Tripoli is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.158 million people in 2018. It is located in the northwest of Libya on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean Sea and forming a bay, it includes the port of the country's largest commercial and manufacturing centre. It is the site of the University of Tripoli; the vast Bab al-Azizia barracks, which includes the former family estate of Muammar Gaddafi, is located in the city. Colonel Gaddafi ruled the country, from his residence in this barracks. Tripoli was founded in the 7th century BC by the Phoenicians. Due to the city's long history, there are many sites of archaeological significance in Tripoli. Tripoli may refer to the shabiyah, the Tripoli District. Tripoli is known as Tripoli-of-the-West, to distinguish it from its Phoenician sister city Tripoli, known in Arabic as Ṭarābulus al-Sham, meaning "Levantine Tripoli", it is affectionately called "The Mermaid of the Mediterranean", describing its turquoise waters and its whitewashed buildings.
Tripoli is a Greek name that means "Three Cities", introduced in Western European languages through the Italian Tripoli. In Arabic, it is called Ṭarābulus; the city was founded in the 7th century BC, by the Phoenicians, who gave it the Libyco-Berber name Oea, The Phoenicians were attracted to the site by its natural harbour, flanked on the western shore by the small defensible peninsula, on which they established their colony. The city passed into the hands of the rulers of Cyrenaica, although the Carthaginians wrested it from the Greeks. By the latter half of the 2nd century BC it belonged to the Romans, who included it in their province of Africa, gave it the name of "Regio Syrtica". Around the beginning of the 3rd century AD, it became known as the Regio Tripolitana, meaning "region of the three cities", namely Oea and Leptis Magna, it was raised to the rank of a separate province by Septimius Severus, a native of Leptis Magna. In spite of centuries of Roman habitation, the only visible Roman remains, apart from scattered columns and capitals, is the Arch of Marcus Aurelius from the 2nd century AD.
The fact that Tripoli has been continuously inhabited, unlike e.g. Sabratha and Leptis Magna, has meant that the inhabitants have either quarried material from older buildings, or built on top of them, burying them beneath the streets, where they remain unexcavated. There is evidence to suggest that the Tripolitania region was in some economic decline during the 5th and 6th centuries, in part due to the political unrest spreading across the Mediterranean world in the wake of the collapse of the Western Roman empire, as well as pressure from the invading Vandals. According to al-Baladhuri, Tripoli was, unlike Western North Africa, taken by the Muslims early after Alexandria, in the 22nd year of the Hijra, between 30 November 642 and 18 November 643 AD. Following the conquest, Tripoli was ruled by dynasties based in Cairo and Kairouan in Ifriqiya. For some time it was a part of the Berber Almohad empire and of the Hafsids kingdom. In 1510, it was taken by Pedro Navarro, Count of Oliveto for Spain, and, in 1530, it was assigned, together with Malta, to the Knights of St. John, expelled by the Ottoman Turks from their stronghold on the island of Rhodes.
Finding themselves in hostile territory, the Knights enhanced the city's walls and other defenses. Though built on top of a number of older buildings, much of the earliest defensive structures of the Tripoli castle are attributed to the Knights of St John. Having combated piracy from their base on Rhodes, the reason that the Knights were given charge of the city was to prevent it from relapsing into the nest of Barbary pirates it had been prior to the Spanish occupation; the disruption the pirates caused to the Christian shipping lanes in the Mediterranean had been one of the main incentives for the Spanish conquest of the city. The knights kept the city with some trouble until 1551, when they were compelled to surrender to the Ottomans, led by Muslim Turk Turgut Reis. Turgut Reis served as pasha of Tripoli, during his rule he adorned and built up the city, making it one of the most impressive cities along the North African Coast. Turgut was buried in Tripoli after his death in 1565, his body was taken from Malta, where he had fallen during the Ottoman siege of the island, to a tomb in the mosque he had established close to his palace in Tripoli.
