Legislative Assembly of British Columbia
The Legislative Assembly of British Columbia is one of two components of the Parliament of British Columbia, while the other is Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, represented by the Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia. The Legislative Assembly meets in Victoria. Members are elected from provincial ridings and are referred to as Members of the Legislative Assembly; the current Parliament is the 41st Parliament. The most recent general election was the British Columbia general election held on May 9, 2017; the next election is scheduled to be held on May 11, 2021, if the legislative assembly is not to be dissolved earlier. Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly are broadcast to cable viewers in the province by Hansard Broadcasting Services. Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia: Hon. Dr. Darryl Plecas, Independent Deputy speaker. Mike Farnworth Opposition House Leader: Mary Polak Green Party House Leader: Sonia Furstenau Executive Council of British Columbia Legislative Council of British Columbia List of British Columbia provincial electoral districts 2001–09 BC Legislature Raids Official website
Knights of Columbus
The Knights of Columbus is the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization. Founded by Michael J. McGivney in New Haven, Connecticut, in 1882, it was named in honor of the explorer Christopher Columbus. Serving as a mutual benefit society to working-class and immigrant Catholics in the United States, it developed into a fraternal benefit society dedicated to providing charitable services, including war and disaster relief defending Catholicism in various nations, promoting Catholic education; the Knights support the Catholic Church's positions on public policy issues, including various political causes, are participants in the new evangelization. The current Supreme Knight is Carl A. Anderson; as of 2018, there are 1,967,585 members around the world. Membership is older; the order consists of each exemplifying a different principle of the order. The nearly 15,000 councils, including over 300 on college campuses, are chartered in the United States, Mexico and around the world; the Knights' official junior organization, the Columbian Squires, has more than 5,000 circles, the order's patriotic arm, the Fourth Degree, has more than 2,500 assemblies.
Pope John Paul II referred to the order as the "strong right arm of the Church" for their support of the church, as well as for their philanthropic and charitable efforts. In 2018, The Knights gave US$185,682,989 directly to charity and performed over 75,640,244 man-hours of voluntary service; the Knights are well known for their insurance program with more than 2 million insurance contracts, totaling more than US$100 billion of life insurance in force. This is backed by $21 billion in assets as of 2014; this places it on the Fortune 1000 list. The order owns the Knights of Columbus Asset Advisors, a money management firm that invests in accordance with Catholic social teachings. Michael J. McGivney, an Irish-American Catholic priest, founded the Knights of Columbus in New Haven, Connecticut, he gathered a group of men from St. Mary's Parish for an organizational meeting on October 2, 1881. Several months the order was incorporated under the laws of the state of Connecticut on March 29, 1882. Although its first councils were all in Connecticut, the order spread throughout New England and the United States.
The order was intended to be a mutual benefit society. These organizations, which combined social aspects and ritual, were flourishing during the latter third of the nineteenth century; as a parish priest in an immigrant community, McGivney saw what could happen to a family when the main income earner died. This was, he wanted to provide insurance to care for the orphans left behind. In his own life, he temporarily had to suspend his seminary studies to care for his family after his father died; because of religious and ethnic discrimination, Roman Catholics in the late 19th century were excluded from labor unions, popular fraternal organizations, other organized groups that provided such social services. Papal encyclicals issued by the Holy See prohibited Catholics from participating as lodge members within Freemasonry. McGivney intended to create an alternative organization; the original insurance system devised by McGivney gave a deceased Knight's widow a $1,000 death benefit. Each member was assessed $1 upon a death, when the number of Knights grew beyond 1,000, the assessment decreased according to the rate of increase.
Each member, regardless of age, was assessed equally. As a result, healthier members could expect to pay more over the course of their lifetimes than those men who joined when they were older. There was a Sick Benefit Deposit for members who fell ill and could not work; each sick Knight was entitled to draw up to $5 a week for 13 weeks. If he remained sick after that, the council to which he belonged determined the sum of money given to him. From the earliest days of the order, members wanted to create a form of hierarchy and recognition for senior members; as early as 1886, Supreme Knight James T. Mullen had proposed a patriotic degree with its own symbolic dress. About 1,400 members attended the first exemplification of the Fourth Degree at the Lenox Lyceum in New York on February 22, 1900. To prove that good Catholics could be good Americans, during World War I the Knights supported the war effort and the troops, it was hoped. Supreme Knight James A. Flaherty proposed to US President Woodrow Wilson that the order establish soldiers' welfare centers in the US and abroad.
