construction. KY: Carriage Museum of America. Pp. 248. ISBN 978-1-879335-73-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Sturt, George; the Wheelwright's Shop. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-09195-0. Wright, John. Making a wheel, how to make a traditional light English pattern wheel. UK: Natural England Countryside Agency. ISBN 1-869964-57-8. "An Old Craftman Preserves." Popular Mechanics, October 1947, p. 144-145. Worshipful Company
The Second Coming is a Christian and Islamic belief regarding the future return of Jesus after his ascension to heaven about two thousand years ago. The idea is part of most Christian eschatologies. Views about the nature of Jesus's Second Coming vary among Christian denominations and among individual Christians. Several different terms are used to refer to the Second Coming of Christ: In the New Testament, the Greek word ἐπιφάνεια is used five times to refer to the return of Christ; the Greek New Testament uses the Greek term parousia twenty-four times, seventeen of them concerning Christ. However, parousia has the distinct reference to a period of time rather than an instance in time. At Matthew 24:37 parousia is used to describe the period of time that Noah lived; the Greek word eleusis. So this parousia or "presence" would be distinct from anything that had occurred before; the word is used six times referring to individuals and one time referring to the "coming of the lawless one". Gustav Adolf Deissmann showed that the Greek word parousia occurred as early as the 3rd century BC to describe the visit of a king or dignitary to a city - a visit arranged in order to show the visitor's magnificence to the people.
Some Christian writings say. In Matthew 24, Jesus states in the following passage: If anyone says to you then,'Look, here is the Messiah!' or,'There he is!' Do not believe it. False messiahs and false prophets will arise, they will perform signs and wonders so great as to deceive, if that were possible the elect. Ellen G. White, the early Seventh-day Adventist leader, wrote: As the crowning act in the great drama of deception, Satan himself will impersonate Christ; the church has long professed to look to the Saviour's advent as the consummation of her hopes. Now the great deceiver will make it appear. In different parts of the earth, Satan will manifest himself among men as a majestic being of dazzling brightness, resembling the description of the Son of God given by John in the Revelation.. The glory that surrounds him is unsurpassed by anything; the shout of triumph rings out upon the air: "Christ has come! Christ has come!" The people prostrate themselves in adoration before him, while he lifts up his hands and pronounces a blessing upon them, as Christ blessed His disciples when He was upon the earth.
His voice is soft and full of melody. In gentle, compassionate tones he presents some of the same gracious, heavenly truths which the Saviour uttered. A number of specific dates have been predicted for the Second Coming of Christ, some now in the distant past, others still in the future. Most English versions of the Nicene Creed include the following statements:...he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in his glory to judge the living and the dead, his kingdom will have no end.... We look for the resurrection of the dead, the life of the world to come. Jesus was reported to have told his disciples, "Truly I tell you, this generation will not pass away until all these things have happened." Given that in his next statement Jesus notes that the exact day and hour is unknown to himself, the simple meaning of his previous statement is that the Second Coming was to be witnessed by people living in that same generation. Some, such as Jerome, interpret the phrase "this generation" to mean in the lifetime of the Jewish race.
Victor J. Stenger notes that Jesus is recorded as saying...there are some standing here, which shall not taste death, till they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom " He makes similar predictions in five other places in the Gospels. In Stenger's view, when the coming did not happen within the life-times of his disciples, as Jesus prophesied, Christianity changed its emphasis to the resurrection and promise of eternal life. According to historian Charles Freeman, early Christians expected Jesus to return within a generation of his death and the non-occurrence of the second coming surprised the early Christian communities. Children, it is the last hour; the position associating the Second Coming with 1st century events such as the destruction of Jerusalem and of the Jewish Temple in AD 70 is known as Preterism. Some Preterists see this "coming of the Son of Man in glory" fulfilled in Jesus' death on the cross, they believe the apocalyptic signs are fulfilled including "the sun will be dark", the "powers... will be shaken," and "then they will see".
Yet some critics note that many are missing, such as "But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, the elements will melt with fervent heat. (2 Peter
Tostock is a small village around eight miles east of Bury St. Edmunds in the county of Suffolk, it is a traditional Suffolk village, with a good example of a fourteenth-century church. As of 2011, the village is host to 198 houses with 472 residents; the village's houses are located around two greens, The Green, forming the centre of the village and The Leys, to the south side of the village and home to the village pond. The Parish Church of St. Andrew is Grade 1 listed. There was a church in Tostock mentioned in the Domesday survey of 1086 but the present building is believed to date from the 12th century; the tower was constructed in stages from about 1350. It is believed that the tower was completed in the 1460s as the oldest of its four bells dates from that time; the Gardener's Arms public house stands next to the village green alongside the chestnut tree, planted in 1935 to commemorate the silver jubilee of King George V. Tostock's Victorian school building was opened in 1874 and closed in 1945.