The palace has since disappeared, but the mosque, along with his tomb, still stands, close to the Bab Al-Bahr gate. After the capture by the Ottoman Turks, Tripoli once again became a base of operation for Barbary pirates. One of several Western attempts to dislodge them again was a Royal Navy attack under John Narborough in 1675, of which a vivid eye-witness account has survived. Effective Ottoman rule during this period (1551
The Episcopal Academy, founded in 1785, is a private, co-educational school for grades Pre-K through 12 based in Newtown Square, Pennsylvania. Prior to 2008, the main campus was located in Merion and the satellite campus was located in Devon; the Newtown Square facility is 123-acre. Episcopal Academy has been ranked as a top private school in the nation by various media outlets, including the Wall Street Journal; the Academy is affiliated with the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. The Episcopal Academy was founded in 1785 by the Rt. Rev. William White at Old Christ Church in Philadelphia as an all-boys school focusing on education in Greek, religion and business, it was a pre-missionary school. Trustees included two signers of the Declaration of Independence, as well as bankers and reverends; the faculty was composed of notable figures like Noah Webster Jr. of Webster Dictionaries. Its first campus was located on the east side of Fourth Street and was directed by Rev. John Andrews, D.
D. the Academy's first headmaster. However, when Dr. Andrews and several of faculty members left to teach at the University of Pennsylvania in 1798, The Episcopal Academy was reconstituted as a free school. In 1816 it became a Second Classical Academy and a free school again in 1828, but at some points the Academy did not operate as an educational entity. In 1846 the school was reconstituted, this time as a Third Classical Academy, has operated continuously since. In 1850, the school moved to a building at Juniper and Locust Street, remained there until its 1921 move to the Merion, campus. Female students attended the Academy between 1789 and 1818, but a plan for permanent co-education was not implemented until 1974. In 1974, girls were admitted to kindergarten, to one higher grade each year thereafter; the class of 1984 was the first co-educational class to graduate from the Academy. Episcopal Academy was located in Merion, from 1921 until it moved to Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, in 2008. In June, 1998, the Episcopal Academy Board of Trustees directed the "active pursuit of a large tract of land in the western suburbs to serve as a long-term asset and a means of preserving future options."
With a $20 million donation the Board purchased a 123-acre tract of land in Newtown Square, Pennsylvania on Darby-Paoli Road. The $212.5 million project was opened for the 2008-2009 school year. The new campus has academic, arts and spiritual facilities. However, it features keepsakes from the Merion and Devon campuses: original stained glass windows in the Class of 1944 Chapel, the clock that stands on the Clark Campus Green, several artifacts in the Crawford Campus Center. Brailsford & Dunlavey served as the Academy's on-site program manager throughout each phase of the campus development project; the architecture firms, including Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, Gund Partnership, Bohlin Cywinski Jackson, RMJM Hillier, "coordinated the materials used as well as the landscape layout of the campus, with its pastoral central quadrangle and collegiate-village scale". The Episcopal Academy sold its Merion campus to Saint Joseph's University, who renamed it the SJU Maguire Campus; the Episcopal Academy's mission is "Challenging and nurturing mind and spirit, we inspire boys and girls to lead lives of purpose and integrity."
The school has a 100% four-year college matriculation rate, several athletics teams, a chapel program that meets every other day during the school year. The Academy is accredited by the Pennsylvania Association of Independent Schools; the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools' "Accreditation for Growth" protocol governed accreditation until the current accreditation cycle. The upper school is a college preparatory program, it operates on a 12-day, rotating block schedule designed by a committee of faculty and administrators. The basic structure of this schedule, designed to allow students to take six or seven academic courses, has been in place since 1998. There are two semesters, with each semester representing one-half of a credit. For the past 5 years, the Upper School did a J-Term following winter break where the students would participate in one course for two weeks straight; this year, the students are doing a May-Term instead. Graduation requirements are: 4 Credits of English.