The organization had experience, having provided similar services to troops encamped on the Mexican border during Pershing's expedition of 1916. With the slogan "Everyone Welcome, Everything Free," the "huts" became recreation/service centers for doughboys regardless of race or religion, they were staffed by "secretaries" referred to as "Caseys" who were men above the age of military service. The centers provided basic amenities not available, such as stationery, hot baths, religious services. After the war, the Knights became involved in education, occupational training, employment programs for the returning troops; as a result of this, the Order was infused with the self-confidence that it could respond with organizational skill and with social and political power to any need of Church and society. In this sense, the K. of C. reflected the passage of American Catholicism from an immigrant Church to a well-established and respected religious denomination which had proven its patriotic loyalty in the acid test of the
Coquitlam is a city in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. Coquitlam a suburban city, is the sixth-largest city in the province with a population of 139,284 in 2016. and one of the 21 municipalities comprising Metro Vancouver. The current mayor of Coquitlam is Richard Stewart; the Coast Salish people were the first to live in this area, archaeology confirms continuous occupation of the territory for at least 9,000 years. The name Kwikwetlem is said to be derived from a Coast Salish term meaning "red fish up the river". Explorer Simon Fraser came through the region in 1808, in the 1860s Europeans started settling the area. Coquitlam began as a "place-in-between" with the construction of North Road in the mid-19th century to provide Royal Engineers in New Westminster access to the year-round port facilities in Port Moody; the young municipality got its first boost in 1889 when Frank Ross and James McLaren opened what would become Fraser Mills, a $350,000 state-of-the-art lumber mill on the north bank of the Fraser River.
The District of Coquitlam was incorporated in 1891. By 1908, a mill town of 20 houses, a store, post office, office block, barber shop, pool hall and a Sikh temple had grown around the mill. A mill manager's residence was built that would become Place des Arts. Over the next two years, several contingents of French Canadian mill workers arrived from Quebec, Maillardville was born. Named for Father Edmond Maillard, a young Oblate from France, it became the largest Francophone centre west of Manitoba. Maillardville's past is recognized today in street names, the Francophone education system and French immersion programs, French-language guides and scouts, celebrations such as Festival du Bois. Following World War II, Coquitlam and the rest of the Lower Mainland experienced substantial population growth that continues today; the opening of Lougheed Highway in 1953 made the city more accessible and set the stage for residential growth. In 1971, Coquitlam and Fraser Mills were amalgamated; the mill closed in 2001, is now rezoned into a residential area.
Coquitlam is situated some 10 to 15 km east of Vancouver, where the Coquitlam River connects with the Fraser River and extends northeast along the Pitt River toward the Coquitlam and Pitt lakes. Coquitlam borders Burnaby and Port Moody to the west, New Westminster to the southwest, Port Coquitlam to the southeast. Burke Mountain, Eagle Ridge, 1,583 m tall Coquitlam Mountain form the northern boundary of the city. Coquitlam's area, 152.5 square kilometres, is about six times larger than either Port Moody or Port Coquitlam. Like Vancouver, Coquitlam is in the Pacific Time Zone, the Pacific Maritime Ecozone. Coquitlam's geographic shape can be thought of as a tilted hourglass, with two larger parcels of land with a smaller central section connecting them. Southwest Coquitlam comprises the original core of the city, with Maillardville and Fraser River industrial sector giving way to the large residential areas of Austin Heights, colloquially referred to as "The Bump" due to its high and flat plateau topography.
These older residences, with larger property dimensions, are being torn down and replaced with newer and larger homes. The Poirier Street area was the city's original recreational centre with the Coquitlam Sports Centre, Chimo Aquatic and Fitness Centre, sports fields located there, while City Hall was located further south in Maillardville; the Austin Heights area contains Como Lake, a renowned urban fishing and recreation area, headwaters for the Como watershed. The watershed represents one of the last urban watersheds in the Tri-Cities that supports wild stocks of coho salmon as well as other species at risk such as coastal cutthroat trout and bird species such as the great blue heron and green heron, it contains Mundy Park, one of the largest urban parks in the Metro Vancouver area. In 1984, the provincial government sold 57 hectares attached to Riverview Hospital to Molnar Developments. Shortly afterward, this land was subdivided and became Riverview Heights, with about 250 single family homes.
The remaining 240 acres of this still-active mental health facility has been the subject of much controversy between developers, environmentalists, conservationists. In 2005, the city's task force on the hospital lands rejected the idea of further housing on the lands and declared that the lands and buildings should be protected and remain as a mental health facility. Coquitlam Town Centre, was designated as a "Regional Town Centre" under the Metro Vancouver's Livable Region Strategic Plan; the concept of a town centre for the area dates back to 1975, is intended to have a high concentration of high-density housing, cultural and education facilities to serve major growth areas of the region, served by rapid transit service. It is in the town centre that many public buildings can be found, including City Hall, a branch of the Coquitlam Public Library, R. C. M. P. Station, Coquitlam's main fire hall, the David Lam Campus of Douglas College, the Evergreen Cultural Centre, City Centre Aquatic Complex, Town Centre Park and Percy Perry Stadium.