Today, most children attend either Norton CEVC Primary School or Woolpit Primary School, or Thurston Community College. Tostock government's local website
John Stoughton (priest)
John Stoughton was an English clergyman, of influential millennial views. He was the preceptor in their youth of Ralph Cudworth and James Cudworth. John Stoughton, baptized at Naughton, Suffolk in 1593, was one of the three sons of the clergyman Thomas Stoughton, his wife, Katherine. Thomas Stoughton, the father, was born an only child in Kent; the University career suggested for him in the Alumni Cantabrigienses is shown by a detailed study to be a confusion with another person. He became Rector of Naughton from 1586 to 1594. During this time his first children, including John and Thomas, were born. Involved with the Conference of reformed ministers at Dedham, his disputation with Andrew Oxenbridge was on the point of justification by faith alone, he served as assistant minister at Great Burstead, Essex before being presented by Baron Rich of Leez to the Vicarage of Coggeshall, Essex in 1600. By 1603, when his wife Katherine died, she had borne him twelve children, of whom a further son Israel and four daughters reached adulthood.
As one not conforming to the Anglican formulae he was deprived by High Commission of his living in 1606: Ralph Cudworth, of Emmanuel College, was instituted Perpetual Vicar in his place at the presentation of Baron Rich, held it for two years. After some time at Great Totham Stoughton returned to Kent and died there in 1622. WorksThomas Stoughton published four principal works: A Generall Treatise against Poperie The Dignitie of God's Children Two profitable treatises The Christians sacrifice The Generall Treatise against Poperie was dedicated to Robert, Lord Rich, with a letter to his readers including friends in Kent, London and Suffolk; the Two Profitable Treatises were dedicated to the Mayor and Jurats of Sandwich, were published in London in 1616, were dated by Stoughton from St Bartholomew's Hospital in Sandwich. The Christians Sacrifice contains "The Authors Postscript to his children as it were his last will and testament unto them", dated 22 August 1622, he states he has lived to twice his father's age, twelve years more.
Having seven children living, he declares he has nothing to leave them but his precepts. "Let none of you be grieved that I have left you nothing of my inheritance in Kent, neither of my lands since, that I purchased in Suffolke, as in Essex, all being now gone, the price thereof spent: not riotously or otherwise lewdly, but by other meanes." UniversityJohn Stoughton reached university age while his father was still in East Anglia, entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge in 1607, where he was tutored by William Sancroft the elder, uncle of Archbishop Sancroft. Graduating B. A. in 1611 and M. A. in 1614, he was elected a Fellow of the college in 1616. His ordination as priest is that recorded in December 1617, performed by Samuel Harsnett: he took the degree of Bachelor of Divinity in 1621. In the following year his father died, but by this time John was well-established in his university position. In 1623, when the Master of Emmanuel, John Preston, sought confirmation of a college statute concerning the requirements for his residency, John Stoughton's signature headed the list of Fellows' names who certified their formal response in two separate orders.
He was considered a preacher of unusual eloquence. Two notable sermons given by him in 1624, reflecting political circumstances of the time, concern the theme of marriage. Early in 1623/24 he preached at Paul's Cross in London The Love-Sick Spouse, on a text of lament from the Canticles interpreted to signify the separation of Christ from His true Church; the Song of Solomon was a rich source for contemporary theological exegesis directed against the threat to protestantism posed by royal marital alliance with Roman Catholic Spain or France. Stoughton quoted many patristic sources in his exposition. About ten months in The Happinesse of Peace preached during a royal visitation to Cambridge, he spoke to like point before a courtly audience which cannot have missed his meaning. Aller, Somerset In 1624 the College living of Aller, in Somerset, became vacant by the death of Dr. Ralph Cudworth, who had resigned his own fellowship to marry and settle in the Rectory there in 1610. John Stoughton married his widow Mary.
Here he developed connections with Sir Thomas and Dame Margaret Wroth of Petherton Park, who were active in colonial enterprises in North America. Dame Margaret, cousin of Robert Rich and sister of Sir Nathaniel Rich, a near relation of Dr. Stoughton's wife, had witnessed the elder Dr. Cudworth's deathbed testament. Present was the minister Anthony Earbury of nearby Westonzoyland; as stepfather he took in hand the education of his wife's young daughters. The younger Ralph described this as a "diet of Calvinism". Stoughton was awarded the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1626. Under his instruction his stepchildren flourished, he thought Ralph Cudworth'as wel grounded in Schol-Learning as any Boy of his Age that went to the University', when commencing his studies at Emmanuel College in 1632. In 1630 Stoughton's brother Thomas was among the emigrants in the sailing of the Mary and John of London to New England, arranged by John White of Dorchester, Dorset to found the town of Dorchester, Boston, in Massachusetts Bay Colony.
A younger brother Israel Stoughton followed in 1632. St Mary Aldermanbury, City of LondonIn that year Dr. Stoughton left Aller and was appointed curate and preacher in the City of Lo