The Episcopal Academy is a member of the Inter-Ac league. For boys the Inter-Ac league includes the Haverford School, Malvern Preparatory School, Chestnut Hill Academy, Penn Charter, Germantown Academy. For girls this league includes Penn Charter, Germantown Academy, Notre Dame Academy, the Baldwin School, the Agnes Irwin School, Springside School; the sports requirement requires all students to participate in athletics during each of the three seasons. Freshman and sophomores are required to participate in at least two inter-scholastic sports with the option of participating in the "Fitness" option for one season. Juniors may elect to participate in the "Fitness" option for two seasons. "Fitness" consists of organized athletic activities three days a week and community service two days a week. There is a theatre offering in the spring and the fall; this counts as a "Fitness" option as
Tangier is a major city in northwestern Morocco. It is on the Maghreb coast at the western entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean Sea meets the Atlantic Ocean off Cape Spartel; the town is the capital of the Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima region, as well as the Tangier-Assilah prefecture of Morocco. Many civilisations and cultures have influenced the history of Tangier, starting from before the 5th century. Between the period of being a strategic Berber town and a Phoenician trading centre to the independence era around the 1950s, Tangier was a nexus for many cultures. In 1923, it was considered as having international status by foreign colonial powers, became a destination for many European and American diplomats, spies and businessmen; the city is undergoing rapid development and modernisation. Projects include new tourism projects along the bay, a modern business district called Tangier City Centre, a new airport terminal, a new football stadium. Tangier's economy is set to benefit from the new Tanger-Med port.
The Carthaginian name of the city is variously recorded as TNG, TNGʾ, TYNGʾ, TTGʾ. The old Berber name was Tingi, which Ruiz connects to Berber tingis, meaning "marsh"; the Greeks claimed that Tingís had been named for a daughter of the titan Atlas, supposed to support the vault of heaven nearby. Latin Tingis developed into Portuguese Tânger, Spanish Tánger, French Tanger, which entered English as "Tangier" and "Tangiers"; the Arabic name of the town is Tanjah, the modern Berber name is Tanja. Tangier was formally known as Colonia Julia Tingi following its elevation to colony status during the Roman Empire, it is sometimes known as Boughaz. The nicknames "Bride of the North" and "Door of Africa" reference its position in far northwestern Africa near the Strait of Gibraltar. Tangier was founded as a Phoenician colony as early as the 10th century BCE and certainly by the 8th century BCE; the majority of Berber tombs around Tangier had Punic jewelry by the 6th century BCE, speaking to abundant trade by that time.
The Carthaginians developed it as an important port of their empire by the 5th century BCE. It was involved with the expeditions of Hanno the Navigator along the West African coast; the city long preserved its Phoenician traditions, issuing bronze coins under the Mauretanian kings with Punic script and others under the Romans bearing Augustus and Agrippa's heads and Latin script obverse but an image of the Canaanite god Baal reverse. Some editions of Procopius place his Punic stelae in Tingis rather than Tigisis; the Greeks knew this town as Tingis and, with some modification, record the Berber legends of its founding. Tinjis, daughter of Atlas and widow of Antaeus, slept with Hercules and bore him the son Syphax. After Tinjis' death, Syphax founded the port and named it in her honour; the gigantic skeleton and tomb of Antaeus were tourist attractions for ancient visitors. The Caves of Hercules, where he rested on Cape Spartel during his labors, remain one today. Tingis came under the control of the Roman ally Mauretania during the Punic Wars.
Q. Sertorius, in his war against Sulla's regime in Rome and held Tingis for a number of years in the 70s BCE, it was subsequently returned to the Mauretanians but established as a republican free city during the reign of Bocchus III in 38 BCE. Tingis received certain municipal privileges under Augustus and became a Roman colony under Claudius, who made it the provincial capital of Mauretania Tingitana. Under Diocletian's 291 reforms, it became the seat of Tingitana's governor. At the same time, the province itself shrank to little more than the ports along the coast and, owing to the Great Persecution, Tingis was the scene of the martyrdoms by beheading of Saints Marcellus and Cassian in 298. Tingis remained the largest settlement in its province in the 4th century and was developed. Invited by Count Boniface, who feared war with the empress dowager, tens of thousands of Vandals under Gaiseric crossed into North Africa in 429 and occupied Tingis and Mauretania as far east as Calama; when Boniface learned that he and the empress had been manipulated against each other by Aetius, he attempted to compel the Vandals to return to Spain but was instead defeated at Calama in 431.