Coquitlam Town Centre is undergoing an update of the Town Centre plan. In 1989, the provincial government sold 570 hectares of second-growth forested land on the south slope of Eagle Mountain, known locally as Eagle Ridge, to developer Wesbild; this resulted in the closure of Westwood Motorsport Park in 1990, the creation of Westwood Plateau, developed into 4,525 upscale homes, as well as two golf courses. With development on Westwood Plateau compl
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
Simon Fraser University
Simon Fraser University is a public research university in British Columbia, with three campuses: Burnaby and Vancouver. The 1.7 km2 main Burnaby campus on Burnaby Mountain, located 20 km from downtown Vancouver, was established in 1965 and comprises more than 30,000 students and 950 faculty members. The Burnaby campus is on the territory of the Squamish, Tsleil-Waututh and Kwikwetlem First Nations. Undergraduate and graduate programs at SFU operate on a year-round, three-semester schedule, it is the only Canadian university which competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. SFU was the first Canadian research university with U. S. is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities. To date, SFU faculty and alumni have won 43 fellowships to the Royal Society of Canada, three Rhodes Scholarships and one Pulitzer Prize. Simon Fraser University was founded upon the recommendation of a 1962 report entitled Higher Education in British Columbia and a Plan for the Future, by John B.
Macdonald. He recommended the creation of a new university in the Lower Mainland and the British Columbia Legislature gave formal assent on March 1, 1963 for the establishment of the university in Burnaby; the university was named after a North West Company fur trader and explorer. The original name of the school was Fraser University, but was changed because the initials "FU" evoked the profane phrase "fuck you". In May of the same year, Gordon M. Shrum was appointed as the university's first chancellor. From a variety of sites that were offered, Shrum recommended to the provincial government that the summit of Burnaby Mountain, 365 meters above sea level, be chosen for the new university. Architects Arthur Erickson and Geoffrey Massey won a competition to design the university, construction began in the spring of 1964; the campus faces northwest over Burrard Inlet. Eighteen months on September 9, 1965, the university began its first semester with 2,500 students; the campus was noted in the 1960s and early 1970s as a hotbed of political activism, culminating in a crisis in the Department of Political Science and Anthropology in a dispute involving ideological differences among faculty.
The resolution to the crisis included the dismantling of the department into today's separate departments. The school's original coat of arms was used from the university's inception until 2006, at which point the Board of Governors voted to adapt the old coat of arms and thereby register a second coat of arms; the adaptation replaced two crosslets with books after some in the university asserted the crosses had misled prospective foreign students into believing SFU was a private, religious institution rather than a public, secular one. In 2007, the university decided to register both the old coat of arms and the revised coat of arms featuring the books. In 2007, a new marketing logo was unveiled. SFU's president is Andrew Petter, whose term began on September 1, 2010. Petter succeeded Dr. Michael Stevenson, who held a decade-long post as president from 2000 to 2010. In 2009, SFU became the first Canadian university to be accepted into the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Starting in the 2011-2012 season, SFU competed in the NCAA's Division II Great Northwest Athletic Conference and has now transitioned all 19 Simon Fraser Clan teams into the NCAA.
SFU has the highest publication impact among Canadian comprehensive universities and the highest success rates per faculty member in competitions for federal research council funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. In 2007, the University began offering dual and double degree programs by partnering with international universities, such as a dual computing-science degree through partnership with Zhejiang University in China and a double Bachelor of Arts degree in conjunction with Australia's Monash University. On September 9, 2015, SFU celebrated its 50th anniversary. Over its 50 years, the university educated over 130,000 graduates. There are eight faculties at Simon Fraser University: In the academic year 2010–11, SFU had 29,697 undergraduates, with 14,911 of them being full-time and 14,786 part-time; the university has grown in recent years achieving an alumni population of over 100,000. It had 3,403 staff.
In fall semester 2012, 4,269 International students enrolled, making up 17% of the undergraduate student body, one of the highest among Canadian universities. The majority of these international students come from South Korea. SFU's undergraduate student union is known as the Simon Fraser Student Society; the university enrolls over 5,000 graduate students in a wide range of full-time and part-time academic programs. International students constitute 20% of the graduate student population as a whole and 30–40% in science and technology areas. A Graduate Student Society advocates for graduate students at the university. SFU offers non-credit programs and courses to adult students; as of 2016, SFU Continuing Studies offers more than 300 courses and 27 certificate and diploma programs delivered either online or part-time from SFU's downtown Vancouver or Surrey campus. Continuing Studies manages a part-time degree completion program, called SFU NOW: Nights or Weekends, for wo