The Vandals lost the rest of Mauretania in various Berber uprisings. Tingis was reconquered by Belisarius, the general of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I, in 533 as part of the Vandalic War; the new provincial administration was moved, however, to the more defensible base at Septem. Byzantine control yielded to pressure from Visigoth Spain around 618. Count Julian of Ceuta led the last defences of Tangier against the Muslim invasion of North Africa. Medieval romance made his betrayal of Christendom a personal vendetta against the Visigoth king Roderic over the honour of his daughter, but Tangier at least fell to a siege by the forces of the Arabian convert Musa bin Nusayr sometime between 707 and 711. While he moved south through central Morocco, he had his deputy at Tangier Tariq ibn Zayid launch the beginning of the Muslim invasion of Spain. Under the Umayyads, Tangier served as the capital of the Moroccan district (Maghr
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Westchester County, New York
Westchester County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. It is the second-most populous county on the mainland of New York, after the Bronx, the most populous county in the state north of New York City. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to have increased by 3.3% to 980,244 by 2017. Situated in the Hudson Valley, Westchester covers an area of 450 square miles, consisting of six cities, 19 towns, 23 villages. Established in 1683, Westchester was named after the city of England; the county seat is the city of White Plains, while the most populous municipality in the county is the city of Yonkers, with an estimated 200,807 residents in 2016. The annual per capita income for Westchester was $67,813 in 2011; the 2011 median household income of $77,006 was the fifth highest in New York and the 47th highest in the United States. By 2014, the county's median household income had risen to $83,422. Westchester County ranks second in the state after New York County for median income per person, with a higher concentration of incomes in smaller households.
Westchester County had the highest property taxes of any county in the United States in 2013. Westchester County is one of the centrally located counties within the New York metropolitan area; the county is positioned with Nassau and Suffolk counties, to its south. Westchester was the first suburban area of its scale in the world to develop, due to the upper-middle-class development of entire communities in the late 19th century and the subsequent rapid population growth; because of Westchester's numerous road and mass transit connections to New York City, as well as its shared border with the Bronx, the 20th and 21st centuries have seen much of the county the southern portion, become nearly as densely developed as New York City itself. At the time of European contact in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Native American inhabitants of present-day Westchester County were part of the Algonquian peoples, whose name for themselves was Lenape, meaning the people, they called the region Lenapehoking, which consisted of the area around and between the Delaware and Hudson Rivers.
Several different tribes occupied the area, including The Manhattans, the Weckquaesgeek and Siwanoy bands of the Wappinger in the south, Tankiteke and Kitchawank Wappinger in the north. The first European explorers to visit the Westchester area were Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 and Henry Hudson in 1609. Dutch settlers began arriving in the 1620s, followed by settlers from England in the 1640s. Westchester County was one of the original twelve counties of the Province of New York, created by an act of the New York General Assembly in 1683. At the time it included present-day Bronx County, abutted then-Dutchess County to the north. By 1775, Westchester was the richest and most populous county in the colony of New York. Although the Revolutionary War devastated the county, recovery after the war was rapid. In 1788, five years after the end of the war, the county was divided into 20 towns. In 1798, the first federal census recorded a population of 24,000 for the county. Two developments in the first half of the 19th century – the construction of the first Croton Dam and Aqueduct, the coming of the railroad – had enormous impacts on the growth of Westchester.
The Croton Dam and Aqueduct was begun in 1837 and completed in 1842. In the 1840s, the first railroads were built in Westchester, included the New York and Harlem Railroad, the Hudson River Railroad, the New York and New Haven Railroad; the railroads determined the growth of a town, the population shifted from Northern to Southern Westchester. By 1860, the total county population was 99,000, with the largest city being Yonkers; the period following the American Civil War enabled entrepreneurs in the New York area to create fortunes, many built large estates, such as Lyndhurst, in Westchester. During the latter half of the 19th century, Westchester's transportation system and labor force attracted a manufacturing base along the Hudson River and Nepperhan Creek. In 1874, the western portion of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County, in 1895 the remainder of the present Bronx County was transferred to New York County; these would split from Manhattan to form a county. During the 20th century, the rural character of Westchester would transform into the suburban county known today.
The Bronx River Parkway, completed in 1925, was the first modern, multi-lane limited-access roadway in North America. The development of Westchester's parks and parkway systems supported existing communities and encouraged the establishment of new ones, transforming the development pattern for Westchester. With the need for homes expanding after World War II, multistory apartment houses appeared in the urbanized areas of the county, while the market for single-family houses continued to expand. By 1950, the total County population was 625,816. Major interstate highways were constructed in Westchester during the 1960s; the establishment of these roadways, along with the construction of the Tappan Zee Bridge, led to further growth in the county. Westchester County is located in southern New York known as Downstate, it shares its southern boundary with its northern border with Putnam County. It is bordered on the west
Libyan Civil War (2011)
The First Libyan Civil War referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government. The war was preceded by protests in Zawiya on 8 August 2009 and ignited by protests in Benghazi beginning on Tuesday, 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security forces that fired on the crowd; the protests escalated into a rebellion that spread across the country, with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing an interim governing body, the National Transitional Council. The United Nations Security Council passed an initial resolution on 26 February, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and his inner circle and restricting their travel, referred the matter to the International Criminal Court for investigation. In early March, Gaddafi's forces rallied, pushed eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before reaching Benghazi. A further UN resolution authorised member states to establish and enforce a no-fly zone over Libya, to use "all necessary measures" to prevent attacks on civilians, which turned into a bombing campaign by the forces of NATO against military installements and civilian infrastructure of Libyia.
The Gaddafi government announced a ceasefire, but fighting and bombing continued. Throughout the conflict, rebels rejected government offers of a ceasefire and efforts by the African Union to end the fighting because the plans set forth did not include the removal of Gaddafi. In August, rebel forces launched an offensive on the government-held coast of Libya, backed by a wide-reaching NATO bombing campaign, taking back territory lost months before and capturing the capital city of Tripoli, while Gaddafi evaded capture and loyalists engaged in a rearguard campaign. On 16 September 2011, the National Transitional Council was recognised by the United Nations as the legal representative of Libya, replacing the Gaddafi government. Muammar Gaddafi evaded capture until 20 October 2011, when he was killed in Sirte; the National Transitional Council "declared the liberation of Libya" and the official end of the war on 23 October 2011. In the aftermath of the civil war, a low-level insurgency by former Gaddafi loyalists continued.
There have been various disagreements and strife between local militia and tribes, including fighting on 23 January 2012 in the former Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid, leading to an alternative town council being established and recognized by the National Transitional Council. A much greater issue has been the role of militias which fought in the civil war and their role in the new Libya; some have refused to disarm, cooperation with the NTC has been strained, leading to demonstrations against militias and government action to disband such groups or integrate them into the Libyan military. These unresolved issues led directly to a second civil war in Libya. Muammar Gaddafi was the head of the Free Officers, a group of Arab nationalists that deposed King Idris I in 1969 in a "bloodless coup." He abolished the Libyan Constitution of 1951. From 1969 until 1975 standards of living, life expectancy and literacy grew rapidly. In 1975 he published his manifesto The Green Book, he stepped down from power in 1977, subsequently claimed to be a "symbolic figurehead" until 2011, with the Libyan government up until also denying that he held any power.
Under Gaddafi, Libya was theoretically a decentralized, direct democracy state run according to the philosophy of Gaddafi's The Green Book, with Gaddafi retaining a ceremonial position. Libya was run by a system of people's committees which served as local governments for the country's subdivisions, an indirectly elected General People's Congress as the legislature, the General People's Committee, led by a Secretary-General, as the executive branch. According to Freedom House, these structures were manipulated to ensure the dominance of Gaddafi, who continued to dominate all aspects of government. WikiLeaks' disclosure of confidential US diplomatic cables revealed US diplomats there speaking of Gaddafi's "mastery of tactical maneuvering". While placing relatives and loyal members of his tribe in central military and government positions, he skillfully marginalized supporters and rivals, thus maintaining a delicate balance of powers and economic developments; this extended to his own sons, as he changed affections to avoid the rise of a clear successor and rival.
Both Gaddafi and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, however denied that he held any power, but said that he was a symbolic figurehead. While he was popularly seen as a demagogue in the West, Gaddafi always portrayed himself as a statesman-philosopher. According to several Western media sources, Gaddafi feared a military coup against his government and deliberately kept Libya's military weak; the Libyan Army consisted of about 50,000 personnel. Its most powerful units were four crack brigades of equipped and trained soldiers, composed of members of Gaddafi's tribe or members of other tribes loyal to him. One, the Khamis Brigade, was led by his son Khamis. Local militias and Revolutionary Committees across the country were kept well-armed. By contrast, regular military units were poorly armed and trained, were armed with outdated military equipment. By the end of Gaddafi's 42-year rule, Libya's population had a per capita income of $14,000, though a third was estimated to still live below the poverty line.
A broadly secular society was imposed. Child marriage was banned, women enjoyed equality of equal pay for equal work, equal rights in divorce and access to higher educa
Libya the State of Libya, is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad to the south, Niger to the southwest, Algeria to the west, Tunisia to the northwest. The sovereign state is made of three historical regions: Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world; the largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya and contains over one million of Libya's six million people. The second-largest city is Benghazi, located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age; the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire.
Libya was an early centre of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, when invasions brought Islam to the region. In the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 19th centuries. Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1947. During the Second World War, Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign; the Italian population went into decline. Libya became independent as a kingdom in 1951. A military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I; the "bloodless" coup leader Muammar Gaddafi ruled the country from 1969 and the Libyan Cultural Revolution in 1973 until he was overthrown and killed in the 2011 Libyan Civil War. Two authorities claimed to govern Libya: the Council of Deputies in Tobruk and the 2014 General National Congress in Tripoli, which considered itself the continuation of the General National Congress, elected in 2012.
After UN-led peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli governments, a unified interim UN-backed Government of National Accord was established in 2015, the GNC disbanded to support it. Parts of Libya remain outside either government's control, with various Islamist and tribal militias administering some areas; as of July 2017, talks are still ongoing between the GNA and the Tobruk-based authorities to end the strife and unify the divided establishments of the state, including the Libyan National Army and the Central Bank of Libya. Libya is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the OIC and OPEC; the country's official religion is Islam, with 96.6% of the Libyan population being Sunni Muslims. The Latin name Libya referred to the region west of the Nile corresponding to its central location in North Africa visited by many Mediterranean cultures which referred to its original inhabitants as the "Libúē." The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the historical name for Northwest Africa, from the ancient Greek Λιβύη.
It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the coastal region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania. The name "Libya" was brought back into use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. Libya gained independence in 1951 as the United Libyan Kingdom, changing its name to the Kingdom of Libya in 1963. Following a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi in 1969, the name of the state was changed to the Libyan Arab Republic; the official name was "Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1977 to 1986, "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya" from 1986 to 2011. The National Transitional Council, established in 2011, referred to the state as "Libya"; the UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011, based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration of 3 August 2011. In November 2011, the ISO 3166-1 was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye" in French.
In December 2017 the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations informed the United Nations that the country's official name was henceforth the "State of Libya". The coastal plain of Libya was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BC; the Afroasiatic ancestors of the Berber people are assumed to have spread into the area by the Late Bronze Age. The earliest known name of such a tribe was the Garamantes, based in Germa; the Phoenicians were the first to establish trading posts in Libya. By the 5th century BC, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. In 630 BC, the ancient Greeks colonized the area around Barca in Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene. Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as